Earth’s layered structure
Helens dacite argue that significant 'excess argon 'was present when the lava solidified in Different Methods for Dating the Himalayan Mountains. Electrons, protons and neutrons.
What are the layers of the Earth?
For example, Lord Kelvin had estimated the ages of both the Earth and the Sun based on cooling rates. Potassium - Argon and Argon - Argon dating are based on the current understanding that radioactive Potassium decays to the stable form, Argon with a half-life of approximately 1. The vast extent and sheer volume of such individual flows are orders of magnitude larger than anything ever recorded in known human history. There are a few outcrops where tens of meters of vertical outcrop and hundreds of meters of horizontal outcrop consist entirely of pillow structures. This is known as the "excess argon problem".
Then there will be no more plate tectonics. Information today comes from studies of seismic waves. We can hear earthquake waves traveling through the Earth. The Earth is thought to have formed from the collision of many rocky asteroids, perhaps hundreds of kilometers in diameter, in the early solar system.
As the proto-Earth gradually bulked up, continuing asteroid collisions and gravitational collapse kept the planet molten. When the Earth was first form, all this material was not solid; some was hot enough to become viscous like silly putty or even liquid like lava. This dense metal slowly sank towards the center, while less dense rock floated upwards.
This process created a lot of friction, which created a lot of heat. About one in every thousand potassium atoms is radioactive. Heat from the decay of radioactive elements.
Most metals we know are stable. Think of Nickel, Iron, Copper and Gold. Millions of years from now they will still be around. Electrons, protons and neutrons. In a metal atom, the number of these particles will normally never change. Iron 26 protons, 30 neutrons, 26 electrons. But some very large atoms are special: These are called radioactive elements.
The planet does lose some heat through the processes that drive plate tectonics, especially at mid-ocean ridges. For comparison, smaller bodies such as Mars and the Moon show little evidence for recent tectonic activity or volcanism.
We derive our primary estimate of the temperature of the deep earth from the melting behavior of iron at ultrahigh pressures. The speed of sound through the core as measured from the velocity at which seismic waves travel across it and the density of the core are quite similar to those seen in of iron at high pressures and temperatures, as measured in the laboratory.
Therefore, If we can measure the melting temperature of iron at the extreme pressure of the boundary between the inner and outer cores, then this lab temperature should reasonably closely approximate the real temperature at this liquid-solid interface.
Scientists in mineral physics laboratories use lasers and high-pressure devices called diamond-anvil cells to re-create these hellish pressures and temperatures as closely as possible.
Those experiments provide a stiff challenge, but our estimates for the melting temperature of iron at these conditions range from about 4, to 7, kelvins about 7, to 13, degrees F. The bottom line here is simply that a large part of the interior of the planet the outer core is composed of somewhat impure molten iron alloy. The melting temperature of iron under deep-earth conditions is high, thus providing prima facie evidence that the deep earth is quite hot.
Gregory Lyzenga is an associate professor of physics at Harvey Mudd College. How do we know the temperature? The center of the earth lies 6, kilometers 4, miles beneath our feet, but the deepest that it has ever been possible to drill to make direct measurements of temperature or other physical quantities is just about 10 kilometers six miles. Ironically, the core of the earth is by far less accessible more inaccessible to direct probing than would be the surface of Pluto.
Observing the speed at which of passage of seismic waves pass through the earth allows geophysicists to determine the density and stiffness of rocks at depths inaccessible to direct examination. With this I received a letter telling me there were of these. Most were given to worker and six were given to his mother. She was the secretary to the VP of Allis Chalmers nucler-reactor-division, the people who designed and built the reactor.
If I were going to sell something like this where would I go. Hi I have in my possession several cristal of thorium sulfate nonahydrate cristalised in monoclinic form, are you interest?
I think I know where some more CP-1 graphite may be. That reactor was deactivated about 10 or 15 years ago, but I think most of it is still in place. It came in 2 or 3 stainless-clad pieces. Not ever put together anywhere but inside the reactor of course. Argonne used to give out plastic-encased parts of CP-1 graphite as awards for years of service.
I think they stopped doing that sometime before I got there, though. Paper weight, first nuclear chain reaction chicago , willed to me. If interested contact Gary propwash grantsburgtelcom. Note that this is not a […]. We were just curious as to how much these items might be worth if we indeed decided to sell. Could you offer any information on this? I am the daughter of one of the physicists on the Manhattan project. We have several of the Vartanian sketches and also the encased Graphite paperweight.
I also have a photo of the wine bottle they all signed after the chain reaction. I would be very interested in knowing the value of these items. I have something that might interest nuclear enthusiasts.
It is a lucite paperweight containing graphite from cp Here is my listing of it on ebay. I have the paper weight with cp-1 on it also. What would be a fair sale price? I have a round Lucite piece that is about 2. Can anyone tell me more about it? You probably have a piece of graphite that was either used in one of the outermost portions of the pile, or was set aside and thus part of the project, even if it never got to the reactor itself. The graphite inside is round. I can send a picture if you are interested.
Thank you for your reply. The graphite is about the size and shape of a dime and approximately. It is engraved from the bottom, in a font that definitely looks to be from that era, and is seen when viewed through the Lucite from the top. I wish I knew more of the backstory. I have 2 paperweights containing graphite from 1st nuclear reactor at U of Chicago dated Dec. My nephew Roy says he has been in contact with you. Like myself, he has a piece of graphite from the first nuclear reactor at U of Chicago.
My Dad was a Professor there, and he left me 2 paperweights. One contains a round piece of graphite approx. I have 2 paperweights containing graphite from the 1st nuclear reactor at University of Chicago.
Dated December 2, I would be willing to sell. I personally own one of the Argonne National Laboratory labeled graphite bars, my grandfather was a nuclear engineer at Argonne for over 30 years. I came upon your site by surfing while doing research. Trying to find out if radiation warning labels are required on WWII warbirdsbeing restored which have instruments installed with radium markings. Am I looking in wrong areas? Any info would be greatly appreciated.
He worked on the program in Chicago. What is a more accurate estimate of the things value? Historically, these artifacts are much more valuable if the story and provenance are known or can be established.
Large, intact pieces that have obvious signifying markings graphite grade and lot , or are machined to accept fuel, or are detectably radioactive, can be expected to command premium value. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.
Tips appreciated… More Graphite from CP Take a look at the full-size pic and let me know if this means anything to you… This late-model Walkie-Recordall contains a 4. LinkedIn Facebook Reddit Twitter. You are right, those were the days.
January 12, at 6: Hi, I have a piece of graphite from CP-1 in lucite like the one you have from Argonne Labs, thinking about selling, can you give me aby indication what it may be worth??
Imsges: uranium thorium dating labs
Therefore, trackways that show a distribution pattern tend not to be trusted as being "true".
Interestingly, mainstream scientists are also starting to question the validity of isochron dating.
Rigorously closed systems probably do not exist in uranium thorium dating labs, but surprisingly, many minerals and rocks satisfy the requirement well enough to be useful for nuclear age determination. The bottom line here is simply that a large part of the interior of the planet the outer core is composed of somewhat impure molten iron alloy. See more at RealScienceRadio. Dinosaur bone showing 5pmc means that five percent of the carbon in the bone needs to be replaced with modern carbon, which high level of contamination would very possibly be detectable. For uranium thorium dating labs, all fission reactions produce neutrons.