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As Putin was charmed, appeased, and supposedly brought on board, Obama increasingly felt free to enlighten him as he does almost everyone about how his new America envisioned a Westernized politically correct world. Israel has more high-tech start-ups per capita than any other nation on earth, by far. From to , the percentage of Asian American college students increased from 1. But for white and Asian middle- and upper-income kids, the playing field should be equal.


Jews are only about average on the subtests measuring visuo-spatial skills, but extremely high on subtests that measure verbal and reasoning skills. Je vous avouerai que je fais des choses interdites: She is leaning toward a major in the social sciences and has strengthened her application with a plethora of nonprofit and community service experience. Rabbis and scholars took on a much larger role as leaders of local communities. On the contrary, the most successful people could easily have become the most likely to be killed, by virtue of being more visible and the targets of greater envy.

Harrison Kim faces a higher standard because of his profile. Both of his parents immigrated to the United States as children and have college degrees. His father is a Boeing engineer and his mother is a homemaker.

Kim hardly has the story of struggle that many admissions officers find touching when they look at minority applicants. He also wants to be a doctor — but only after some convincing from his parents. Kim originally wanted to follow his passion for music. He has played the piano since age 4 and counts bass guitar, acoustic guitar and drums in his repertoire. He plays in a church band and a school band and even pens his own songs.

Indeed, Kim has the skills to pursue a more creative, non-stereotypical career. After doing some research and speaking with them, I think being a doctor is ideal for me. With Koreans, you want to make your parents proud. Kim never considered applying to a school that was hoping to attract more Asian Americans, as many liberal arts colleges around the nation do, actively seeking greater diversity.

Students have to dig for these gems. She originally wanted to go to Yale, but her parents heard recommendations from colleagues at work about Whitman, ranked 38th among liberal arts colleges in US News and World Report. And Whitman does not fall short on prestige, consistently garnering the highest average SAT scores of all colleges in Washington. With only 1, students at Whitman, Kode was concerned about diversity. She had grown up in a predominantly white, middle-class suburb of Seattle and yearned for a college environment where she could become more closely connected with her Indian roots.

At the time, Whitman had only a 7 percent Asian American student body, making a critical mass of Indian culture hard to come by. Still, colleges like Whitman have one key advantage: They are keen to attract more Asian Americans in order to diversify their student body.

At the time, students of color made up only 6 percent of the student body. Today, Whitman has increased its minority enrollment to 23 percent, with about 11 percent Asian American. Louis are eager to move up on rankings and would want a high-performing group like Asian Americans in their student body as well.

So Whitman, like many liberal arts colleges, has turned to creative minority recruitment strategies. The school partners with many community-based organizations, especially those that mentor and provide college prep services to underprivileged high school students, and offers a diversity scholarship for students it really wants. Whitman even flies in up to low-income students each year to see the campus, because Cabasco believes doing so provides a better opportunity to judge the university and Walla Walla on its merits.

It is hard to imagine Berkeley or Harvard flying in non-athlete freshmen prospects. In , Whitman admitted 46 percent of all applicants, but it accepted 53 percent of all Asian American applicants and 54 percent of all students of color. When Kode arrived on campus in fall , she did not find the Indian American community she was looking for.

The ethnic social events were a bit lacking, and her best friends were predominantly white and lived in her dorm. In her first year, she became jealous that her Indian friends at the University of Washington, the bigger state school in Seattle, had Indian parties, festivals and events to attend — even its own bhangra team.

Then, during her sophomore year, while walking to an event on racial diversity and tolerance, someone tried to run her over with a car. Other incidents followed, including one instance where campus security targeted minority students for security checks during a concert on campus. And they saw results. Besides an increase in students of color, there was a shiny new multicultural center on campus. To support the increase in minority students, 15 to 18 percent of faculty and staff are people of color, twice what it was 10 years ago.

Espenshade, the Princeton sociologist, suggests that applicants would do well to look beyond big-name, elite universities that attract large numbers of Asian American applicants and focus on those that still treat them as a minority in admissions. Courtney Lee does not want to follow the stereotypical path of studying math, engineering or natural sciences at an elite university.

The Chinese American San Francisco native seeks the smaller learning environments of liberal arts colleges. She is leaning toward a major in the social sciences and has strengthened her application with a plethora of nonprofit and community service experience.

She volunteered with Valencia, where she tutored writing to low-income students. She also worked for Garden for the Environment, a nonprofit that cultivates small urban gardens. But her dream schools carry a hefty price tag. She hopes her scholarship applications and financial aid will come through for her. As a hedge, Lee applied to some schools on the opposite end of the spectrum, namely large public universities: Many of her friends and family members convinced her to apply to these schools as an alternative because they believed that the University of California provided quality education at a more affordable price.

When California passed Proposition , banning the use of race as a factor in admissions in , the Asian American student population system-wide increased from 25 percent in to 40 percent in But black and Latino enrollment has suffered since Proposition Because of this, University of California administrators began considering how to make their system more accessible to minority communities, and in , they revised the rules determining applicant eligibility.

These rules, which will go into effect for fall , are meant to reduce barriers for underrepresented students. The biggest change was to remove SAT subject tests as a requirement. The University of California also increased the percentage of students guaranteed admission from each high school in the state. The old eligibility policy only gave the top 4 percent of students in each high school a guaranteed space at a University of California campus, though not necessarily their preferred campus.

Now, the top 9 percent will have a slot, which benefits students from low-income communities who suffer the most serious achievement gap. A third change reduced the percentage of students statewide who receive guaranteed admission, from the top Instead, the UC will make up the difference by admitting an additional 2. But for Asian Americans who excel in tests and tend to make up a greater percentage of high achievers statewide, these changes might negatively impact their enrollment.

African American admissions were predicted to drop by 27 percent, while Asian American and Latinos registered a 12 and 3 percent drop respectively. Several Asian American professors and lawmakers called on the University of California to repeal the new rules. Retired UC Berkeley ethnic studies professor Ling-Chi Wang is one who has called on the University of California to hold off implementation of the new policies pending further studies and most importantly, consultation with minority communities.

Wang argues that this policy, along with other changes the University of California made under the current era of fiscal austerity decreasing total enrollment by 4, in the last two years and increasing tuition by 34 percent over the past year , would turn into a disaster for minority enrollment.

The University of California is thus implementing a policy that runs counter to its supposed objectives, Wang has concluded. The new policy, in short, is a false promise, and if I may even put it more bluntly, a cruel hoax! UC Davis professor Mark Rashid, who chaired the committee that recommended the new rules, said they had not originally planned to do simulations but were asked to do so later by those who opposed the reforms. Rashid argues that the University of California has an obligation to eliminate the unnecessary barriers that prevent many qualified minority students from applying, especially since research has shown that the SAT subject tests do not really predict how a student would perform in college.

Besides, she argues, predicting actual enrollment is impossible. The new policy is only about eligibility to apply. It is pretty far removed from actual enrollment. Other Asian American student groups are backing this approach. When the policy changes were being considered between and , Asian American student organizations joined with other minority groups to support the change as a means to increase access for all minority communities.

Those of Southeast Asian heritage, for example, have college education attainment rates that match closely with the black and Latino communities. In April, the high school seniors met their college fate: Courtney Lee, who had highlighted her community work and scored above average on the SATs, was accepted to all 10 liberal arts and public colleges she applied to, including UCLA, Hampshire College and Connecticut College. It becomes too easy to pin this result solely on the existence of Asian disadvantage.

The choices that Kim and Lee made, such as the schools they applied to, the majors they picked, and the way they approached their college essays, could have affected this outcome. However, what also influences this result is the black box known as the admissions office. Each has a particular reason why they accepted or rejected these students — but the schools are not telling.

As admissions offices begin a new round of recruiting, a new crop of Asian American students likewise plan on trying their luck in overcoming the odds stacked against them. Lin Yang is a writer currently based in Taipei. This story was funded in part by the Spot. The report, by New York University , the College Board and a commission of mostly Asian-American educators and community leaders, largely avoids the debates over both affirmative action and the heavy representation of Asian-Americans at the most selective colleges.

But it pokes holes in stereotypes about Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders, including the perception that they cluster in science, technology, engineering and math. Setting the Record Straight. The report, based on federal education, immigration and census data, as well as statistics from the College Board, noted that the federally defined categories of Asian-American and Pacific Islander included dozens of groups, each with its own language and culture, as varied as the Hmong, Samoans, Bengalis and Sri Lankans.

Their educational backgrounds, the report said, vary widely: The SAT scores of Asian-Americans, it said, like those of other Americans, tend to correlate with the income and educational level of their parents.

Clayton-Pederson, vice president of the Association of American Colleges and Universities, who was a member of the commission the College Board financed to produce the report. The report also said that more Asian-Americans and Pacific Islanders were enrolled in community colleges than in either public or private four-year colleges. But the new report suggested that some such statistics combined campus populations of Asian-Americans with those of international students from Asian countries.

The report quotes the opening to W. That question, too, is problematic, the report said, because it diverts attention from systemic failings of K-to schools, shifting responsibility for educational success to individual students. In addition, it said, lumping together all Asian groups masks the poverty and academic difficulties of some subgroups.

The report said the model-minority perception pitted Asian-Americans against African-Americans. Some have suggested that Asian-Americans are held to higher admissions standards at the most selective colleges. The report also notes the underrepresentation of Asian-Americans in administrative jobs at colleges. Two new reports document the continued growth in the overall number of students coming to the United States from other countries. But within that broad picture are some surprising trends involving China and India, the two countries that supply the largest number of students see graphic, above.

One is that the flow of Chinese students into U. Another is the recent spike in graduate students from India occurring despite a continuing small presence of Indian students at the undergraduate level. And yesterday the Institute of International Education IIE issued its annual Open Doors report , which covers both undergraduate and graduate students from elsewhere enrolling in the United States as well as U.

China makes up nearly three-fourths of that subtotal. In fact, the number of Chinese students equals the total from the next 12 highest ranking countries after India.

For example, foreign students compose only 8. Their presence has long been visible within graduate programs in science and engineering fields, of course. But the new Open Doors report documents a surge in undergraduate enrollment from China, to the point where it almost equals the number of graduate students in the country—, versus , In , the ratio was nearly 1-to Trying to understand such trends keeps university administrators up at night.

And the more they know, the better they can be at anticipating the next trend. Chinese undergraduate enrollment in the United States has grown from in to , last year. Almost all of that growth has occurred since , and there has been a doubling since It requires years of high-stress preparation, however.

A growing number of parents choose to remove their children from that pressure cooker, Blumenthal says, and look for alternatives abroad. The chance for a liberal arts education at a U.

The cost of out-of-state tuition at a top public U. Recent changes in immigration policies have made the United Kingdom and Australia less desirable destinations among English-speaking countries, according to Blumenthal.

She also thinks that U. Thanks to that dip, the growth in the overall number of Chinese graduate students on U. IIE puts the number last year at ,, and the CGS report says they represent one-third of all foreign graduate students.

Chinese graduate students have more options at home now. An increasing proportion of the professors at those universities have been trained in the United States and Europe, she says, and upon their return they have implemented Western research practices.

At the same time, she says, the added value of a U. In the United States, a tight job market often translates into more students attending graduate school in the hope that it will give them an edge. And if a larger proportion of those students can build a career in China, fewer need apply to U. India barely registers on a list of originating countries for U.

And the overall total for —12,—actually reflects a drop of 0. India has also never had a strong connection to the United States at the undergraduate level, according to Blumenthal. The incoming class of Indian students for U. For the United Kingdom, tuition increases, visa restrictions, and a tightening of rules for those seeking work permits after college have all created greater barriers to entry, Blumenthal says. A recent strengthening of the rupee against the U.

And sluggish economic growth in India has meant fewer jobs for recent college graduates. New report provides breakdown on international enrollments by discipline and institution, showing that there are graduate STEM programs in which more than 90 percent of students are from outside the U. International students play a critical role in sustaining quality science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM graduate programs at U.

It will come as no surprise to observers of graduate education that the report documents the fact that foreign students make up the majority of enrollments in U. However, the report, which analyzes National Science Foundation enrollment data from by field and institution, also shows that these striking averages mask even higher proportions at many individual universities. For example, there are 36 graduate programs in electrical engineering where the proportion of international students exceeds 80 percent, including seven where it exceeds The analysis is limited to those programs with at least 30 full-time students.

That would lead to a shrinking of U. At Stanford, 56 percent of graduate electrical engineering students and The report also emphasizes the value that international students can bring to the U. There is now more competition for international graduate students. CGS data on applications to U. Amory Blaine and Doogie Howser went to Princeton. Charles Foster Kane was thrown out of all three.

In his informative but often vexing new book, Jerome Karabel, a professor of sociology at the University of California, Berkeley, looks at the admissions process at the so-called Big Three and how the criteria governing that process have changed over the last century in response to changes in society at large.

Inside the Admissions Process of a Premier College. The solution they devised was an admissions system that allowed the schools, as Mr. Karabel says, in this period. Bill and the growing influence of faculty members, the Big Three still looked in much as they had before World War II: Karabel reports that on the eve of President John F. With federal research money and foundation grants pouring into the Big Three, the schools became less dependent on the largess of their alumni, and a radically altered social environment — galvanized by the civil rights and student protest movements — spurred the impetus for change.

While at the same time it shows, in minute detail, how the likes of Nick Carraway, Oliver Barrett IV and Amory Blaine went from being typical students at the Big Three to being members of just one segment of coed, multicultural and increasingly diverse student bodies — if, that is, they could even manage to be admitted today.

In all advanced societies, income is correlated with IQ. Those three correlations guarantee that every standardized academic-achievement test shows higher average test scores as parental income increases. But those correlations also mean that a lot of the apparent income effect is actually owed to parental IQ.

The same income shift moved the average PIAT score to the 82nd percentile from the 30th—a jump of 52 percentiles. They were in the top quartile of income distribution in , but they probably live in an unremarkable home in a middle-class neighborhood and send their children to public schools. Why should almost all of the income effect be concentrated in the first hundred thousand dollars or so?

But her IQ is only average. Which child is likely to test higher? Sebastian is predicted to be at the 68th percentile on the PIAT. Jane is predicted to be at the 78th percentile. For example, consider my wife v. Harvard social scientist Robert D. On the other hand, I was an only child, while my wife has three siblings. This was especially true since I went to Catholic schools for 12 years, where very large families were common. How privileged was I by being one of a family of three rather than one of a family of eleven?

My friend from the huge family has had a long, successful career as a TV sportscaster, along with some TV and movie credits as a comic actor. If you live in L. For example, I have had a pleasant life, but looking back I can see wasted opportunities.

After my freshman year at Rice I came home and got a summer job at Burger King. After my sophomore year, I repaired dental equipment.

Finally, after my junior year I worked as the assistant to the Chief Financial Officer of a big weedwacker manufacturing company. But what did the Burger King and repair jobs do for me other than teach me not to be a fry cook or repairman? These days I would have plotted to get internships in Silicon Valley or D. Quantifying how big a privilege that was seems challenging but doable. It seems to me that measuring the effects of being an only child ought to be the first thing we do when we decide to theorize about Privilege.

By the way, however, there are other factors that may matter more in determining how Privileged you are. For example, my parents happened to turn out to be winners in the Great American Random Lottery of choosing a neighborhood to buy a home in during the s — the demographics of their neighborhood have barely changed since the s. In contrast, my in-laws had the bad luck to draw what nightmarishly turned out to be one of the shortest straws in America: It was almost all white until Martin Luther King came to Chicago in to demand integration.

Being good liberals, my in-laws joined a pro-integration group of neighbors who all swore to not engage in white flight. But after three years and three felonies against their small children, my in-laws were pretty much financially wiped out by trying to make integration work in Austin. And thus after they finally sold out at a massive loss, they wound up living in a farmhouse without running water for the next two years. Bizarrely, while the once-pleasant street where my wife grew up in Austin looks nowadays like a post-apocalyptic wasteland, a couple of miles to the west is Superior Street in Oak Park, IL where my father grew up in the s.

It looks like an outdoor Frank Lloyd Wright museum today. Et cette ignorance est un atout sur lequel les chinois peuvent jouer. Cinq aussi savent le troquet, mais bistro domine. Retrouvez les chroniques de Claude Duneton chaque semaine. La fin des truffes Claude Duneton On ne peut pas enseigner une chose dont on doute.

Claude Duneton a un peu plus de quarante ans. Enseigner le doute est une bien cruelle entreprise. Merde on nous prend tout! Ai-je bien compris votre position? Vous parlez de Sorel. Pourquoi pas Guy des Cars? Je vous avouerai que je fais des choses interdites: On pourrait ajouter la Bible. Il y aurait un programme, bien entendu. Comment les a-t-il acquises? Hors de moi, point de salut! Il y a encore beaucoup de salauds dans la profession.

Mais il y a aussi le danger du bachotage. En retour, il ne nous demandait que deux choses: Je ne sais ni quand ni comment la reconstruction se fera. Vous, comment vous portez-vous? La langue devenait de ce fait un magnifique moyen d?

Le cas de loufoque est tout aussi illustratif. En voici un exemple: Il est fou de rouler si vite! Goudaillier, , Les mots de la fracture linguistique,…. Elles en sont exclues. En FCC on peut relever, entre autres, les cas de resuffixations suivants:. Variante de ce verlan: Goudaillier, , Comment tu tchatches! Bourdieu, , Ce que parler veut dire. Guiraud, Argot, Encyclopedia Universalis, p.

Caroline Juillard, , Une ou deux langues? Fabienne Melliani, , La langue du quartier. A degree from our most prestigious American university is no guarantee a graduate holding such a credential will know the number of states or the location of Savannah.

If we wonder why the Ivy League—trained Obama seems confused about where cities, countries, and continents are, we might remember that all but one Ivy League university eliminated their geography departments years ago. As a rule now, when our leaders allude to a place or an event in the past, just assume their references are dead wrong. Top 10 Obama Gaffes. The Left had a grand old time with President George W. Here, to bring balance to the ridicule, are the Top 10 Obama Gaffes:. Vice President Dan Quayle was virtually laughed out of Washington for misspelling potato back in , yet Barack Obama made a more elementary flub when, during the campaign, he said: While commending troops at Fort Drum, N.

Sal Giunta, was the first living recipient of the Medal of Honor that fought in Afghanistan. What year is it? Maybe he was wistfully dreaming about his election campaign at the time. Look at the map: During the primary campaign, he explained why he was trailing Hillary Clinton in Kentucky: Clinton, I think, is much better known, coming from a nearby state of Arkansas.

What language is that? There is no Austrian language. Ten thousand people died-an entire town destroyed. How old is Malia? The President last month thought he was so clever, unfavorably comparing Republican procrastination on the debt limit to his daughters finishing their homework early. In his remarks, Obama made a reference to daughter Malia, saying she was 13 years old, when at the time she was Imagine the press reaction if Michele Bachmann made a misstatement about any of her five children or 23 foster kids.

The President called and apologized to the head of the Special Olympics, after making this insensitive comment following a game of bowling: I have been practicing. Obama gave a series of speeches containing passing expressions of regret for vaguely specified blemishes from the American past. Even so, conservatives still fume about it. He did so in language unprecedented for any sitting or former president. We are reminded of the evils of slavery and Jim Crow in order not to be racist.

We dilate on the failure in Vietnam to guard against the arrogance of power. We recall the abuses of McCarthyism in order to underscore the importance of civil liberties. In this reading, Mr. This also explains why Mr. Magnanimity, fair dealing, example setting, win-win solutions, a city set upon a hill: Among other distinctions, Mr. Trump may be our first Hobbesian president.

It would be a mistake to underestimate the political potency of this outlook, with its left-right mix of relativism and jingoism. Nationalism is usually a form of moral earnestness. Right now, a courageous Russian opposition activist named Vladimir Kara-Murza is fighting for his life in a Moscow hospital, having been poisoned for a second time by you-can-easily-guess-who. Trump is even aware of the case, would he be wrong in betting that most Americans are as indifferent to his fate as he is?

The larger question for conservatives is how Mr. Ben Sasse have been unequivocal in their outrage, which will surely cost them politically. The risk is that silence quickly becomes a form of acquiescence. Besides, since when did conservatives reared to their convictions by the rhetoric of Winston Churchill and Ronald Reagan hold words so cheap?

Speaking of Reagan, Feb. Perhaps because he had been an actor, the 40th president knew that Americans preferred stories in which good guys triumphed over bad ones, not the ones in which they were pretty much all alike.

CNN February 3, The White House Holocaust Horror. The decision not to mention the Jews was deliberate, Hicks said, a way of demonstrating the inclusive approach of the Trump administration: No, Hope Hicks, and no to whomever you are serving as a mouthpiece.

The Nazis killed an astonishing number of people in monstrous ways and targeted certain groups—Gypsies, the mentally challenged, and open homosexuals, among others.

As was the practice, the speech was sent around to 14 White House offices, including an office called Public Liaison staffed by conservatives whose job it was to do outreach to ethnic and religious groups. The official at Public Liaison who supported anti-Communist groups in Eastern Europe was tasked with the job of reviewing it. She sent the speech back marked up almost sentence by sentence.

What about the suffering of the Poles and the Slovaks? The president should not be taking sides here. I was astonished, and horrified, and took the document to my superior, who told me to ignore it. I bring these anecdotes up to say that the Hope Hicks statement does not arrive without precedent.

Someone in that nascent White House thought it was time to reflect that view through the omission of the specifically Jewish quality of the Holocaust. In those remarks at the cornerstone laying, President Reagan said this: This act of intellectual genocide must not go unchallenged, and those who advance these views must be held up to the scorn and wrath of all good and thinking people in this nation and across the world.

It is heartbreaking to think these are words that can now be applied to the White House in which a Republican successor to Reagan is now resident, only 28 years after he departed it for the last time.

There were indeed millions of innocent people whom the Nazis killed in many horrific ways, some in the course of the war and some because the Germans perceived them—however deluded their perception—to pose a threat to their rule.

But that was not the Holocaust. Trump implied Frederick Douglass was alive. The world may never know whether President Donald Trump just got a little sloppy with his verb tenses on Wednesday morning or simply had no idea that the famous black abolitionist Frederick Douglass was, in fact, dead. The Atlantic asked, simply: And someone started a Frederick Douglass Twitter account that trolled the president before it was deleted although some of the tweets have been saved.

Even White House press secretary Sean Spicer struggled to clarify Douglass-gate when asked at a briefing later on Wednesday.

Trump criticizes media as he marks African American History Month But the descendants of the revered abolitionist — who, just to be clear, died in after becoming a powerful voice against slavery and then Jim Crow — responded on Wednesday.

We believe, if he had more time to elaborate, the President would have mentioned the following: Frederick Douglas has done an amazing job. Then the family mic-dropped several things Douglass has done a great job at:. It sounded a bit like he thought the inimitable Douglass, who died in , was some lesser-known black leader who was still alive.

Social media had a field day with this, relentlessly mocking the team, but for me the emotion was overwhelming sadness: Frederick Douglass is a singular, towering figure of American history. The entire legacy of black intellectual thought and civil rights activism flows in some way through Douglass, from W. DuBois to Booker T. Washington, to the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. Douglass was one of the most brilliant thinkers, writers and orators America has ever produced. Furthermore, he harnessed and mastered the media of his day: Writing an acclaimed autobiography, establishing his own newspaper and becoming the most photographed American of the 19th century.

Douglass also was a friend of Susan B. But perhaps one of the best reasons Trump and Spicer need to bone up on Douglass is to understand his relationship with Abraham Lincoln and to get a better sense of what true leadership looks like.

Douglass was a blistering critic of Lincoln from the beginning. This incensed Douglass, who said of the remarks: Lincoln next proceeds, with nerves of steel, to tell the slaveholders what an excellent slave hound he is. But even in the midst of this criticism, Lincoln entertained Douglass at the White House. Lincoln listened with earnest attention and with very apparent sympathy, and replied to each point in his own peculiar, forcible way. That is what leadership and growth look like. Lincoln grew from the association with and counsel from his onetime critic, to become one of the greatest presidents America has ever known.

Indeed Black History Month began not as a month but a week: Negro History week, the second week of February. It was established in by noted black historian Carter G. Woodson, and choosing February was no coincidence: It honored the birthdays of Lincoln, who freed the slaves, and Douglass, who helped direct his conscience.

Trump would do well to study this history; he has much to learn from it. Graham The Atlantic Feb 1, Does Donald Trump actually know who Frederick Douglass was? It was about Trump: And it turned out that that was fake news. The statue is cherished. We have Lincoln, and we have Jefferson, and we have Dr. He named perhaps the four most famous figures in black history with no meaningful elaboration. Trump was reading from a sheet, but at least he was able to name Tubman, unlike his vanquished rival Gary Johnson.

Hardly any politician is immune to this; faced with the necessity of holding an event to mark the month, they too recite the list. Ronald Reagan repeatedly quoted Douglass in his own remarks, and was fond of boasting that Douglass was a fellow Republican.

The gulf between Trump and his predecessors is particularly poignant, of course, in the wake of the presidency of Barack Obama, a man who by virtue of his own skin color never had to resort to the detached tributes of white presidents. When the museum Trump cited opened, Obama spoke, saying as only he could have:. Yes, African Americans have felt the cold weight of shackles and the stinging lash of the field whip. Trump, by contrast, has long spoken of the black community in fundamentally instrumental terms, from his business career to his political one.

African Americans were a monolithic demographic to be won or lost, depending on the occasion. The young real-estate developer first made headlines when the Trump Organization was accused of working to keep blacks out of its real-estate developments; the company eventually settled with the Justice Department without admitting guilt. The question in that case was not the personal prejudices absent or present of Trump and his father Fred.

Instead, the company appeared to have decided that blacks were bad for business and would drive out white tenants, so the Trumps allegedly opted to keep them out. During the campaign, Trump viewed black voters with similarly cool detachment. Are you the greatest? When Trump announced a black-voter outreach operation, he mostly delivered his message to overwhelmingly white audiences in overwhelmingly white locales, and employed a series of racist and outdated stereotypes about inner-city crime, poverty, and lack of education, in what he appeared to believe represented benign patronization.

Meanwhile, his own aides told reporters their political goal was to suppress black votes by encouraging African Americans to sit the election out. Trump continues to indicate he holds a view of black Americans that is instrumental, as he showed on Wednesday at his Black History Month event. Putin, Obama — and Trump. Obama got wise to Russia only when Putin imperiled not just U. Putin surely was understandably angry with the U.

But Barack Obama was not quite an American nationalist who sought to advance U. Instead, he posed as a new sort of soft-power moralistic politician — not seen since Jimmy Carter — far more interested in rectifying the supposed damage rather than the continuing good that his country has done. If Putin by was angry at Bush for his belated pushback over Georgia, at least he was not as miffed at Bush as Obama himself was. Reset-button policy then started with the implicit agreement that Russia and the Obama administration both had legitimate grievances against a prior U.

Putin probably thought that the occupation and reconstruction of Iraq were a disaster not on ethical or even strategic grounds but because the U. In theory, Obama would captivate Putin with his nontraditional background and soaring rhetoric, the same way he had charmed urban progressive elites at home and Western European socialists abroad.

One or two more Cairo speeches would assure Putin that a new America was more interested in confessing its past sins to the Islamic world than confronting its terrorism. And Obama would continue to show his bona fides by cancelling out Bush initiatives such as missile defense in Eastern Europe, muting criticism of Russian territorial expansionism, and tabling the updating and expansion of the American nuclear arsenal. As Putin was charmed, appeased, and supposedly brought on board, Obama increasingly felt free to enlighten him as he does almost everyone about how his new America envisioned a Westernized politically correct world.

Russians naturally would not object to U. His cynicism and cunning told him that Obama was superficially magnanimous mostly out of a desire to avoid confrontations. And as a Russian, he was revolted by the otherworldly and unsolicited advice from a pampered former American academic.

Putin continued to crack down at home and soon dressed up his oppression with a propagandistic anti-American worldview: As the West would pursue atheism, indulgence, and globalism, Putin would return Russia to Orthodoxy, toughness, and fervent nationalism — a czarist appeal that would resonate with other autocracies abroad and mask his own oppressions, crony profiteering, and economic mismanagement at home.

Note that despite crashing oil prices and Russian economic crises, Putin believed much as Mussolini did that at least for a time, a strong leader in a weak country can exercise more global clout than a weak leader in a strong country — and that Russians could for a while longer put up with poverty and lack of freedom if they were at least feared or respected abroad.

But once Putin realized that Obama was serious in his fantasies, he lost all respect for his benefactor, especially as an increasingly petulant and politically enfeebled Obama compensated by teasing Putin as a macho class cut-up — just as he had often caricatured domestic critics who failed to appreciate his godhead.

Lead-from-behind foreign policy was just provocative enough to discombobulate a few things overseas but never strong or confident enough to stay on to fix them.

Putin soon seemed to argue that the former Soviet Republics had approximately the same relation to Russia as the Caribbean, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands have to the United States.

Russia was simply defining and protecting its legitimate sphere of influence, as the post-colonial U. The Kiev Pocket and destruction of the Southwestern Front of the Red Army in the Ukraine in September , Russians killed, captured, or missing may have been the largest encirclement and mass destruction of an army in military history.

For Putin, these are not ancient events but rather proof of why former Soviet bloodlands were as much Russian as Puerto Rico was considered American. We find such reasoning tortured, given Ukrainian and Crimean desires to be free; Putin insists that Russian ghosts still flitter over such hallowed ground.

But it does remind us that he is particularly ill-suited to listen to pat lectures from American sermonizers whose unwillingness to rely on force to back up their sanctimony is as extreme as their military assets are overwhelming.

Putin would probably be less provoked by a warning from someone deemed strong than he would be by obsequious outreach from someone considered weak. There were areas where Obama might have sought out Putin in ways advantageous to the U. But ironically, Obama was probably more interested in inflating the Persian and Shiite regional profile than was Putin himself. If Obama wished to invite Putin into the Middle East, then at least he might have made an effort to align him with Israel, the Gulf States, Egypt, and Jordan, in pursuit of their shared goal of wiping out radical Islamic terrorism.

In the process, these powers might have grown increasingly hostile to Syria, Hezbollah, and Iran. But Obama was probably more anti-Israeli than Putin, and he also disliked the moderate Sunni autocracies more than Putin himself did.

The irony of the failed reset was that in comparative terms the U. Unhinged nuclear proliferation, such as in Pakistan and North Korea and soon in Iran, is always more of a long-term threat to a proximate Russia than to a distant America. In other words, there were realist avenues for cooperation that hinged on a strong and nationalist U.

Other spheres in which there could be no American—Russian consensus could by default have been left to sort themselves out in a may-the-best-man-win fashion, hopefully peaceably. Let us hope that Donald Trump, Rex Tillerson, and Jim Mattis know this and thus keep mostly silent, remind Putin privately without trashing a former president that the aberrant age of Obama is over, carry huge sticks, work with Putin where and when it is in our interest, acknowledge his help, seek to thwart common enemies — and quietly find ways to utilize overwhelming American military and economic strength to discourage him from doing something unwise for both countries.

Pensez-vous que notre pays soit si innocent? One of the biggest: Iran is now a regional superpower, but still as hostile to the U.

Iran now stands at the apex of an arc of influence stretching from Tehran to the Mediterranean, from the borders of NATO to the borders of Israel and along the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. It commands the loyalties of tens of thousands in allied militias and proxy armies that are fighting on the front lines in Syria, Iraq and Yemen with armored vehicles, tanks and heavy weapons. For the first time in its history, the Institute for the Study of War noted in a report last week, Iran has developed the capacity to project conventional military force for hundreds of miles beyond its borders.

It needed and still needs to be assessed in the context of a broader strategic framework for the Middle East. The consequences of not paying attention to the big picture are now obvious to all. Et si de Gaulle ou le premier Mohamed venu de nos banlieues avaient vu juste? Cobb, Sammy Davis, Jr. Mais elle est fascinante. Jews are a famously accomplished group. They make up 0. Jews make up 2 percent of the U.

Pease lists some of the explanations people have given for this record of achievement. The Jewish faith encourages a belief in progress and personal accountability. It is learning-based, not rite-based. Most Jews gave up or were forced to give up farming in the Middle Ages; their descendants have been living off of their wits ever since.

They have congregated around global crossroads and have benefited from the creative tension endemic in such places. No single explanation can account for the record of Jewish achievement. The odd thing is that Israel has not traditionally been strongest where the Jews in the Diaspora were strongest.

Instead of research and commerce, Israelis were forced to devote their energies to fighting and politics. Milton Friedman used to joke that Israel disproved every Jewish stereotype. People used to think Jews were good cooks, good economic managers and bad soldiers; Israel proved them wrong.

But that has changed. The most resourceful Israelis are going into technology and commerce, not politics. Israel has more high-tech start-ups per capita than any other nation on earth, by far. It leads the world in civilian research-and-development spending per capita. It ranks second behind the U. Israel, with seven million people, attracts as much venture capital as France and Germany combined.

Because of the strength of the economy, Israel has weathered the global recession reasonably well. The government did not have to bail out its banks or set off an explosion in short-term spending. The country was not founded so stray settlers could sit among thousands of angry Palestinians in Hebron. It was founded so Jews would have a safe place to come together and create things for the world.

This shift in the Israeli identity has long-term implications. Netanyahu preaches the optimistic view: And, in fact, there are strands of evidence to support that view in places like the West Bank and Jordan. All the countries in the region talk about encouraging innovation. Some oil-rich states spend billions trying to build science centers. But places like Silicon Valley and Tel Aviv are created by a confluence of cultural forces, not money.

The surrounding nations do not have the tradition of free intellectual exchange and technical creativity. For example, between and , Egyptians registered 77 patents in the U. The tech boom also creates a new vulnerability. As Jeffrey Goldberg of The Atlantic has argued, these innovators are the most mobile people on earth. It just has to foment enough instability so the entrepreneurs decide they had better move to Palo Alto, where many of them already have contacts and homes.

American Jews used to keep a foothold in Israel in case things got bad here. Now Israelis keep a foothold in the U. During a decade of grim foreboding, Israel has become an astonishing success story, but also a highly mobile one. Jews are extravagantly overrepresented in every field of intellectual accomplishment. As one would expect, they cover just about every important aspect of the topic. But there is a lacuna, and not one involving some obscure bit of Judaica. I have personal experience with the reluctance of Jews to talk about Jewish accomplishment—my co-author, the late Richard Herrnstein, gently resisted the paragraphs on Jewish IQ that I insisted on putting in The Bell Curve Both history and the contemporary revival of anti-Semitism in Europe make it easy to understand the reasons for that reluctance.

But Jewish accomplishment constitutes a fascinating and important story. Recent scholarship is expanding our understanding of its origins. And so this Scots-Irish Gentile from Iowa hereby undertakes to tell the story.

I cover three topics: F rom B. But what a pair they are. The first is the fully realized conceptualization of monotheism, expressed through one of the literary treasures of the world, the Hebrew Bible. It not only laid the foundation for three great religions but, as Thomas Cahill describes in The Gifts of the Jews , introduced a way of looking at the meaning of human life and the nature of history that defines core elements of the modern sensibility.

The second achievement is not often treated as a Jewish one but clearly is: Christian theology expressed through the New Testament, an accomplishment that has spilled into every aspect of Western civilization. But religious literature is the exception. The Jews do not appear in the annals of philosophy, drama, visual art, mathematics, or the natural sciences during the eighteen centuries from the time of Homer through the first millennium C.

It is unclear to what extent this reflects a lack of activity or the lack of a readily available record. For example, only a handful of the scientists of the Middle Ages are mentioned in most histories of science, and none was a Jew. But when George Sarton put a high-powered lens to the Middle Ages in his monumental Introduction to the History of Science , he found that 95 of the known scientists working everywhere in the world from to were Jews—15 percent of the total, far out of proportion to the Jewish population.

But this only exemplifies the difficulty of assessing Jewish intellectual activity in that period. Aside from Maimonides and a few others, these thinkers and artists did not perceptibly influence history or culture outside the confines of the Jewish world.

Generally speaking, this remained the case well into the Renaissance and beyond. From to , only seven Jews are among those significant figures, and only two were important enough to have names that are still widely recognized: Spinoza and Montaigne whose mother was Jewish. T he sparse representation of Jews during the flowering of the European arts and sciences is not hard to explain. They were systematically excluded, both by legal restrictions on the occupations they could enter and by savage social discrimination.

As soon as Jewish children born under legal emancipation had time to grow to adulthood, they started appearing in the first ranks of the arts and sciences. During the four decades from to , when the first Jews to live under emancipation reached their forties, 16 significant Jewish figures appear.

In the next four decades, from to , the number jumps to Les Festivals de musique en Et oui toutes les bonnes choses ont une fin malheureusement Voici un top 5 des stars qui un jour, ont franchi le cap! Kevin rame toujours autant avec Jessy et Paga et Manon ont une discussion. Le couple souhaiterait se donner une seconde chance.

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