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The good interviewer tries to create a social environment so the witness generates information without having to wait for questions to be asked. USMC Command and Staff College Written and Oral Communications Guide local copy Preaching and Communication local copy , The Army Chaplaincy , Summer-Fall - summarizes some basic theories and points of view regarding rhetoric, such as Cicero outlined five principles of rhetoric that would later influence preaching for centuries. Response to a Formidable Challenge Unveiling Charlie:
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Older folks there would remember them- They are both long gone now. But the requirement to speak out loud had very deleterious effects on the performance of Asians and Asian Americans. Primary crushing is to be carried out underground on the ft. Psychological insights and perspectives. As a result, assuming that the arguments in a message are reasonably strong, this drawing in of an audience leads to more effective persuasion.
I am going there today to explore the area. I will let you know if I find more informations. Please do write as much as you find out. Also the street names, the lake names, ponds, creeks everything has changed witch makes it even harder to locate thing. I asked a few people, but no one had actually been to the mine except James Sweet, the man that told me he visited the caves in his childhood. Some people say that a man died in the mine. Another told me that gold was found in it!
That means there could have been a Sweet road as I mentioned before. I really suspect that the caves were the Huntingdon Mines, because only trace amounts of gold would be found in a copper mine, but the Huntingdon mine could have been a gold mine.
In those days it was very popular to have ariel photos taken of various sites. I think I found the site where the mine used to be. There are people living in houses by the lake. A vast area is being reforested by residents. I suspect it might be the mine. I saw what I think could have been the haunted house hill. Some people told me that the caves were filled up. Too bad for the bats that were living there.
So why name the road and the campground after something so far? So was there two mine sites being used by two companies? Or was the mine site 3 miles long? HI JC, You are really a good explorer! I must find a map of that area and try to see what I can remember. I think that main road continued to Bolton Center.
Above the houses was the top of the hill where the mine had built a man-made lake, which served as a reservoir. No sign of water. I do wonder about that. I just remembered something: The bad news is: You are right, the site is 2. Hwy 10 ran right through the end of the little street that lead to the gravel road to the mine site. Older folks there would remember them- They are both long gone now. I thought that the Huntingdon mine was further down the road and it was not well known at that time either.
Thank you for researching this area- Otherwise the local history gets erased by time. Does the village of Eastman have a web site? Sometimes the local Chambre de Commerce can sponsor a web site.
Yes Eastman has a new website that I just finished building for them. You can see it at http: I dont know how to send an image in this post so here is a link to a map of the area I explored the other day http: We are planning to drive to Eastman this week or next to orient ourselves- I will write about our trip afterward. Curiosity killed the cat… Littlepatti. I am from Cowansville and while not directly related, I would like to get ahold of jim sweet re; eastman rail lines etc.
My grandfather and uncles were with the CpR many years ago and I have a couple of pictures of the Eastman bridge collapse that were left to me by my mother. I also have a railroad lock and key that i believe was for the switches,and connected is my grandfathers id tag. Sweet and is collecting information about Eastman for the website, and I am sure that he would be interested.
You can see it from the road. Hi Max, Thanks for the info. Please tell us what else you know about the mine. It makes sense that old copper mine would be on that road…did the haunted house I described, belong to the owners of the Huntindon mine? In doing research for my digital railway map project of Quebec I stumbled across your site and am interested to know if you have a copy of the map of the railways in Eastman that you could send me. Even a digial snapshot of the map will do if it is not already on your computer.
I am also curious to know how your planned trip back to Eastman went that you wrote about here on September 16th Were you able to satisfy your curiosity? Did the cat die? Where the heck does the time go to? The sad part is that I had planned to see old friends in the area.
The towns will always be there, but the people…maybe no. Are you a native of the townships? Please write about your railway interest. Thank you for your promt reply LittlePatti. I am afraid I am not from anywhere near there, in fact I am from Brampton Ontario. My interests lay in the history of the railway branchlines that once serviced both your home and mine.
One of my greatest joys in life is to travel to the towns and villages where these railways used to travel. I then photograph any remaining architecture from the railway eras. The hardest part of doing this was an utter lack of maps to be able to trace these routes effectively. Just about a year and a half ago I met a young man who was working to create just such a map of the southern Ontario region and now this is all I do.
We use the Google earth satellite image programme to trace out as much as we can find and I can safely say there is no more comprehensive or accurate map of its type anywhere, and I am very proud of the things we have accomplished so far. I branched out on my own to do the same for Quebec and am now eagerly hunting historical maps and descriptions of all the lines in Quebec including streetcar systems and the electric inter-urban services that once graced la belle provence. It has been an unceasing learning experience and it brought me to your facinating historical recount of your youth.
I was researching for maps of the Eastman area when I found accounts of the Dillonton and Huntington mines and of course your wonderful site. My apologies, it was another person here who responded that they had a map from I should pay more attention to these things but at least I can say I met a nice lady with a great story to tell.
Bless you for sharing, Paul D. Hi again, I really glad that you have enjoyed reading my blog. Sweet and a phone number. The website addresses are above for Jean Claude and also the Eastman town site.
The nice thing about the internet, is so many interesting people are eager to share whatever knowledge they have. Best regards, Pat PS: Again, thank you for your kindness. I have come to learn that if you show some genuine interest in a persons story, they will open up to you and you are living proof of this. Thanks to you I have 3 new possible sources of valuable historical data.
I have a map I am sure you will want to see, it details the locations of the mines and smelter from Eastman to Bolton. Please write me at fireflysea live. I was drawned to these communications as I was searching for information on the Quebec Cooper Mining Corporation.
I was having a conversation with my father yesterday and I will see him again tomorrow for X-mass. He remember a lot about the mine. By the way, the coper mine road entrance is that street leading to the camping. You can access by the old shaft road the will lead you directly to where there are tailing residues. Also, yes there are entrence to the mine. By now you can figure that I am one of those kids that was playing in it.
Nothing much to see except for baths. Ho ya, the lake is called long lake lac long and carried the same name back in the day. If your Dad worked at the mine or was around Eastman at that time, he may remember my father, Elmer. Could you have lived on the road to the mine? Did we get our dog Teddy from your family?
Many thanks for your information. Every bit helps to paint the picture of mining in those days. Best regards for the new year!
Littlepatti, As a matter of fact, my grandfather lived on the road to the mine. Today, It is a street in the middle of the village called rue des Pins. My father and his brother both worked at the mine, Ernest and Clement. My grandfather Thomas owned the town garage. The garage did automotive repairs, welding, body shop, towing and general repairs for the mine. Back in the days, you had to be versatile I guess. Louis Phillip died at a very young age 32 and my grandmother Bertha Giroux continued on with the business while raising 4 kids on her own.
She remarried lather in life to Euclid Turcotte. She later sold the family business and it became the Meli Melo store while the Fontaine family took over the grocery side of the business. The building vanished in flames some 35 years ago.
On the Brault side, the building is still standing and it became the Depaneur Eastman located next to Bovila, a popular fast food restaurant. Both my parents are from Eastman and migrated to Montreal for work.
I was born in the City but could never call it home. I spent as much time as possible with my grandmother in Eastman. Lather I lived at my ant place same house and bought a summer place at Today I go back almost every week in the summer.
For me, Eastman is home. Maybe my father would have known your relatives. He is 82 but still has a pretty good memory, mostly for the older days. I believe there was a little grocery store right on the main street in front of rue Des Pins, and we would be driven from the mine site, to the store, to catch our school bus to Waterloo.
Where did you go to school? It seems to me all the kids in Eastman went to Waterloo High school. We were Catholics, but our parents always paid school fees for us to go to Protestant schools.
On second thought, I sure wish my parents were here right now…I have many curiosities. They would be about 97 now, so considerably older than your dad. My wife and I have been enjoying all your stories and the comments left by everyone.
I have heard many stories about the copper mine next time I see my cousin I will ask for a refresh off his story and remember checking out the area and do remember seeing a large bank of tailings about 10 years ago. Perhaps it may add a few pieces of information to the story and it has many pictures of the various Bolton areas from way back.
Here is the link, good luck and I will keep an eye on your interesting blog.. Thanks for your comments, please keep in touch here with whatever information your cousin has. I hope that nobody unwittingly built homes near those tailings.
As I said before, history is quickly erased. But the pollution can stay for many a lifetime. I explored that mines long time ago, i found ton of core sample everywhere, i having map of the mines, the old pit you see at the surface is been linked to the ore body beneath. The actual vertical shaft is now capped.
Quebec Copper Mine Development June The mine is developed underground by a two-compartment vertical shaft situated about feet east of the surface contact of the andesite and the serpentinized ultrabasic rock. The shaft has non been sunk to a depth of feet, and stations have been cut at the following depths below aurface: The shaft is situated in the andesite hanging wall. Here they continue as drifts in the serpentinized footwall, paralleling the north-south contact and about 20 to 30 feet west of it.
At the time of the present investigation, the approximate amount of lateral development on these levels, was as follows: It is interesting to note that, to date, the results of this drilling check very well with the surface drilling done in Primary crushing is to be carried out underground on the ft. Level, which has been established essentially for that purpose. It is probable that the ft.
Level may eventually be connected with the old Nichols shaft, origionally used in In future, this level is to be used primarily as a loading pocket. The most suitable method of mining may yet be determined by the conditions encountered. The method intended, however, is flast blast hole ring drilling from raises, and taking the narrower sections of the orebody with shrinkage stopes.
Alternatively, the slot and retreat method, with fringe drifting at 75ft. Vertical intervals, may be used. The former method is the cheaper, and will be used in preference, if conditions prove favourable. A mill is at present under construction. This will have a ton daily capacity and should be ready for operation by March The Huntingdon mine was discovered in In the property was purchased by the Huntingdon Copper and Sulphur Company, which erected facilities for concentrating the ore.
Two shafts were used, the Huntingdon and the Wright. The mine closed, however, in In the mine was dewatered by G. Tetreault of Montreal sunk a further shaft to a depth of about 50 feet. In the property was purchased by the Eastern Mining and Milling Company. The company discontinued work in The only relics of former activity when the present company took over were the old flooded shafts and the large open-pit workings.
The mine began production in Huntingdon Mine Co. The company was sold in , two shafts were sunk and the mine produced tons. Production continued until and exploration was sporadic thereafter: Conducted geophysics and completed about 2, ft. Mining rights acquired by P. The mine produced 1 tons from which 11 tons Cu, ounces Au and 30 ounces of Ag were extracted. Grade decreased over this period from 1. Long exploration drive was extended north of the shaft toward the Bolton area at the ft.
Remaining estimated tonnage at shutdown was tons at 0. The distribution of ore zones is shown in Figure 4. After some years of prospecting, the Quebec Copper Corporation Limited acquired the former Huntingdon Mine in , and started an extensive exploration and development program in the area south of Eastman. In , a vertical three-compartment shaft shaft No. It is collared at 70 feet north of the old Huntingdon shaft and feet west of the periodite-greenstone contact Map No.
Stations were established at the , , and foot horizons, while at surface, the main plant buildings were erected and the required equipment was installed. Most of the surface drilling was of an exploratory nature to test the northward and southward extension of the mineralized zone. In the first half of , the shaft was completed to a depth of feet and crosscuts were driven in an east-west direction on the , , and foot levels. In the second half of the year, stations were established on the and foot horizons.
Part of the ore above the foot level has been extracted in the past. The mine was bought into production in the early part of , and the mill was started at tons a day. By the end of , the shaft had reached a depth of feet, while at surface a total of feet of diamond drilling was completed in an affort to explore the mineralization in the vicinity of the old Ives mine showing, 2.
To permit development of these, the shaft was deepened from the foot to the foot horizon. Short crosscuts were driven at the and foot horizons to permit lateral drilling, while sinking was in progress. Scram drifts were established at the foot level, a crusher at the foot horizon, and a loading pocket at the foot level.
During the year, the mill operated continually at an average daily tonnage of tons. A new shaft, the No. This shaft was being sunk to permit the recovery of the pillars surrounding the main shaft between the and foot levels; an estimated tons of 0. A new 6-foot hoist was installed at the No. Exploration was also continued on the foot level for a distance of feet in a northerly direction to explore the downward extension of the periodite-greenstone contact.
Horizontal holes drilled at regular foot intervals along this drive showed a mineralized zone arevaging feet in length and 1. In , the No. All efforts were transferred to an exploratory drive to the north of shaft No. Altrough operating costs were reduced in , the Company could not cover sufficiently the expenses of the mine due to the low grade of the ore treated and the reduced price of copper.
In addition, an extensive underground diamond drilling program failed to give satisfactory results. Mining and Milling operations were therefore suspended on April 11, , when it was determined that the remaining ore reserves could not be hoisted without the completion of the No. For the remainder of the year, the Company shared in outside exploration ventures with East Sullivan Mines Limited and Sullivan Consolidated Mines Limited, which, however, were unsuccessful. By the end of , most of the machinery underground was sold.
Production and Ore reserves As started above, the Quebec Copper mine started production in February , and suspended operations on April During these years, the mine produced a total of over 1 tons of averaging 1.
The mine operated with a remarkably low cost of mining and milling, thereby enabling it to reap substential profits. Although in , the operation cost at the mine were reduced to 2. The mill increased its output from tons a day in February to tons per day by August of the same year. A recovery of In , the mill operated continually at an average daily tonnage of tons, the average grade bein 0. The ore reserves at the mine at the present time are, for the most part, tied up in the pillars surrounding the main shaft between the and foot levels; they are estimated to hold tons averaging 0.
I would appreciate knowing more about the beginning of the mine. Does Mr Brabant-Gemme or any body has information about how the copper was transported to the USA before the construction of the rail-road? Would some body have some information about that? As for the information on the Huntingdon mine at McCord museum, here is an address where one of the photographs is located: He knew by then, that the life of Quebec Copper mine would be short lived.
Elmer was largely responsible for the day to day success and was never without a job offer from new mines sinking a shaft. His knowledge was invaluable, and he was a tough task master, trying to keep his men safe in the process, was a big concern.
Miners followed him whenever they could. It takes many people to reconstruct the history-this information is very interesting. I often visited the mines sites, you can see building foundation everywhere along the mines road. In the old time, the company made lot of shaft sinking all around this site, we probably found acess gallery, but its probably flooded or reclaimed by filling or capping.
Thats a pretty interessing forum trought, You know the mining township of Capelton, Albert and Eustis? Its still very interessing to see the mining site during old time!
Hi Jerome, I am going to search for some photos of the mine site. Also, you may like to get in touch with JCAmyot, and the website for Eastman. You have very interesting observations. I have heard of Capelton, in the Sherbrooke area, but those mines were not in operation in my days in Estrie and I have never visited there. Also, what has been built near the mine site?
It was located behind the mill. That would be the far left at the entry of the property. On the highest point of the hill on the site, there was a water reservoir- a small man made lake. Like Ives Mines not far from Highway 10, all shaft is been capped and the mines site is now a camping field.
The tailings covered at least acres if not more. It would be interesting to have that soil tested. Also the ground water around those homes built nearby could be contaminated. Like Aldermac Moulton Hill Mines at Fleurimont near Sherbrooke, the soil sweating oily substance… Almost every mines site, when its mined.. My father, William Willie Peasley worked in the mine starting I think in and was working there up to April I remember clearly a day dad took me there, I must have been about 6 or 7 years old.
There was a huge generator room and a mine shaft on one of the sides of the room. My dad took me down in the shaft elevator, probably only 1 or 2 stations at the most. Of course, at that age, that was a huge experience for me! I remember also that when asked, dad always talked about the remaining ore in the mine as being huge, but by spring , it was too expensive to continue. Jerome, thanks so much for your many details.
This blog brought back memories I had long ago lost — what a thrill to read this and be able to communicate to you this morning!!
He was 7 in And he was right, here you are recalling that experience. We are taking a drive there this summer and hope to revisit the area. He added the best history of the property. Thanks for your comments. It was my favorite hang out spot for many years.
And later when married I often camped with the entire family there. I worked as a miner in my youth for three years — Levack Mine — Sudbury — -was a stope leader for the last two. I became involved in Lumering starting in — stopping in — had a forty man crew —lumbered and worked much around Eastman area. Robert Brault — I believe I knew your father real well. I have a sister named Lorraine, she graduated from Waterloo High in , and did not marry D.
I was 14, so some of the names are familiar to me but I was too young to remember. At least, all adults at that time, were not interesting! I have been searching for a Bon Voyage card I have somewhere, that was given to my parents at a going away party- I am sure all the names are there. Thanks for your nice note. Please keep in touch. One thing for sure. The allure of mining: Hi Peter, Actually Robert Brault is my cousin. My father was Clement and their father was Tom.
Hope you are well. As they were neighbors and I walked to school with them. About the Adit shaft By adit shaft I eman a shaft that is not verticle — but comes in level — as in through the side of a mountain. OK — -you drive past the offices then go up a sharp incline — a short ways up is a road to the left that turns to the big house mine Supervisers I believe where two ponds and a large wooden water tower were as well.
It was of modern design — -for starters. Headframe and hoist room all gone — -and just a large cemment cap over where shaft was. However — if you went on to the large tailing plateau — back at the bottom — even lower than the office — and ran back up till you more or less were even with where the old head was on top — and climbed a pile of pushed up mine wastes — pushed up against the cliif face — you would fine the entrance to a large Adit shaft — or what we called underground — a main drift.
This large shaft went in about — oh — -6 to feet — with some large sotrage chambers along it — plus at one point — -a much smaller side drift which lead to what looked to me like their powder house. At the very back it joined with the large shaft I already mentioned — -and with a strong light you could look up to the under of the cap. I believe — from studying the ruins — -they skip hoisted the muck to this addit shaft — loaded the carts there — than railed it to the processing plant — -the ruins of which I belive were in front of the offices.
Lorraine would be the Daughter of either Ernest or Clement Brault — thus either sister or cousin to the poster above — Robert Brault. She and David ended up in South Stukely — as did my wife and I as well — and we raised families together. The Brault I used to meet often at the small eatery at the corner of Route one to Bolton Road told me he worked as a prospecter — way in the north of Quebec. I also extensively explored the ruins of Capleton; Eustis and Albert mines — including finding the long adit shaft there — and did many wonderings underground — as it is not flooded.
Our family had aerial photos of the mine, but they are long gone. There was a road up the hill, a tennis court on the far right, and one duplex on the right-We lived extreme right. Up the hill past our house was a lake-reservoir. We spent lots of time up there, but were warned not to swim because of snapping turtles.
I think that was a ploy to keep us out of the water-it was deep and must have had huge drain pipes. There was a dock and a water tower there too. When I made my last visit there, I located the tennis court, our house site by metal posts and we walked up the hill. It was all grown in with a grassy center the lowest point in the lake.
That was around …I was amazed by how easily history was erased. Just before we moved to the Thunder Bay area in , we lived on Dufferin avenue in Waterloo, in the old spooky Wells home, for a few months. Some young teachers lived upstairs. He was really helpful in getting me to recognize some old friends there.
All very fond memories for me. And yes, I do remember hearing of that tunnel on the side, but not at the time. My dad had a big brown old fashioned telephone installed in our house-it was connected to underground and he could talk any time of the day or night. It had a crank on the side and when that phone rang in the middle of the night, it was never good news.
OK — not much left of those houses when I found the place — about or so. The Newer Managers house still stood and though the Windows were all broken — it was still a large and sound structure — -we camped out their often. Wow — I am sure I was spending a lot of time there in — wonder we never ran into each other. I picked up a book second hand at the Brome Fair opne year — a historical work on the three mines — eutis — Capelton and Alberton.
It was full of amazing old pictures. They showed a large moonscape type area by the mid 30,s — everything killed due to smelting of ores. When I got there to find those places in about — nothing but tall forest was left — at the surface. However — going into the old mine one could find signatures — carved in the wood beams — fresh as made yesterday — old miner boot prints — fresh made — — a real time wrap down there. Strange — my family moved into that exact same house about that time — -then later bought the Shanks home after he died — -Ton Shanks I believe.
They shared the garage building — Mrs Wells and Tom. Once we moved into the Shanks house — -they were my neighbors — along with their younger brother — Dwight Sp?? Dufferin then ended in a cow pasture — -but years later that joined up with Clark Street to the top or was it Mountain??
Having worked hard rock mining — and almost buying it numerous times I was way to ambitious to make bonus — contract mining we called it then — I know well what a phone call at night can mean. Starting in or so. You probably moved in after that. My dad had gone ahead and found a home for us in Kakabeka Falls- I went to Ft.
Wells must have been a pharmacist or something…the basement was full of old beakers and powders. That summer I applied and got a job at the sewing factory. I lied about my age. I lasted for about 2 weeks, worked very hard and got a paltry amount of money.
That was when I decided I would never work for peanuts again! As I said, I plan to poke around Eastman in August- and find the mine site again. The mine built that for 2 of us- I was 11 then and a boy of the same age named George. We were whining about nothing to do, so they sent men to make the tennis court and bought us rackets. We felt about as guilty as 11 year olds CAN feel. I must say they were very happy times. How wonderful to find so many people with like-experiences.
The same thing happened on the Central Patricia Gold Mine blogs-many of the kids from there connected. Later, they retired, sold everything and are sailing their retirement away and in that neighbourhood. It never fails to amaze me-what a small world we live in.
If you have any special way that I must do that, just let me know. My dad died in We would all love the photos. They could be in thumbnail format…if you have a problem, drop me a note. Yes, our folks would be pleased to hear that we are keeping their legacies alive.
They were true pioneers. My dad died of prostate cancer at the age of 67 in As a parent, I am so aware of how important a loving childhood can be. Philips Maurice Singfield Gr. My brother, Richard was in Gr. I am finding your site so interesting that I will copy every pages fgor further study. I grew up in Eastman but left when I was I visited the mine when I was about years old. I have always been interested in mining and did a lot of research mostly on Eastman mines going back to I have some documents and pictures and I am a member of Eastman Historical Society.
I own the Protestant School Board from to archives and could supply some information. That we be fun to get together to exchange and visit the site. I dove the Acton Vale mine years ago. Wanted to do the same on the old mine but seem impossible. I known the man who cover the tailing doing some experimental work.
I know Ernest and will interview him later this year. I remember very well Thosmas, the big man, Clement the hunter and Louis in front of the garage. I already conducted 6 interviews with old peoples in East and plan to do 4 more before the end of the year.
That would be too long to answer all your question but if the interest is still there I will do my best. Thanh to every one Phil Longueuil. Hi Phil, Thanks so much for your comments. I hope that you can get in touch with J.
Hi Pat, I never though someone would response so quickly. I though the subject was exhausted. In my research I found it was at the end of Rang du Rocher. There is no Sweet Road.
Sweet is living on chemin du Rocher. I will try to contact JC. Never heard this name before including in our meetings in Eastman on a monthly basis. I will review all previous comments and try to clarify some question.
I know very well Eastman even if I left the village in my early years. In two months I produced over 22 papers and made a listing of all the books and documents I own 60 including Annual report fo Quebec Copper and You can see that Jerome see comment in Feb. Maybe all you fellows can contact each other and swap information.
Please do give me your website to post here. Hi Pat, I would very interested to share informations with all these guys. My email address is phil videotron ca. Jerome is the most knowledgeable guy that know on the subject. In the annual reports, Monette the manager is giving very good informations on progress at the mine. Huntingdon Mine, later named Quebec Copper was part of Dillonton a mining hamlet. At one time they had a post office. In population was He was bilingual according to my source who knew him.
I am looking for Annual Report, , 56, 57, and The name was change in I will stop my research before I find a picture of you. I found no record of you in the archives of Eastman Protestant School Board. There are older pictures of Elmer in the Central Patricia blog. Of course I remember Mr. Monette and other families who lived at the Quebec Copper mine site as they were good friends of my parents.
Elmer started work at the mine in while we lived in Magog , the houses were built and we moved there in to We went to school in Waterloo. Although we were Catholics, our parents paid school fees and sent us to the Protestant schools where ever we lived. It was just a personal philosophy they had about the separation of church and education.: If there had been an English Prot.
Elmer was always in demand in those days. He was an experienced miner and was always called on to sink shafts. Metaphors We Think With: In five experiments, we explore how these metaphors influence the way that we reason about complex issues and forage for further information about them. Interestingly, we find that the influence of the metaphorical framing effect is covert: Metaphors in language appear to instantiate frame-consistent knowledge structures and invite structurally consistent inferences.
Far from being mere rhetorical flourishes, metaphors have profound influences on how we conceptualize and act with respect to important societal issues.
We find that exposure to even a single metaphor can induce substantial differences in opinion about how to solve social problems: Paparone Learning to Swim in the Ocean: Joint Forces Command Commander Gen. As we err i. As time goes on, we elaborate on this temporary use of borrowed meanings and eventually adopt them into our more permanently accepted language that reflects the way things are. This essay investigates how the use of metaphor shapes understanding in an increasingly ambiguous world of meaning.
Force, Friction, or Folley? Metaphors We Live By. University of Chicago Press, The Theory of Tropes in Anthropology. Stanford University Press, Compare unfamiliar facts with something simple the audience already knows. An example would be comparing the flow of water in a pipe with the flow of electricity in a wire. People learn more rapidly when the information relates to their own experience. The use of metaphor implies a way of thinking and a way of seeing that pervade how we understand our world generally.
Metaphor is inherently paradoxical. It can create powerful insights that also become distortions, as the way of seeing created through a metaphor becomes a way of not seeing. Sage Publications, , Reflections on Leadership in the Post-Information Age , by Harig, in Parameters , Autumn Just as there are plentiful examples where critical scientific breakthroughs have occurred while the right brain our intuitive, pre-verbal cognitive resource was operating ahead of the pack, strategic vision requires an ability to think in metaphors, to seek related patterns in unrelated objects, situations, and events.
True, our future senior leaders will have access to more information. The successful ones will be those who are best able to sort out the important from the interesting. The development and testing of analogies--the patterns that allow leaders to see the important under data overload, is a skill that could waste away under a sterile diet of expert systems and virtual reality simulations.
Listening Most people do not listen with the intent to understand; they listen with the intent to reply. Covey A man who listens because he has nothing to say can hardly be a source of inspiration.
The only listening that counts is that of the talker who alternatively absorbs and expresses ideas. Obvious, but not easy. Put the speaker at ease. Create a permissive, supportive climate in which the speaker will feel free to express himself or herself. Show a desire to listen. Act interested and mean it. External preoccupation is less likely if nothing external is present to preoccupy you. Try to experience to some degree the feelings the speaker is experiencing. Give the speaker time to finish; don't interrupt.
Don't let your emotions obstruct your thoughts. Go easy on argument and criticism. If things are still unclear when a speaker has finished, ask questions which serve to clarify the intended meanings.
In case you missed the first commandment. If you know what the topic is ahead of time, learn something about it so you will not be an ignorant listener. Even some careful thinking will allow you to listen more accurately when the communication actually begins. Try to discover the intent of the source; why is he or she saying these things? Look for an organizational scheme of the message. If the speaker is an accomplished one, you won't have to look very hard; it will be obvious.
But if the speaker is less skilled, the responsibility falls to you. Do not accept what you hear at face value; analyze what the speaker is saying and pay attention to body language. Keep the main topic of the message in mind at all times, using it to bring focus to the information which the speaker supplies.
This may be the most important. Listening takes work, and to do that you may have to "psych yourself up. Videoconferencing, Audioconferencing, and Computer-Mediated Communications , by Wainfan and Davis, RAND report, This report summarizes the research literature on virtual collaboration, focusing on interactive virtual collaborations in real or near-real time.
In particular, it reviews how the processes and outcomes of virtual collaborations are affected by the communication medium videoconferencing, audioconferencing, or computer-mediated conferencing. It then discusses how problems in such collaboration can be mitigated and opportunities realized.
Opportunities include broadening the range of views and options, as well as broadening the range of available experts. The report suggests a strategy for choosing the most effective medium, including face-to-face communication and hybrid systems, as a function of task and context e.
The cognitive interview, on the other hand, is in some ways a questionless interview. The goal is to ask as few questions as possible so that witnesses give you long narrative responses that each contains that much more information than a traditional interview. The objective is to try to elicit information, not extract information.
The good interviewer tries to create a social environment so the witness generates information without having to wait for questions to be asked. How to Conduct a Cognitive Interview: Increasing the Objectivity of Cognitive Interviews local copy , Proceedings of the Section on Survey Research Methods, American Statistical Association , , by Conrad and Blair, posted by Bureau of Labor Statistics Perceptual and Memory Distortion During Officer-Involved Shootings local copy , by Artwohl, in Law Enforcement Bulletin , Oct The developers of this method found that how investigators interview individuals can significantly impact the ability of the witnesses to remember and report the details of an event.
Their research indicated the cognitive interview as the most effective technique for facilitating memory retrieval with cooperative witnesses. This had no effect on the performance of European Americans.
But the requirement to speak out loud had very deleterious effects on the performance of Asians and Asian Americans. How to Get People to Talk to You local copy , emphasis on obtaining medical history, but useful points for any interviewing situation downloaded from cim. American public opinion directly influences all levels of warfare We have intrinsic value to the Nation and our existence is dependent on the will of the American people If we don't tell our story, no one will The media will tell the story with or without our input The Media Interview local copy , by Schwenk, posted by USAFA Department of Law - examines interviews, pretrial publicity, and related matters 6 tips for taking control in media interviews , by Krotz, Microsoft Small Business Center - see article for expansion of tips below Set goals for every appearance.
Watch your body language. Stay on track with your message. Learn how to "bridge. Oh, the Mistakes Spokespeople Make: Response to a Formidable Challenge Unveiling Charlie: A Case Study and Review of U.
Principles of Interrogation , in Chapter 1, FM version, now superceded - included the following Interrogation is the art of questioning and examining a source to obtain the maximum amount of usable information. The goal of any interrogation is to obtain usable and reliable information, in a lawful manner and in the least amount of time, which meets intelligence requirements of any echelon of command. The use of force, mental torture, threats, insults, or exposure to unpleasant and inhumane treatment of any kind is prohibited by law and is neither authorized nor condoned by the US Government.
Experience indicates that the use of force is not necessary to gain the cooperation of sources for interrogation. Therefore, the use of force is a poor technique , as it yields unreliable results, may damage subsequent collection efforts, and can induce the source to say whatever he thinks the interrogator wants to hear. However, the use of force is not to be confused with psychological ploys, verbal trickery, or other nonviolent and noncoercive ruses used by the interrogator in questioning hesitant or uncooperative sources.
The psychological techniques and principles outlined should neither be confused with, nor construed to be synonymous with, unauthorized techniques such as brainwashing, mental torture, or any other form of mental coercion to include drugs. These techniques and principles are intended to serve as guides in obtaining the willing cooperation of a source. The absence of threats in interrogation is intentional, as their enforcement and use normally constitute violations of international law and may result in prosecution under the UCMJ.
Additionally, the inability to carry out a threat of violence or force renders an interrogator ineffective should the source challenge the threat.
Consequently, from both legal and moral viewpoints, the restrictions established by international law, agreements, and customs render threats of force, violence, and deprivation useless as interrogation techniques. The future of lying , a talk from TED.
In fact, he says the searchability and permanence of information online may even keep us honest. How to separate fact and fiction online , a talk from TED. So how do we sort through the deluge? At the TEDSalon in London, Markham Nolan shares the investigative techniques he and his team use to verify information in real-time, to let you know if that Statue of Liberty image has been doctored or if that video leaked from Syria is legitimate.
How to spot a liar , a talk from TED. Pamela Meyer, author of Liespotting, shows the manners and "hotspots" used by those trained to recognize deception -- and she argues honesty is a value worth preserving. In the present study, we examined the utility of three physiological endpoints in the detection of guilty knowledge with the GKT paradigm and we assessed whether combined indices would improve classification accuracy.
Lies, Liars, and Lie Detection , by Gray, in Federal Probation , Dec - includes cues to deceit and things to watch for Detecting Deception local copy , by retired FBI agent Joe Navarro, in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin , AUg - setting the stage and four opportunities to detect deception Four viable opportunities allow investigators to detect when a person hides something, feels anxious about a question, lies, or has knowledge of guilt.
When Asking - The first opportunity to detect deception arises when the interrogator asks a question. While Processing - Interviewers have a second chance to gauge for deception when the interviewee processes the question. When Answering - The third occasion to assess for hidden information, deception, or guilty knowledge is when the interviewee answers the question.
After Responding - Investigators have the fourth opportunity for assessment after the suspect answers a question. At that point, a skilled interviewer will wait and watch for 2 to 4 seconds, creating a natural but pregnant pause to observe the interviewee. After making the proper observations during these four phases, it proves useful to remember that speech errors, hesitation, lack of confidence, indicators of stress, and pacifiers in relation to a question merely suggest some cause.
Law enforcement officers must recognize the limits of lie detection. Deception can be identified only when all information is known, which usually is not the case. A polygrapher cannot say definitively that persons have lied, only that they displayed indicators of stress when asked a question.
Unfortunately, the same holds true for interviewers. That does not mean that interrogators stop asking questions. Cognition plays a central role in deception because the deceiver attempts to manipulate the target into believing something that is not true. The domain of deception and deception detection involves identifying physical and verbal discrepancies as well as inconsistencies in information or context, as well as the use of nonverbal cues.
A cognitive approach is discussed that considers personality, cultural, and organizational factors that affect the heuristics of deception and its detection. Deception Detection publications Interview Clues: One possible explanation is that intuitives in fact rely on common misconceptions about how to spot a liar, he says. Ekman has shown that certain emotions flash almost undetectably when people are telling high-stakes lies, where they benefit or lose a lot. Criteria - how important the experience is in personal terms for the subject - a rank ordering; Cause-Effect - what, exactly, makes the experience occur, and Complex Equivalence - what it all means, to the individual.
The Art of Building Rapport During Witness Interviews local copy , The Army Lawyer , Aug Giving Effective Feedback Feedback can be overwhelming, so make sure the student understands what the three changes out of all the feedback are which would make the greatest improvement.
The rset can be a toatl mses and you can siltl raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae we do not raed ervey lteter by istlef but the wrod as a wlohe. How to Prepare for, Survive, and Prosper during Air War College , from Dr Grant Hammond includes sections on asking good questions rules for study and research previewing a book and reading effectively analyzing content taking notes preparing for and taking tests how to do research and write a paper Poetry in Motion -- A Technique in Writing local copy , State Dept Forum , discusses various ways of reading - scanning, skimming, and intensive - and making decisions in the design of your writing Thinking Out of the Box: Study Guides and Strategies , in multiple languages, includes several handouts on improving reading skills - speed, comprehension, taking notes, etc.
Army - mentions types of journaling and has wealth of topics for journaling Therapeutic journaling promotes healing local copy , U. Army, 26 Apr "The feedback I've gotten from our social workers is saying, in some cases, it is helpful for Soldiers suffering from PTSD or post-combat stress," says Maj. In a journal, Soldiers can vent without fear of retribution, and clear their minds of stressful thoughts and memories. Journaling gives the ability to see one's thoughts from a new perspective.
Once those thoughts appear on paper, they can be observed with a certain detachment, as if they belonged to another. Frequently, this new perspective helps to identify solutions that might not have been so obvious when they were just thoughts. Whether the issues involve anger, guilt, fear or other points of discomfort, one of the things that cause those feelings to swell and fester is that they are kept private.
A journal can be a place to vent, but more importantly, it is a place where complicated issues can be broken down to component parts. These parts can then be viewed and dealt with individually. Issues can be overwhelming when approached all at once, but little pieces of big issues can frequently be sorted through almost painlessly and before you know it, the big issues have been resolved as well.
All of which helps to make molehills out of mountains. Take 20 minutes, once a week. Make a list of the things that cause you the most stress. Take an item from that list and see how many elements you can find which contribute to it. After you've broken your issue down as far as possible, try to find solutions to the individual elements, rather than the issue itself, and you'll soon find that what was once overwhelming is now manageable; what was once part of a wall is now a stepping-stone.
Writing Writing, the art of communicating thoughts to the mind through the eye, is the great invention of the world There is as much difference between the right word and the almost-right word as between lightning and the lightning bug.
Ideas and the ability to generate them seem increasingly likely, in fact, to be more important than weapons, economic potential, diplomatic acumen, or technological advantage in determining who exercises global leadership and enjoys superpower status. It develops the intellect and inculcates the spirit of inquiry for a lifelong pursuit of learning. The measure of education, far from being the level or even the sum of formal schooling, rests more in the degree of open-mindedness and active mental engagement it engenders.
Any institution that relies on professionals for success and seeks to maintain an authentic learning climate for individual growth must require its members to read to gain knowledge and insight , discuss to appreciate opposing views and subject their own to rigorous debate , investigate to learn how to ask good questions and find defensible answers , and write to structure thoughts and articulate them clearly and coherently.
He quotes Bernard Brodie: Alive and well in the corridors of the Pentagon and throughout the services, the misuse and abuse of language obscures major defense issues, alienates non-defense experts, and suffocates ideas. Put simply, bad writing wastes time and money.
The United States can ill afford such waste in peacetime, much less in war.
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