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Harvard Business School Review. Network research on dyads may concentrate on structure of the relationship e. Retrieved 17 October In social science, these fields of study include, but are not limited to anthropology , biology , communication studies , economics , geography , information science , organizational studies , social psychology , sociology , and sociolinguistics. Bureaucracy in Modern Society.

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In general, social networks are self-organizing , emergent , and complex , such that a globally coherent pattern appears from the local interaction of the elements that make up the system. Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural , social , and built environments. Clyde Mitchell and Elizabeth Bott Spillius , [17] [18] often are credited with performing some of the first fieldwork from which network analyses were performed, investigating community networks in southern Africa, India and the United Kingdom. However, large services, such as Myspace and Netlog , often work with law enforcement to try to prevent such incidents. Erving Goffman argues that all social life boils down to face-to-face interactions. The highest-degree nodes are often called "hubs", and may serve specific purposes in their networks, although this depends greatly on the social context.

James Gee suggests that affinity spaces instantiate participation, collaboration, distribution, dispersion of expertise, and relatedness. In the past, social networking services were viewed as a distraction and offered no educational benefit. Blocking these social networks was a form of protection for students against wasting time, bullying, and invasions of privacy.

In an educational setting, Facebook, for example, is seen by many instructors and educators as a frivolous, time-wasting distraction from schoolwork, and it is not uncommon to be banned in junior high or high school computer labs.

According to the UK Children Go Online survey of 9- to year-olds, it was found that a third have received bullying comments online. Social networking services often include a lot of personal information posted publicly, and many believe that sharing personal information is a window into privacy theft. Schools have taken action to protect students from this. It is believed that this outpouring of identifiable information and the easy communication vehicle that social networking services opens the door to sexual predators, cyberbullying, and cyberstalking.

In many cases, the opposite is occurring as the potential of online networking services is being realized. It has been suggested that if schools block them [social networking services], they're preventing students from learning the skills they need. A cyberpsychology research study conducted by Australian researchers demonstrated that a number of positive psychological outcomes are related to Facebook use. Importantly, this online social connectedness was associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety, and greater levels of subjective well-being.

These findings suggest that the nature of online social networking determines the outcomes of online social network use. Social networks are being used by activists as a means of low-cost grassroots organizing. A rise in social network use is being driven by college students using the services to network with professionals for internship and job opportunities. Many studies have been done on the effectiveness of networking online in a college setting, and one notable one is by Phipps Arabie and Yoram Wind published in Advances in Social Network Analysis.

However, these alumni directories tend to suffer from an oversupply of advice-seekers and an undersupply of advice providers. One new social networking service, Ask-a-peer, aims to solve this problem by enabling advice seekers to offer modest compensation to advisers for their time.

LinkedIn is also another great resource. It helps alumni, students and unemployed individuals look for work. They are also able to connect with others professionally and network with companies. In addition, employers have been found to use social network sites to screen job candidates.

A social network hosting service is a web hosting service that specifically hosts the user creation of web-based social networking services, alongside related applications. A social trade network is a service that allows traders of financial derivatives such as contracts for difference or foreign exchange contracts to share their trading activity via trading profiles online.

There services are created by financial brokers. Few social networks charge money for membership. In part, this may be because social networking is a relatively new service, and the value of using them has not been firmly established in customers' minds. Companies such as Myspace and Facebook sell online advertising on their site.

Their business model is based upon large membership count, and charging for membership would be counterproductive. This is in contrast to a traditional business model, where the suppliers and consumers are distinct agents. Revenue is typically gained in the autonomous business model via advertisements, but subscription-based revenue is possible when membership and content levels are sufficiently high. People use social networking sites for meeting new friends, finding old friends, or locating people who have the same problems or interests they have, called niche networking.

More and more relationships and friendships are being formed online and then carried to an offline setting. Psychologist and University of Hamburg professor Erich H. Witte says that relationships which start online are much more likely to succeed. In this regard, there are studies which predict tie strength among the friends [95] on social networking websites.

Witte has said that in less than 10 years, online dating will be the predominant way for people to start a relationship. Other sites claim one in five relationships begin online. Users do not necessarily share with others the content which is of most interest to them, but rather that which projects a good impression of themselves.

A number of scholars have done research on the negative effects of Internet communication as well. These researchers have contended that this form of communication is an impoverished version of conventional face-to-face social interactions, and therefore produce negative outcomes such as loneliness and depression for users who rely on social networking entirely.

By engaging solely in online communication, interactions between communities, families, and other social groups are weakened. Spamming on online social networks is quite prevalent. A primary motivation to spam arises from the fact that a user advertising a brand would like others to see them and they typically publicize their brand over the social network.

Detecting such spamming activity has been well studied by developing a semi-automated model to detect spams. In some online social networks like Twitter, users have evolved mechanisms to report spammers [] which has been studied and analyzed. Privacy concerns with social networking services have been raised growing concerns among users on the dangers of giving out too much personal information and the threat of sexual predators. Users of these services also need to be aware of data theft or viruses.

However, large services, such as Myspace and Netlog , often work with law enforcement to try to prevent such incidents. Furthermore, there is an issue over the control of data and information that was altered or removed by the user may in fact be retained and passed to third parties.

This danger was highlighted when the controversial social networking site Quechup harvested e-mail addresses from users' e-mail accounts for use in a spamming operation. In medical and scientific research, asking subjects for information about their behaviors is normally strictly scrutinized by institutional review boards , for example, to ensure that adolescents and their parents have informed consent.

It is not clear whether the same rules apply to researchers who collect data from social networking sites. These sites often contain a great deal of data that is hard to obtain via traditional means. Even though the data are public, republishing it in a research paper might be considered invasion of privacy. Privacy on social networking sites can be undermined by many factors.

For example, users may disclose personal information, sites may not take adequate steps to protect user privacy, and third parties frequently use information posted on social networks for a variety of purposes.

However, because such forums are relatively easy to access, posted content can be reviewed by anyone with an interest in the users' personal information".

These would involve "friending" and "following" large numbers of random people to thwart attempts at network analysis. Privacy concerns have been found to differ between users according to gender and personality. Women are less likely to publish information that reveals methods of contacting them.

Personality measures openness , extraversion , and conscientiousness were found to positively affect the willingness to disclose data, while neuroticism decreases the willingness to disclose personal information.

Through data mining , companies are able to improve their sales and profitability. With this data, companies create customer profiles that contain customer demographics and online behavior. A recent strategy has been the purchase and production of " network analysis software". This software is able to sort out through the influx of social networking data for any specific company.

Facebook's controversial "Social Ads" program gives companies access to the millions of profiles in order to tailor their ads to a Facebook user's own interests and hobbies. However, rather than sell actual user information, Facebook sells tracked "social actions". That is, they track the websites a user uses outside of Facebook through a program called Facebook Beacon.

There has been a trend for social networking sites to send out only "positive" notifications to users. For example, sites such as Bebo, Facebook, and MySpace will not send notifications to users when they are removed from a person's friends list. Likewise, Bebo will send out a notification if a user is moved to the top of another user's friends list but no notification is sent if they are moved down the list. This allows users to purge undesirables from their list extremely easily and often without confrontation since a user will rarely notice if one person disappears from their friends list.

It also enforces the general positive atmosphere of the website without drawing attention to unpleasant happenings such as friends falling out, rejection and failed relationships. Many social networking services, such as Facebook , provide the user with a choice of who can view their profile. This is supposed to prevent unauthorized users from accessing their information.

By making their profile private, teens can select who may see their page, allowing only people added as "friends" to view their profile and preventing unwanted viewing of the profile by parents. Most teens are constantly trying to create a structural barrier between their private life and their parents.

This is designed to prevent unauthorized users from adding, changing, or removing personal information, pictures, or other data. Social networking sites have created issues among getting hired for jobs and losing jobs because of exposing inappropriate content, posting photos of embarrassing situations or posting comments that contain potentially offensive comments e.

There are works which recommend friends to social networking users based on their political opinions. If a potential applicant expresses personal opinions on political issues or makes potentially embarrassing posts online on a publicly available social networking platform, employers can access their employees' and applicants' profiles, and judge them based on their social behavior or political views.

According to Silicon Republic's statistics, 17, young people in six countries were interviewed in a survey. There have been numerous cases where employees have lost jobs because their opinions represented their companies negatively.

In September , a woman got fired over Facebook because she posted disruptive information about her company stating that military patrons should not receive special treatment or discounts. A manager of the company found her opinion online, disagreed with it, and fired her because it went against the company's mission statement.

She lost her job, and was put under investigation by the Secret Service. Not only have employees lost their jobs in the United States, but it has happened with social network users internationally. In April , a Lloyd's banking group employee in the United Kingdom was fired for making a sarcastic post about the higher salary of her boss in relation to hers. The photo went viral exposing it all over the Internet. The company decided to cut her benefits because it was costing them additional funds.

Cases like these have created some privacy implications as to whether or not companies should have the right to look at employees' social network profiles. In March , Facebook decided they might take legal action against employers for gaining access to employee's profiles through their passwords. He also said users shouldn't be forced to share private information and communications just to get a job. According to the network's Statement of Rights and Responsibilities, sharing or soliciting a password is a violation to Facebook.

Employees may still give their password information out to get a job, but according to Erin Egan, Facebook will continue to do their part to protect the privacy and security of their users.

The relative freedom afforded by social networking services has caused concern regarding the potential of its misuse by individual patrons. He had posted a fake page on Facebook purporting to be that of a former school friend Matthew Firsht, with whom he had fallen out in The page falsely claimed that Firsht was homosexual and that he was dishonest. At the same time, genuine use of social networking services has been treated with suspicion on the ground of the services' misuse.

In September , the profile of Australian Facebook user Elmo Keep was banned by the site's administrators on the grounds that it violated the site's terms of use. Keep is one of several users of Facebook who were banned from the site on the presumption that their names aren't real, as they bear resemblance to the names of characters like Sesame Street 's Elmo.

Online social networks have also become a platform for spread of rumors, one such study has analyzed rumors in retrospect. There are different forms where user data in social networks are accessed and updated without a user's permission.

Citizens and governments have been concerned with misuse of social networking services by children and teenagers, in particular in relation to online sexual predators. For instance, there is a study which suggests the children are not too far from inappropriate content on YouTube.

It was deemed "the largest crimes against children case brought anywhere by anyone". According to the article, High Tech or High Risks: Moral Panics About Girls Online, it suggests that young girls are more at risks because they are often represented through "products of play" in transgressive poses because they often manipulate other users online by making themselves look older than what they actually appear which can attract sexual predators.

Many parents of teenage girls worry about their safety online because of the many manipulations there are online and on social networking sites. Social networking can also be a risk to child safety in another way; parents can get addicted to games and neglect their children. One instance in South Korea resulted in the death of a child from starvation. Social networking sites such as Facebook are occasionally used to emotionally abuse, harass or bully individuals, either by posting defamatory statements or by forwarding private digital photos or videos that can have an adverse impact on the individuals depicted in the videos.

Such actions are often referred to as "trolling". Confrontations in the real world can also be transferred to the online world. Individuals troll for many reasons.

The psychology behind why people troll according to Psychology Today is due to anonymity, perceived obscurity, and a perceived lack of consequences for online misbehavior.

Trolls may also do their activities due to a perceived majority status, social identity salience and due to a sense by the troll that she or he is surrounded by online 'friends'. Trolls may also engage in harmful acts due to desensitization or negative personality traits Fox, Trolling is a prominent issue in the s, an as the Internet and social media is consistently expanding and more individuals sign up to social networking sites, more people come under fire and become the target of trolls.

As more people sign up to social networking sites, more celebrities are also becoming more prominent on these sites. With a variety of celebrities joining social networking sites, trolls tend to target abuse towards them.

With some famous people gaining an influx of negative comments and slew of abuse from trolls it causes them to 'quit' social media. One prime example of a celebrity quitting social media is Stephen Fry. He left Twitter due to "too much aggression and unkindness around" emphasizing how trolls can negatively impact people's lives Cohen, As trolling can lead to celebrities deleting their social networks such as Twitter, it emphasizes how trolls can win, and can ruin people's lives. While trolls believe that they do not face consequences and can troll others on the Internet without repercussions, in the s, due to high-profile cases where cyberbullies have allegedly been factors in suicides attributed to bullying , more laws have been put in place by governments.

Trolls can face going to prison for certain actions that they take on the Internet, such as spreading hate speech such as racist messages. One of the highest profile cases is racist trolling. Racist trolling has seen individuals been sent to prison for Tweets they have sent that to them may have seemed harmless and not racist. One case of this in recent years is Liam Stacey who was jailed for fifty-six days for tweeting offensive messages such as 'Muamba is dead, hahahaha', referring to when footballer Fabrice Muamba collapsed during a professional football game for Bolton Wanders Williams, Online bullying, also called cyberbullying , is a relatively common occurrence and it can often result in emotional trauma for the victim.

The teenager expresses frustration towards networking sites like MySpace because it causes drama and too much emotional stress. Individuals are given the power to post offensive remarks or pictures that could potentially cause a great amount of emotional pain for another individual. Interpersonal communication has been a growing issue as more and more people have turned to social networking as a means of communication. Further, social networking sites have become popular sites for youth culture to explore themselves, relationships, and share cultural artifacts".

Stated by Baroness Greenfield, an Oxford University neuroscientist, "My fear is that these technologies are infantilizing the brain into the state of small children who are attracted by buzzing noises and bright lights, who have a small attention span and who live for the moment".

The convenience that social network sites give users to communicate with one another can also damage their interpersonal communication. Sherry Turkle, the founder and director of the MIT Initiative on Technology and Self, stated, "Networked, we are together, but so lessened are our expectations of each other that we feel utterly alone.

And there is the risk that we come to see others as objects to be accessed--and only for the parts we find useful, comforting, or amusing". They become confused about companionship". As social networking sites have risen in popularity over the past years, people have been spending an excessive amount of time on the Internet in general and social networking sites in specific.

This has led researchers to debate the establishment of Internet addiction as an actual clinical disorder. In a Newsweek article, Johannah Cornblatt explains "Social-networking sites like Facebook and MySpace may provide people with a false sense of connection that ultimately increases loneliness in people who feel alone.

Cacioppo, a neuroscientist at the University of Chicago, claims that social networking can foster feelings of sensitivity to disconnection, which can lead to loneliness. The researchers found that online social networking plays a positive role in subjective well-being when the networking is used to facilitate physical interactions, but networking activities that do not facilitate face-to-face interactions tend to erode trust, and this erosion can then negatively affect subjective well-being independent of the online social interaction itself.

Sabatini and Sarracino conclude that "The overall effect of networking on individual welfare is significantly negative. There has been rapid growth in the number of U.

The number of published applications has been growing rapidly since There are now [ when? As many as 7, applications may be currently on file including those that haven't been published yet.

It has been reported that social networking patents are important for the establishment of new start-up companies. A networked computer system provides various services for assisting users in locating, and establishing contact relationships with, other users. For example, in one embodiment, users can identify other users based on their affiliations with particular schools or other organizations.

The system also provides a mechanism for a user to selectively establish contact relationships or connections with other users, and to grant permissions for such other users to view personal information of the user. The system may also include features for enabling users to identify contacts of their respective contacts. In addition, the system may automatically notify users of personal information updates made by their respective contacts.

The patent has garnered attention due to its similarity to the popular social networking site Facebook. What types of speech workers are protected from being fired for on social networking websites has been an issue for American companies with over complaints as of on this topic having been made to the National Labor Relations Board NLRB. Most of the existing SNS sites use one or multiple dedicated data centers to serve all its users.

Such infrastructure-based systems faces over-provisioning during non-peak hours, while may encounter service outage during peak hours, due to the highly dynamic of SNS users' activities. There are several proposals, leveraging a decentralized architecture to ensure the scalability of SNS sites with low infrastructure cost.

There is a growing number of social network users who decide to quit their user account by committing a so-called virtual identity suicide or Web 2. A study in the journal Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking investigated this phenomenon from the perspective of Facebook users. Facebook quitters were found to be more concerned about privacy, more addicted to the Internet and more conscientious. Sites such as Facebook are becoming increasingly popular tools for methods of ending relationships and friendships, proving that although new media is being used as a tool for connecting with individuals, it is now creating new problems associated with disconnecting from others.

The problem with that is that you are left with no closure and the entire online world now knows you are no longer in a relationship. This creates further problems, as it is even more crucial to 'save face' after one's relationship has been broken when one is connected to new media technologies.

Erving Goffman argues that all social life boils down to face-to-face interactions. These interpersonal interactions are mediated by what Goffman terms as "face-work", which are the actions undertaken to maintain consistency with one's face, and to uphold the expressive order of social situations. Individuals attempt to keep a positive image of the self when interacting with others, and in order to do so, they may have to alter their appearance or manner in some way.

If someone breaks up with you, you can actively choose what "face" you want to present to your friends, including your ex.

You can choose to either post sad updates, which is the most natural thing you would want to do, or you can "save face" by posting happy updates and pictures of you going out with your friends.

Even though you may be absolutely heartbroken within, Facebook allows you to hide your true feelings from the online world, and from your ex, by manipulating your profile. New media is being utilized as a tool for helping users present a desirable image of themselves, enabling them to save face in difficult situations.

Many people find that the only way to really move on from a past relationship is to cut the person out of their life completely. Social media has made this process much more complicated and difficult. Many digital social networking sites leave behind a trail of a user's interactions, [] so deleting content may be an arduous process, more difficult than simply burning or throwing away an entire box of letters, photos, and mementos.

The increasing number of messages and social relationships embedded in SNS also increases the amount of social information demanding a reaction from SNS users. This dark side of SNS usage is called 'social overload'. The psychological and behavioral consequences of social overload include perceptions of SNS exhaustion, low user satisfaction, and high intentions to reduce or stop using SNS.

Smart phones and social networking services enable us to stay connected continuously with people around us or far away from us, which however is sometimes the root of our anxiety in social life. The eager to know what everyone was saying and the tendency to see if anyone shared new things are typical "symptoms" of this anxiety called FoMO.

There is a study that examined possible connections between FOMO and social media engagement indicating that FoMO was associated with lower need satisfaction, mood and life satisfaction. Another type of social anxiety is the FoBM fear of being missed.

The FoBM is a counterpart of FoMO; however, compared to FoMO it may have a more serious impact since the exclusion from the conversation can result in continuous exclusion later. The number of contacts on a social platform is sometimes considered an indicator of social capital. However, studies [] [] show it is rather an indicator of low self-esteem and of a form of social compensation.

Indeed, people tend to add friends to compensate low self-esteem and there is a high correlation between the number of "friends" on social media platforms and feeling social anxiety, leading to symptoms of major depression and dysthymia. If we consider this aspect with regards to the relationships maintained through social media platforms, we can easily point out a change in our understanding of friendship.

As a matter of fact, online platforms and social media services altered the old definition of friendship. Indeed, friendship "redoubleth joys, and cutteth griefs in halves" as stated by Francis Bacon.

When it comes to friendship, we can wonder whether friendship on online platforms is a real form of friendship, or it is just a sort of metaphor to compensate for social communication problems. Actually, a lot of changes can be spotted in its old definition compared to the one in the era of social media. Friendship used to relate to the public sphere as explained in Nicomachean Ethics , however nowadays friendship is rather exposed publicly on different social media platforms.

Moreover, a study [] shows that Facebook users know only a bit more than two thirds of theirs "friends" on the platform, meaning that they didn't know one third of the individuals in their friend-lists. This raises security and privacy issues and the project researchers alerted participants that they would better unfriend people they didn't recognize.

Social networking services are increasingly being used in legal and criminal investigations. Information posted on sites such as MySpace and Facebook has been used by police forensic profiling , probation, and university officials to prosecute users of said sites.

In some situations, content posted on MySpace has been used in court. Facebook is increasingly being used by school administrations and law enforcement agencies as a source of evidence against student users. This site being the number one online destination for college students, allows users to create profile pages with personal details. These pages can be viewed by other registered users from the same school, which often include resident assistants and campus police who have signed up for the service.

Social networking is more recently being used by various government agencies. Social networking tools serve as a quick and easy way for the government to get the suggestion of the public and to keep the public updated on their activity, however this comes with a significant risk of abuse, for example to cultivate a culture of fear such as that outlined in Nineteen Eighty-Four or THX The Centers for Disease Control demonstrated the importance of vaccinations on the popular children's site Whyville and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has a virtual island on Second Life where people can explore underground caves or explore the effects of global warming.

The NSA is taking advantage of them all. Human Space Flight Plans Committee , whose goal it is to ensure that the nation is on a vigorous and sustainable path to achieving its boldest aspirations in space. Social networks connect people at low cost; this can be beneficial for entrepreneurs and small businesses looking to expand their contact bases. These networks often act as a customer relationship management tool for companies selling products and services.

Companies can also use social networks for advertising in the form of banners and text ads. Since businesses operate globally, social networks can make it easier to keep in touch with contacts around the world. Applications for social networking sites have extended toward businesses and brands are creating their own, high functioning sites, a sector known as brand networking.

It is the idea that a brand can build its consumer relationship by connecting their consumers to the brand image on a platform that provides them relative content, elements of participation, and a ranking or score system. Brand networking is a new way to capitalize on social trends as a marketing tool.

The power of social networks it beginning to permeate into internal culture of businesses where they are finding uses for collaboration , file sharing and knowledge transfer. The term " enterprise social software " is becoming increasingly popular for these types of applications.

Many social networks provide an online environment for people to communicate and exchange personal information for dating purposes. Intentions can vary from looking for a one time date, short-term relationships, and long-term relationships. This usually includes a user's age, gender, location, interests, and perhaps a picture.

Releasing very personal information is usually discouraged for safety reasons. Online dating sites are similar to social networks in the sense that users create profiles to meet and communicate with others, but their activities on such sites are for the sole purpose of finding a person of interest to date.

Social networks do not necessarily have to be for dating; many users simply use it for keeping in touch with friends, and colleagues. However, an important difference between social networks and online dating services is the fact that online dating sites usually require a fee, where social networks are free. Many popular online dating services such as Match. Yet the vast majority of school districts have stringent rules against nearly all forms of social networking during the school day—even though students and parents report few problem behaviors online.

Social networks focused on supporting relationships between teachers and their students are now used for learning, educator professional development, and content sharing. HASTAC is a collaborative social network space for new modes of learning and research in higher education, K, and lifelong learning; Ning supports teachers; TermWiki , Learn Central, [] TeachStreet and other sites are being built to foster relationships that include educational blogs, eportfolios, formal and ad hoc communities, as well as communication such as chats, discussion threads, and synchronous forums.

These sites also have content sharing and rating features. Social networks are also emerging as online yearbooks , both public and private. One such service is MyYearbook , which allows anyone from the general public to register and connect.

A new trend emerging is private label yearbooks accessible only by students, parents, and teachers of a particular school, similar to Facebook 's beginning within Harvard. The use of virtual currency systems inside social networks create new opportunities for global finance. Hub Culture operates a virtual currency Ven used for global transactions among members, product sales [] and financial trades in commodities and carbon credits.

The introduction of carbon to the calculation price of the currency made Ven the first and only currency that is linked to the environment. Social networks are beginning to be adopted by healthcare professionals as a means to manage institutional knowledge, disseminate peer to peer knowledge and to highlight individual physicians and institutions. The advantage of using a dedicated medical social networking site is that all the members are screened against the state licensing board list of practitioners.

For alcoholics and addicts, SoberCircle gives people in recovery the ability to communicate with one another and strengthen their recovery through the encouragement of others who can relate to their situation. DailyStrength is also a website that offers support groups for a wide array of topics and conditions, including the support topics offered by PatientsLikeMe and SoberCircle. Some social networks aim to encourage healthy lifestyles in their users.

SparkPeople and HealthUnlocked offer community and social networking tools for peer support during weight loss. Other aspects of social network usage include the analysis of data coming from existing social networks such as Twitter to discover large crowd concentration events based on tweets location statistical analysis and disseminate the information to e. Social networking sites have recently showed a value in social and political movements.

Egyptian activists have credited social networking sites with providing a platform for planning protest and sharing news from Tahrir Square in real time. By presenting a platform for thousands of people to instantaneously share videos of mainly events featuring brutality, social networking can be a vital tool in revolutions.

Perhaps the most significant political application of social media is Barack Obama's election campaign in It was the first of its kind, as it successfully incorporated social media into its campaign winning strategy, evolving the way of political campaigns forever more in the ever-changing technological world we find ourselves in today. His campaign won by engaging everyday people and empowering volunteers, donors and advocates, through social networks, text messaging, email messaging and online videos.

In , when Obama first announced his candidacy, there was no such thing as an iPhone or Twitter. However, a year later, Obama was sending out voting reminders to thousands of people through Twitter, showing just how fast social media moves. Obama's campaign was current and needed to be successful incorporating social media, as social media acts best and is most effective in real time. Building up to the presidential election, it was interesting to see how strong the influence of social media would be following the campaigns, where Obama's winning campaign had been social media-heavy, whereas McCain's campaign did not really grasp social media.

JFK was the first president who really understood television, and similarly, Obama is the first president to fully understand the power of social media. Other political campaigns have followed on from Obama's successful social media campaigns, recognizing the power of social media and incorporating it as a key factor embedded within their political campaigns, for example Donald Trump's presidential electoral campaign, Dan Pfeiffer, Obama's former digital and social media guru, commented that Donald Trump is "way better at the internet than anyone else in the GOP which is partly why he is winning".

Social media is therefore a very effective way in which politicians can connect with a younger audience through their political campaigns. Crowdsourcing social media platform, such as Design Contest , Arcbazar , Tongal , combined group of professional freelancers , such as designers , and help them communicate with business owners interested in their suggestion.

This process is often used to subdivide tedious work or to fund-raise startup companies and charities, and can also occur offline. There are a number of projects that aim to develop free and open source software to use for social networking services.

The following is a list of the largest social networking services, in order by number of active users, as of January , as published by Statista: Media related to Social networking services at Wikimedia Commons.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. By the s, a growing number of scholars worked to combine the different tracks and traditions.

Also independently active in the Harvard Social Relations department at the time were Charles Tilly , who focused on networks in political and community sociology and social movements, and Stanley Milgram , who developed the "six degrees of separation" thesis.

Beginning in the late s, social network analysis experienced work by sociologists, political scientists, and physicists such as Duncan J. Christakis , James H. Fowler , and others, developing and applying new models and methods to emerging data available about online social networks, as well as "digital traces" regarding face-to-face networks.

In general, social networks are self-organizing , emergent , and complex , such that a globally coherent pattern appears from the local interaction of the elements that make up the system. However, a global network analysis [34] of, for example, all interpersonal relationships in the world is not feasible and is likely to contain so much information as to be uninformative.

Practical limitations of computing power, ethics and participant recruitment and payment also limit the scope of a social network analysis. Thus, social networks are analyzed at the scale relevant to the researcher's theoretical question.

Although levels of analysis are not necessarily mutually exclusive , there are three general levels into which networks may fall: At the micro-level, social network research typically begins with an individual, snowballing as social relationships are traced, or may begin with a small group of individuals in a particular social context. A dyad is a social relationship between two individuals.

Network research on dyads may concentrate on structure of the relationship e. Add one individual to a dyad, and you have a triad. The discord in a rivalrous love triangle is an example of an unbalanced triad, likely to change to a balanced triad by a change in one of the relations. The dynamics of social friendships in society has been modeled by balancing triads.

The study is carried forward with the theory of signed graphs. The smallest unit of analysis in a social network is an individual in their social setting, i. Egonetwork analysis focuses on network characteristics such as size, relationship strength, density, centrality , prestige and roles such as isolates, liaisons , and bridges. Subset levels of network research problems begin at the micro-level, but may cross over into the meso-level of analysis.

Subset level research may focus on distance and reachability, cliques , cohesive subgroups, or other group actions or behavior. In general, meso-level theories begin with a population size that falls between the micro- and macro-levels. However, meso-level may also refer to analyses that are specifically designed to reveal connections between micro- and macro-levels.

Meso-level networks are low density and may exhibit causal processes distinct from interpersonal micro-level networks. Formal organizations are social groups that distribute tasks for a collective goal.

Intra-organizational networks themselves often contain multiple levels of analysis, especially in larger organizations with multiple branches, franchises or semi-autonomous departments. In these cases, research is often conducted at a workgroup level and organization level, focusing on the interplay between the two structures.

Exponential random graph models of social networks became state-of-the-art methods of social network analysis in the s. This framework has the capacity to represent social-structural effects commonly observed in many human social networks, including general degree -based structural effects commonly observed in many human social networks as well as reciprocity and transitivity , and at the node-level, homophily and attribute -based activity and popularity effects, as derived from explicit hypotheses about dependencies among network ties.

Parameters are given in terms of the prevalence of small subgraph configurations in the network and can be interpreted as describing the combinations of local social processes from which a given network emerges.

These probability models for networks on a given set of actors allow generalization beyond the restrictive dyadic independence assumption of micro-networks, allowing models to be built from theoretical structural foundations of social behavior.

A scale-free network is a network whose degree distribution follows a power law , at least asymptotically. In network theory a scale-free ideal network is a random network with a degree distribution that unravels the size distribution of social groups. One notable characteristic in a scale-free network is the relative commonness of vertices with a degree that greatly exceeds the average. The highest-degree nodes are often called "hubs", and may serve specific purposes in their networks, although this depends greatly on the social context.

Another general characteristic of scale-free networks is the clustering coefficient distribution, which decreases as the node degree increases. This distribution also follows a power law. Rather than tracing interpersonal interactions, macro-level analyses generally trace the outcomes of interactions, such as economic or other resource transfer interactions over a large population.

Large-scale network is a term somewhat synonymous with "macro-level" as used, primarily, in social and behavioral sciences, in economics. Originally, the term was used extensively in the computer sciences see large-scale network mapping. Most larger social networks display features of social complexity , which involves substantial non-trivial features of network topology , with patterns of complex connections between elements that are neither purely regular nor purely random see, complexity science , dynamical system and chaos theory , as do biological , and technological networks.

Such complex network features include a heavy tail in the degree distribution , a high clustering coefficient , assortativity or disassortativity among vertices, community structure see stochastic block model , and hierarchical structure. In the case of agency-directed networks these features also include reciprocity , triad significance profile TSP, see network motif , and other features. In contrast, many of the mathematical models of networks that have been studied in the past, such as lattices and random graphs , do not show these features.

Various theoretical frameworks have been imported for the use of social network analysis. The most prominent of these are Graph theory , Balance theory , Social comparison theory , and more recently, the Social identity approach. Few complete theories have been produced from social network analysis. The basis of Heterophily Theory was the finding in one study that more numerous weak ties can be important in seeking information and innovation, as cliques have a tendency to have more homogeneous opinions as well as share many common traits.

This homophilic tendency was the reason for the members of the cliques to be attracted together in the first place. However, being similar, each member of the clique would also know more or less what the other members knew. To find new information or insights, members of the clique will have to look beyond the clique to its other friends and acquaintances.

This is what Granovetter called "the strength of weak ties". In the context of networks, social capital exists where people have an advantage because of their location in a network. Contacts in a network provide information, opportunities and perspectives that can be beneficial to the central player in the network.

Most social structures tend to be characterized by dense clusters of strong connections. Non-redundant information is most often obtained through contacts in different clusters. An ideal network structure has a vine and cluster structure, providing access to many different clusters and structural holes.

Networks rich in structural holes are a form of social capital in that they offer information benefits. The main player in a network that bridges structural holes is able to access information from diverse sources and clusters. This concept is similar to Mark Granovetter's theory of weak ties , which rests on the basis that having a broad range of contacts is most effective for job attainment. Communication Studies are often considered a part of both the social sciences and the humanities, drawing heavily on fields such as sociology , psychology , anthropology , information science , biology , political science , and economics as well as rhetoric , literary studies , and semiotics.

Many communication concepts describe the transfer of information from one source to another, and can thus be conceived of in terms of a network. Barnes' day, a " community " referred to a specific geographic location and studies of community ties had to do with who talked, associated, traded, and attended church with whom. Today, however, there are extended "online" communities developed through telecommunications devices and social network services. Such devices and services require extensive and ongoing maintenance and analysis, often using network science methods.

Community development studies, today, also make extensive use of such methods. Complex networks require methods specific to modelling and interpreting social complexity and complex adaptive systems , including techniques of dynamic network analysis. Mechanisms such as Dual-phase evolution explain how temporal changes in connectivity contribute to the formation of structure in social networks.

In criminology and urban sociology , much attention has been paid to the social networks among criminal actors. For example, Andrew Papachristos [50] has studied gang murders as a series of exchanges between gangs. Murders can be seen to diffuse outwards from a single source, because weaker gangs cannot afford to kill members of stronger gangs in retaliation, but must commit other violent acts to maintain their reputation for strength.

Diffusion of ideas and innovations studies focus on the spread and use of ideas from one actor to another or one culture and another. This line of research seeks to explain why some become "early adopters" of ideas and innovations, and links social network structure with facilitating or impeding the spread of an innovation.

In demography , the study of social networks has led to new sampling methods for estimating and reaching populations that are hard to enumerate for example, homeless people or intravenous drug users. For example, respondent driven sampling is a network-based sampling technique that relies on respondents to a survey recommending further respondents.

The field of sociology focuses almost entirely on networks of outcomes of social interactions. More narrowly, economic sociology considers behavioral interactions of individuals and groups through social capital and social "markets".

Sociologists, such as Mark Granovetter, have developed core principles about the interactions of social structure, information, ability to punish or reward, and trust that frequently recur in their analyses of political, economic and other institutions.

Granovetter examines how social structures and social networks can affect economic outcomes like hiring, price, productivity and innovation and describes sociologists' contributions to analyzing the impact of social structure and networks on the economy.

Analysis of social networks is increasingly incorporated into health care analytics , not only in epidemiological studies but also in models of patient communication and education, disease prevention, mental health diagnosis and treatment, and in the study of health care organizations and systems.

Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural , social , and built environments.

The scientific philosophy of human ecology has a diffuse history with connections to geography , sociology , psychology , anthropology , zoology , and natural ecology. Studies of language and linguistics , particularly evolutionary linguistics , focus on the development of linguistic forms and transfer of changes, sounds or words, from one language system to another through networks of social interaction. In the study of literary systems, network analysis has been applied by Anheier, Gerhards and Romo, [55] De Nooy, [56] and Senekal, [57] to study various aspects of how literature functions.

The basic premise is that polysystem theory, which has been around since the writings of Even-Zohar , can be integrated with network theory and the relationships between different actors in the literary network, e.

Research studies of formal or informal organization relationships , organizational communication , economics , economic sociology , and other resource transfers. Social networks have also been used to examine how organizations interact with each other, characterizing the many informal connections that link executives together, as well as associations and connections between individual employees at different organizations.

Social capital is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central, transactions are marked by reciprocity , trust , and cooperation , and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good. Social capital is a sociological concept about the value of social relations and the role of cooperation and confidence to achieve positive outcomes. The term refers to the value one can get from their social ties.

For example, newly arrived immigrants can make use of their social ties to established migrants to acquire jobs they may otherwise have trouble getting e.

A positive relationship exists between social capital and the intensity of social network use. In many organizations , members tend to focus their activities inside their own groups, which stifles creativity and restricts opportunities. A player whose network bridges structural holes has an advantage in detecting and developing rewarding opportunities. British philosopher and political economist John Stuart Mill , writes, "it is hardly possible to overrate the value Such communication [is] one of the primary sources of progress.

This in turn, helps an individual's career development and advancement. A social capital broker also reaps control benefits of being the facilitator of information flow between contacts. In the case of consulting firm Eden McCallum, the founders were able to advance their careers by bridging their connections with former big three consulting firm consultants and mid-size industry firms. There has been research that both substantiates and refutes the benefits of information brokerage.

A study of high tech Chinese firms by Zhixing Xiao found that the control benefits of structural holes are "dissonant to the dominant firm-wide spirit of cooperation and the information benefits cannot materialize due to the communal sharing values" of such organizations. Information and control benefits of structural holes are still valuable in firms that are not quite as inclusive and cooperative on the firm-wide level.

In , Ronald Burt studied managers who ran the supply chain for one of America's largest electronics companies. He found that managers who often discussed issues with other groups were better paid, received more positive job evaluations and were more likely to be promoted.

Computer networks combined with social networking software produces a new medium for social interaction [67]. A relationship over a computerized social networking service can be characterized by context, direction, and strength.

The content of a relation refers to the resource that is exchanged. In a computer mediated communication context, social pairs exchange different kinds of information, including sending a data file or a computer program as well as providing emotional support or arranging a meeting.

With the rise of electronic commerce , information exchanged may also correspond to exchanges of money, goods or services in the "real" world. In addition, the sheer size and the volatile nature of social media has given rise to new network metrics.

A key concern with networks extracted from social media is the lack of robustness of network metrics given missing data.

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Retrieved 26 July Many communication concepts describe the transfer of information from one source to another, and can thus be conceived of in terms of a network.

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Privacy on social networking sites can be undermined by many factors. Interpersonal communication has been a growing issue as more and more people have turned to social networking as a means of communication. A key concern with networks extracted from social media is the lack of robustness of network metrics given missing data. Archived from the original on 29 December Social network dating software Network Analysis and Mining.