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Traffic declined, and the port closed in Manchester lost , jobs in manufacturing between and Regeneration began in the late s, with initiatives such as the Metrolink , the Bridgewater Concert Hall , the Manchester Arena , and in Salford the rebranding of the port as Salford Quays. Two bids to host the Olympic Games were part of a process to raise the international profile of the city.
Manchester has a history of attacks attributed to Irish Republicans, including the Manchester Martyrs of , arson in , a series of explosions in , and two bombs in On Saturday 15 June , the Provisional Irish Republican Army IRA carried out the Manchester bombing , the detonation of a large bomb next to a department store in the city centre.
Spurred by the investment after the bomb, and aided by the XVII Commonwealth Games , Manchester's city centre has undergone extensive regeneration. The Manchester Arndale is the UK's largest city centre shopping centre. Large sections of the city dating from the s have been either demolished and re-developed or modernised with the use of glass and steel.
Old mills have been converted into modern apartments, Hulme has undergone extensive regeneration programmes, and million-pound lofthouse apartments have since been developed. The metre tall, storey Beetham Tower , completed in , is the tallest building in the UK outside London and when finished was the highest residential accommodation in Europe.
Since around the turn of the 21st century, Manchester has been regarded by sections of the international press,  British public,  and government ministers as being the second city of the United Kingdom.
The earlier Greater Manchester County Council was abolished in , so it is effectively a unitary authority. Manchester has been a member of the English Core Cities Group since its inception in The town of Manchester was granted a charter by Thomas Grelley in , but lost its borough status in a court case of Until the 19th century local government was largely in the hands of manorial courts , the last of which was dissolved in From a very early time , the township of Manchester lay within the historic or ceremonial county boundaries of Lancashire.
Manchester later formed its own Poor Law Union using the name "Manchester". Manchester regained its borough status in , and comprised the townships of Beswick , Cheetham Hill , Chorlton upon Medlock and Hulme. In , Manchester was granted "city status" in the United Kingdom. In , the city became a county borough as did many larger Lancashire towns, and therefore not governed by Lancashire County Council.
In November , it was announced that Greater Manchester would receive a new directly elected Mayor. The Mayor would have fiscal control over health, transport, housing and police in the area. The city centre is on the east bank of the River Irwell , near its confluences with the Rivers Medlock and Irk , and is relatively low-lying, being between 35 to 42 metres to feet above sea level. Much of the inner city, especially in the south, is flat, offering extensive views from many highrise buildings in the city of the foothills and moors of the Pennines, which can often be capped with snow in the winter months.
Manchester's geographic features were highly influential in its early development as the world's first industrial city. These features are its climate, its proximity to a seaport at Liverpool , the availability of water power from its rivers, and its nearby coal reserves. The name Manchester, though officially applied only to the metropolitan district within Greater Manchester, has been applied to other, wider divisions of land, particularly across much of the Greater Manchester county and urban area.
For purposes of the Office for National Statistics , Manchester forms the most populous settlement within the Greater Manchester Urban Area , the United Kingdom's third-largest conurbation.
There is a mixture of high-density urban and suburban locations in Manchester. The largest open space in the city, at around hectares acres ,  is Heaton Park. Manchester is contiguous on all sides with several large settlements, except for a small section along its southern boundary with Cheshire. The M60 and M56 motorways pass through the south of Manchester, through Northenden and Wythenshawe respectively.
Heavy rail lines enter the city from all directions, the principal destination being Manchester Piccadilly station. Manchester experiences a temperate Oceanic climate , like much of the British Isles, with mild summers and cool winters. Summer daytime temperatures regularly top 20 Celsius, typically reaching 25 Celsius on sunny days throughout July and August in particular.
In more recent years, temperatures now reach over 30 Celsius on occasions. There is regular but generally light precipitation throughout the year. The city's average annual rainfall is Manchester lies at the centre of a green belt region that extends into the wider surrounding counties, which is in place to reduce urban sprawl, prevent the towns in the conurbation from further convergence, protect the identity of outlying communities, and preserve nearby countryside.
This is achieved by restricting inappropriate development within the designated areas, and imposing stricter conditions on permitted building. Racial structure, according to the census . Religious beliefs, according to the census . Historically the population of Manchester began to increase rapidly during the Victorian era , peaking at , in From then the population began to decrease rapidly, due to slum clearance and the increased building of social housing overspill estates by Manchester City Council after the Second World War such as Hattersley and Langley.
The Mid-Year Estimate for the population of Manchester was , This was an increase of 7,, or 1. Since , the population has grown by 87,, or Manchester was the third fastest-growing of the areas in the census. This represents a slower rate of growth than the previous decade. The Greater Manchester Built-up Area had a population of 2,, est. An estimated 2,, people live in Greater Manchester est. Between the beginning of July and end of June Mid-Year Estimate date , births exceeded deaths by 4, Migration internal and international and other changes accounted for a net increase of 3, people between July and June Compared to Greater Manchester and England, Manchester has a younger population, with a particularly large 20—35 age group.
The proportion of people with no religious affiliation increased by Manchester has a disproportionately high number of gay and lesbian people. In terms of ethnic composition , the City of Manchester has the highest non-white proportion of any district in Greater Manchester. Statistics from the census showed that The area also attracts large numbers of Chinese students to the city who, in attending the local universities,  contribute to Manchester having the third-largest Chinese population in Europe.
The Manchester Larger Urban Zone , a Eurostat measure of the functional city-region approximated to local government districts, has a population of 2,, in The economy grew relatively strongly between and , where growth was 2. As the UK economy continues to recover from the downturn experienced in —10, Manchester compares favourably to other geographies according to the latest figures. Manchester's civic leadership has a reputation for business acumen.
KPMG's competitive alternative report also found that Manchester was Europe's most affordable city featured, ranking slightly better than Dutch cities, Rotterdam and Amsterdam , who all have a cost of living index less than Manchester is a city of contrast, where some of the country's most deprived and most affluent neighbourhoods can be found.
Women fare better in Manchester than the rest of the country in terms of equal pay to men. The per hours worked gender pay gap is 3.
Manchester has the largest UK office market outside London according to GVA Grimley with a quarterly office uptake averaged over —14 of approximately , square ft — equivalent to the quarterly office uptake of Leeds , Liverpool and Newcastle combined and 90, square feet more than the nearest rival Birmingham. Manchester's buildings display a variety of architectural styles, ranging from Victorian to contemporary architecture. The widespread use of red brick characterises the city, much of the architecture of which harks back to its days as a global centre for the cotton trade.
Manchester Town Hall , in Albert Square , was built in the Gothic revival style and is considered to be one of the most important Victorian buildings in England. It remains the tallest building outside London and has been described as the United Kingdom's only true skyscraper outside the capital.
Two large squares hold many of Manchester's public monuments. The cenotaph in St Peter's Square is Manchester's main memorial to its war dead; designed by Edwin Lutyens , it follows his design for the original on Whitehall in London. Manchester Liverpool Road was the world's first purpose-built passenger and goods railway station,  and served as the Manchester terminus on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway — the world's first inter-city passenger railway.
Today the city is well served by the rail network,  and is at the centre of an extensive countywide railway network, including the West Coast Main Line , with two mainline stations: Manchester Piccadilly and Manchester Victoria. Manchester became the first city in the UK to acquire a modern light rail tram system when the Manchester Metrolink opened in The city has one of the most extensive bus networks outside London with over 50 bus companies operating in the Greater Manchester region radiating from the city.
The airport is the third busiest in the United Kingdom and the largest outside the London region. Airline services exist to many destinations in Europe, North America, the Caribbean , Africa, the Middle East and Asia with more destinations from Manchester than any other airport in Britain.
The airport has the highest rating available: A smaller airfield, City Airport Manchester , also exists 9. It was Manchester's first municipal airport , and became the site of the first Air traffic control tower in the UK, and the first municipal airfield in the UK to be licensed by the Air Ministry.
An extensive canal network, including the Manchester Ship Canal , was built to carry freight from the Industrial Revolution onward; the canals are still maintained, though now largely repurposed to leisure use.
Previously, notable Manchester acts of the s include The Hollies , Herman's Hermits , and Davy Jones of the Monkees famed in the mids for not only their albums but also their American TV show and the earlier Bee Gees , who grew up in Chorlton.
Singer-songwriter Ren Harvieu is also from Greater Manchester. Its main pop music venue is the Manchester Arena , which was voted "International Venue of the Year" in There is also a chamber orchestra , the Manchester Camerata.
Manchester is a centre for musical education, with the Royal Northern College of Music , which celebrates its 40th Anniversary since its merger, and Chetham's School of Music. Brass band music, a tradition in the north of England, is an important part of Manchester's musical heritage;  some of the UK's leading bands, such as the CWS Manchester Band and the Fairey Band , are from Manchester and surrounding areas, and the Whit Friday brass band contest takes place annually in the neighbouring areas of Saddleworth and Tameside.
Manchester has a thriving theatre, opera and dance scene, and is home to a number of large performance venues, including the Manchester Opera House , which feature large-scale touring shows and West End productions; the Palace Theatre ; and the Royal Exchange Theatre in Manchester's former cotton exchange, the largest theatre in the round space in the UK. Smaller performance spaces include the Contact Theatre and Z-arts in Hulme. The Dancehouse on Oxford Road is dedicated to dance productions.
Housing two theatre spaces, five cinemas and an art exhibition space, it replaced the Cornerhouse and The Library Theatre. Since the city has hosted the Manchester International Festival , a biennial international arts festival with a specific focus on original new work, which has included major new commissions by artists including Bjork. Manchester's museums celebrate Manchester's Roman history, rich industrial heritage and its role in the Industrial Revolution , the textile industry , the Trade Union movement, women's suffrage and football.
A reconstructed part of the Roman fort of Mamucium is open to the public in Castlefield. The Museum of Science and Industry , housed in the former Liverpool Road railway station , has a large collection of steam locomotives , industrial machinery, aircraft and a replica of the world's first stored computer program known as The Baby. The municipally owned Manchester Art Gallery on Mosley Street houses a permanent collection of European painting, and has one of Britain's most significant collections of Pre-Raphaelite paintings.
In the south of the city, the Whitworth Art Gallery displays modern art, sculpture and textiles and was recently voted Museum of the Year in The works of Stretford -born painter L. Lowry , known for his "matchstick" paintings of industrial Manchester and Salford, can be seen in both the city and Whitworth Manchester galleries, and at the Lowry art centre in Salford Quays in the neighbouring borough of Salford devotes a large permanent exhibition to his works.
These included Elizabeth Gaskell 's novel Mary Barton: The library was founded in and lays claim to being the oldest public library in the English-speaking world. Elsewhere in the city, the John Rylands Library holds an extensive collection of early printing.
The Rylands Library Papyrus P52 , believed to be the earliest extant New Testament text, is on permanent display in the library. Charles Dickens is reputed to have set his novel Hard Times in the city, and while it is partly modelled on Preston , it shows the influence of his friend Mrs Gaskell.
Also closely associated with the city is Victorian poet and novelist Isabella Banks , most famed for her novel The Manchester Man. Anthony Burgess is among the 20th century writers who made Manchester their home, he wrote the dystopian satire A Clockwork Orange in The night-time economy of Manchester has expanded significantly since about , with investment from breweries in bars, public houses and clubs, along with active support from the local authorities.
Many of the big clubs suffered problems with organised crime at that time; Haslam describes one where staff were so completely intimidated that free admission and drinks were demanded and given and drugs were openly dealt. In , Manchester was often referred to as Madchester for its rave scene.
Known for developing many talented s influential acts, it also influenced the graphic design industry via Factory artists such as Peter Saville PSA , Octavo 8vo , Central Design Station, etc. The memorabilia from this club holds a high value among collectors and fans of these artists and the club. Peter Saville was most notable for his minimalistic influence that still affects contemporary graphic design everywhere.
Since the opening of new bars and clubs, the area attracts 20, visitors each weekend  and has hosted a popular festival, Manchester Pride , each August since There are three universities in the City of Manchester. The University of Manchester is the largest full-time non-collegiate university in the United Kingdom and was created in by the merger of Victoria University of Manchester founded in and UMIST , founded in ,  though the university's logo appears to claim it was established in Manchester Metropolitan University was formed as Manchester Polytechnic on the merger of three colleges in The three Universities are grouped around Oxford Road on the southern side of the city centre, which forms Europe's largest urban higher education precinct.
One of Manchester's most notable secondary schools is the Manchester Grammar School. Established in ,  as a free grammar school next to what is now the Cathedral, it moved in to Old Hall Lane in Fallowfield, south Manchester, to accommodate the growing student body.
In the post-war period, it was a direct grant grammar school i. There are three schools nearby: The LEA also had the highest occurrence of absences, with Manchester is well known for being a city of sport. The City of Manchester Stadium was initially built as the main athletics stadium for the Commonwealth Games and was subsequently reconfigured into a football stadium before Manchester City's arrival. Manchester has hosted domestic, continental and international football competitions at Fallowfield Stadium , Maine Road , Old Trafford and the City of Manchester Stadium.
The Manchester Velodrome was built as a part of the bid for the games and has become a catalyst for British success in cycling. Manchester also hosted the World Squash Championships in ,  and also hosted the World Lacrosse Championship in July Although its influence has waned Granada had been described as 'the best commercial television company in the world'. Manchester was one of the BBC 's three main centres in England. Quays News and Manchester.
The city will also have a new terrestrial channel from January when YourTV Manchester, who won the OFCOM licence bid in February begins its first broadcast but in when That's Manchester took over to air on 31 May and launched on the freeview channel 8 service slot before moving to channel 7 in April The Guardian newspaper was founded in as The Manchester Guardian.
Its head office is still in the city, though many of its management functions were moved to London in It is free in the city centre on Thursdays and Fridays, but paid for in the suburbs. Despite its title, it is available all day. The MEN group distributes several local weekly free papers. Only The Daily Sport remains based in Manchester. At its height, 1, journalists were employed, though in the s office closures began and today the "second Fleet Street" is no more.
Manchester has formal twinning arrangements or "friendship agreements" with several places. Manchester is home to the largest group of consuls in the UK outside London. The expansion of international trade links during the Industrial Revolution led to the introduction of the first consuls in the s and since then over , from all parts of the world, have been based in Manchester. Manchester hosts consular services for most of the north of England.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city of Manchester in England. For the larger conurbation, see Greater Manchester Built-up Area. For the wider metropolitan county, see Greater Manchester.
For the city in the U. For other uses, see Manchester disambiguation. Timeline of Manchester history. Manchester from Kersal Moor , by William Wyld in , a view now dominated by chimney stacks as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution.
Politics in Manchester and Manchester City Council. Geography of Greater Manchester. North West Green Belt. PrivetVip is the perfect place to meet the love of your life. For this reason, registration is free. PrivetVip is NOT a wedding agency.
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Two incidents on buses used to transport staff to Terminal One caused the delays at Manchester Airport. Kearsley Academy A school is buying 'suitable' shoes for pupils who turn up in the wrong footwear. Noel Gallagher Noel Gallagher's daughter hits back at nasty comments about her nose.
Model Anais Gallagher has reacted to body-shaming trolls. Manchester Hundreds of Manchester's lowest-paid workers to get pay rises of up to 17 per cent.
Withington It is 10 years since my son was murdered - how much longer must I wait? Louis Brathwaite was gunned down in a William Hill bookmakers in Withington in His mother is determined to fight on for an answer. Apple Fortnite Battle Royale on iPhone is causing more concern for parents. Manchester Airport 'Looks like I might miss my flight' - frustrated passengers face minute queues at Manchester Airport departures hall. There were long delays this morning affecting check-in desks and security at Terminal 1 of the airport.
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Manchester Airport People were queuing for 90 minutes at Manchester Airport because staff couldn't get in to work Two incidents on buses used to transport staff to Terminal One caused the delays at Manchester Airport. Jose Mourinho Manchester United fans love Jose Mourinho's passion in 12 minute press conference rant Jose Mourinho gave a remarkable pre-Brighton press conference as he defended himself and his players following the Sevilla result.
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Through to the Cross underwent a gradual redesign to accommodate a bus interchange linked to the Vauxhall mainline railway and tube stations , both of which are located to the southeastern end of the cross. Manchester Airport 'Looks like I might miss my flight' - frustrated passengers face minute queues at Manchester Airport departures hall. Manchester Piccadilly and Manchester Victoria.
List of television programmes set, produced or filmed in Manchester ; Films set in Manchester ; and List of national radio programmes made in Manchester. Archived from the original on 30 March Noel Gallagher Noel Gallagher's daughter hits back at nasty comments about her nose. Manchester Airport 'Looks like I might russian dating manchester my flight' - frustrated passengers face minute queues at Manchester Airport departures hall There were long delays this morning affecting check-in desks and security at Terminal 1 of russian dating manchester airport. Archived from the original on 15 July Manchester's geographic features were highly influential in its early development as the world's first industrial city. Some of the homes in After a breakup when to start dating are in need of a serious revamp.
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