Welcome to Earth Science
When you finish, you should have a vertical stack of cards with the top card representing the youngest fossils of this rock sequence and the "TC" card at the bottom of the stack representing the oldest fossils. This topic will help you learn the basic skills of reading and interpreting maps. The oldest rock layer is marked with the letter "M" in the lower left-hand corner.
Mapping the Earth
Jellyfish relative with stony Cnidaria calcareous exoskeleton found in reef environments; extinct. Extinction of species is common; most of the species that have lived on the earth no longer exist. By matching partial sequences, the truly oldest layers with fossils can be worked out. These major concepts are part of the Denver Earth Science Project's "Paleontology and Dinosaurs" module written for students in grades Clams and oysters; many living species. Locally, physical characteristics of rocks can be compared and correlated. The study and comparison of exposed rock layers or strata in various parts of the earth led scientists in the early 19th century to propose that the rock layers could be correlated from place to place.
The complete "Paleontology and Dinosaurs" module takes approximately four weeks to teach. The "Who's On First? Scientific measurements such as radiometric dating use the natural radioactivity of certain elements found in rocks to help determine their age. Scientists also use direct evidence from observations of the rock layers themselves to help determine the relative age of rock layers.
Specific rock formations are indicative of a particular type of environment existing when the rock was being formed. For example, most limestones represent marine environments, whereas, sandstones with ripple marks might indicate a shoreline habitat or a riverbed.
Return to top The study and comparison of exposed rock layers or strata in various parts of the earth led scientists in the early 19th century to propose that the rock layers could be correlated from place to place. Locally, physical characteristics of rocks can be compared and correlated. On a larger scale, even between continents, fossil evidence can help in correlating rock layers.
The Law of Superposition, which states that in an undisturbed horizontal sequence of rocks, the oldest rock layers will be on the bottom, with successively younger rocks on top of these, helps geologists correlate rock layers around the world. This also means that fossils found in the lowest levels in a sequence of layered rocks represent the oldest record of life there.
By matching partial sequences, the truly oldest layers with fossils can be worked out. By correlating fossils from various parts of the world, scientists are able to give relative ages to particular strata. This is called relative dating. Relative dating tells scientists if a rock layer is "older" or "younger" than another. This would also mean that fossils found in the deepest layer of rocks in an area would represent the oldest forms of life in that particular rock formation.
In reading earth history, these layers would be "read" from bottom to top or oldest to most recent. If certain fossils are typically found only in a particular rock unit and are found in many places worldwide, they may be useful as index or guide fossils in determining the age of undated strata. By using this information from rock formations in various parts of the world and correlating the studies, scientists have been able to establish the geologic time scale.
This relative time scale divides the vast amount of earth history into various sections based on geological events sea encroachments, mountain-building, and depositional events , and notable biological events appearance, relative abundance, or extinction of certain life forms.
When you complete this activity, you will be able to: The first card in the sequence has "Card 1, Set A" in the lower left-hand corner and represents the bottom of the sequence. If the letters "T" and "C" represent fossils in the oldest rock layer, they are the oldest fossils, or the first fossils formed in the past for this sequence of rock layers.
Now, look for a card that has either a "T" or "C" written on it. Since this card has a common letter with the first card, it must go on top of the "TC" card.
The fossils represented by the letters on this card are "younger" than the "T" or "C" fossils on the "TC" card which represents fossils in the oldest rock layer. Sequence the remaining cards by using the same process. When you finish, you should have a vertical stack of cards with the top card representing the youngest fossils of this rock sequence and the "TC" card at the bottom of the stack representing the oldest fossils.
Starting with the top card, the letters should be in order from youngest to oldest. Return to top Procedure Set B: Each card represents a particular rock layer with a collection of fossils that are found in that particular rock stratum.
All of the fossils represented would be found in sedimentary rocks of marine origin. Figure 2-A gives some background information on the individual fossils. The letters on the other cards have no significance to the sequencing procedure and should be ignored at this time. Find a rock layer that has at least one of the fossils you found in the oldest rock layer.
This rock layer would be younger as indicated by the appearance of new fossils in the rock stratum. Keep in mind that extinction is forever.
Once an organism disappears from the sequence it cannot reappear later. Moreover, minerals and rocks are an important first step in understanding other topics in geology that will be discussed later.
In this topic we will take a look at how the Theory of Plate Tectonics developed and provide concrete evidence that support the theory. We will also focus on Earth's interior and how, through the use of seismic data, we have come to understand the different properties of plate tectonics.
In this topic we will look at surface processes and the mechanisms that help shape our planet Earth. We will also focus on agents of erosion and be able to identify their different geologic features. Moreover, this chapter will revisit sedimentary rocks and see how the sediments produced during weathering factor into the formation of the different rocks.
In this topic we will learn about the beginnings of Earth. From its early formation to present, Earth has undergone extreme changes and evolved to be one of the most unique planets in our solar system.
We will also focus on how major extinction periods throughout geologic history have changed the development of life on Earth. Khan Academy is a not-for-profit with the goal of changing education for the better by providing a free world-class education for anyone anywhere A free world-class education for anyone anywhere. Earth Science can be a challanging course. Below are some additional resources to help you along the way, prepare you for your midterm exam and the Earth Science Regents exam.
The resources below vary in content, but may prove useful throughout the year. Multi-touch books can be read with iBooks on your Mac or iPad. Books with interactive features may work best on an iPad.
Home About Topics Homework links Grades contact. Earth Science is related to the field of science called Earth Science. In this course you will be studying the different processes, relationships, mechanisms, and concepts that help us interpret our planet Earth. Mapping the Earth Mapping the Earth This topic will help you learn the basic skills of reading and interpreting maps. Latitude and Longitude I. Latitude and Longitude II.
Imsges: relative dating lab activity
Here are a few links to help you along the way.
Snails and relatives; many living species NAME:
In this topic aactivity will look at relative dating lab activity processes and the mechanisms that help shape our planet Earth. In this topic we look at the beginnings of astronomy and see how technology has allowed relative dating lab activity to gain a better understanding of our Universe. Multibranched relative best friend dating my boyfriends brother starfish; lives attached to the ocean bottom; some living species "sea lilies". The study and comparison of exposed rock layers or strata in various parts of the earth led scientists in the early 19th century to propose that the rock layers could be correlated from place to place. Jellyfish relative with stony Cnidaria calcareous exoskeleton found in reef environments; extinct NAME: State the Law of Superposition and explain how this activity illustrates this law.
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