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She wears red with a green cloak. King Richard II of England s dressed in red. Pope Innocent IV — dressed in red, the symbol of the blood of Christ. Red has been an important color in Chinese culture, religion, industry, fashion and court ritual since ancient times. Silk was woven and dyed as early as the Han Dynasty 25— BC. China had a monopoly on the manufacture of silk until the 6th century AD, when it was introduced into the Byzantine Empire.

In the 12th century, it was introduced into Europe. At the time of the Han Dynasty, Chinese red was a light red, but during the Tang dynasty new dyes and pigments were discovered. The Chinese used several different plants to make red dyes, including the flowers of the safflour Carthamus tinctorius , the thorns and stems of a variety of sorghum plant called Kao-liang, and the wood of the sappanwood tree.

For pigments, they used cinnabar , which produced the famous vermillion or "Chinese red" of Chinese lacquerware. Red played an important role in Chinese philosophy.

It was believed that the world was composed of five elements: Red was associated with fire. Each Emperor chose the color that his fortune-tellers believed would bring the most prosperity and good fortune to his reign. During the Zhou, Han, Jin, Song and Ming Dynasties, red was considered a noble color, and it was featured in all court ceremonies, from coronations to sacrificial offerings, and weddings.

Red was also a badge of rank. During the Song dynasty — , officials of the top three ranks wore purple clothes; those of the fourth and fifth wore bright red; those of the sixth and seventh wore green; and the eighth and ninth wore blue. Red was the color worn by the royal guards of honor, and the color of the carriages of the imperial family.

When the imperial family traveled, their servants and accompanying officials carried red and purple umbrellas. Of an official who had talent and ambition, it was said "he is so red he becomes purple. Red was also featured in Chinese Imperial architecture. In the Tang and Song Dynasties, gates of palaces were usually painted red, and nobles often painted their entire mansion red.

One of the most famous works of Chinese literature, A Dream of Red Mansions by Cao Xueqin — , was about the lives of noble women who passed their lives out of public sight within the walls of such mansions.

In later dynasties red was reserved for the walls of temples and imperial residences. When the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty conquered the Ming and took over the Forbidden City and Imperial Palace in Beijing, all the walls, gates, beams and pillars were painted in red and gold.

Red is not often used in traditional Chinese paintings, which are usually black ink on white paper with a little green sometimes added for trees or plants; but the round or square seals which contain the name of the artist are traditionally red. Walls, columns, windows and gates of palaces and temples were traditionally painted red. A red lacquerware tray with engraved gold foil decoration 12—13th century , from the Song dynasty.

The red coach of the Ming dynasty 's Xuande Emperor — , pulled by elephants. Dancer of the Tang dynasty , from the Astana Tombs. In Renaissance painting, red was used to draw the attention of the viewer; it was often used as the color of the cloak or costume of Christ , the Virgin Mary , or another central figure.

In Venice , Titian was the master of fine reds, particularly vermilion ; he used many layers of pigment mixed with a semi-transparent glaze, which let the light pass through, to create a more luminous color.

During the Renaissance trade routes were opened to the New World, to Asia and the Middle East, and new varieties of red pigment and dye were imported into Europe, usually through Venice , Genoa or Seville , and Marseille. Venice was the major depot importing and manufacturing pigments for artists and dyers from the end of the 15th century; the catalog of a Venetian Vendecolori , or pigment seller, from included vermilion and kermes.

There were guilds of dyers who specialized in red in Venice and other large Europeans cities. The Rubia plant was used to make the most common dye; it produced an orange-red or brick red color used to dye the clothes of merchants and artisans. For the wealthy, the dye used was kermes, made from a tiny scale insect which fed on the branches and leaves of the oak tree.

For those with even more money there was Polish Cochineal ; also known as Kermes vermilio or "Blood of Saint John", which was made from a related insect, the Margodes polonicus. It made a more vivid red than ordinary Kermes. The finest and most expensive variety of red made from insects was the "Kermes" of Armenia Armenian cochineal , also known as Persian kirmiz , made by collecting and crushing Porphyophora hamelii , an insect which lived on the roots and stems of certain grasses.

The pigment and dye merchants of Venice imported and sold all of these products and also manufactured their own color, called Venetian red , which was considered the most expensive and finest red in Europe. Its secret ingredient was arsenic , which brightened the color. But early in the 16th century, a brilliant new red appeared in Europe. The cochineal in Mexico was closely related to the Kermes varieties of Europe, but unlike European Kermes, it could be harvested several times a year, and it was ten times stronger than the Kermes of Poland.

It worked particularly well on silk, satin and other luxury textiles. In Cortes sent the first shipment to Spain. Soon cochineal began to arrive in European ports aboard convoys of Spanish galleons. At first the guilds of dyers in Venice and other cities banned cochineal to protect their local products, but the superior quality of cochineal dye made it impossible to resist.

By the beginning of the 17th century it was the preferred luxury red for the clothing of cardinals, bankers, courtesans and aristocrats. The painters of the early Renaissance used two traditional lake pigments, made from mixing dye with either chalk or alum , kermes lake, made from kermes insects, and madder lake , made from the rubia tinctorum plant. With the arrival of cochineal, they had a third, carmine , which made a very fine crimson, though it had a tendency to change color if not used carefully.

Later it was used by Thomas Gainsborough , Seurat and J. The Assumption , by Titian — The figures of God, the Virgin Mary and two apostles are highlighted by their vermilion red costumes. The young Queen Elizabeth I here in about liked to wear bright reds, before she adopted the more sober image of the "Virgin Queen". Her satin gown was probably dyed with kermes.

In Renaissance Flanders , people of all social classes wore red at celebrations. The dye came from the root of the madder plant, which tended toward orange. Woman with a wine glass , by Johannes Vermeer — Vermeer used different shades and tints of vermilion to paint the red skirt, then glazed it with madder lake to make a more luminous color.

Dyed feather headdress from the Aztec people of Mexico and Central America. For red they used cochineal , a brilliant scarlet dye made from insects. A native of Central America collecting cochineal insects from a cactus to make red dye From the 16th until the 19th century, it was a highly profitable export from Spanish Mexico to Europe.

Rembrandt used carmine lake, made of cochineal , to paint the skirt of the bride in the painting known as The Jewish bride — During the French Revolution , the Jacobins and other more radical parties adopted the red flag; it was taken from red flags hoisted by the French government to declare a state of siege or emergency.

Many of them wore a red Phrygian cap , or liberty cap, modeled after the caps worn by freed slaves in Ancient Rome. During the height of the Reign of Terror , Women wearing red caps gathered around the guillotine to celebrate each execution.

They were called the "Furies of the guillotine". The guillotines used during the Reign of Terror in and were painted red, or made of red wood.

During the Reign of Terror a statue of a woman titled liberty, painted red, was placed in the square in front of the guillotine. After the end of the Reign of Terror, France went back to the blue, white and red tricolor, whose red was taken from the red and blue colors of the city of Paris, and was the traditional color of Saint Denis , the Christian martyr and patron saint of Paris. In the midth century, red became the color of a new political and social movement, socialism. It became the most common banner of the worker's movement, of the French Revolution of , of the Paris Commune in , and of socialist parties across Europe.

As the Industrial Revolution spread across Europe, chemists and manufacturers sought new red dyes that could be used for large-scale manufacture of textiles. One popular color imported into Europe from Turkey and India in the 18th and early 19th century was Turkey red , known in France as rouge d'Adrinople. Beginning in the s, this bright red color was used to dye or print cotton textiles in England, the Netherlands and France.

Turkey red used madder as the colorant, but the process was longer and more complicated, involving multiple soaking of the fabrics in lye, olive oil, sheep's dung, and other ingredients. The fabric was more expensive but resulted in a fine bright and lasting red, similar to carmine , perfectly suited to cotton. In 19th century America, it was widely used in making the traditional patchwork quilt. In , the French chemist Pierre-Jean Robiquet discovered the organic compound alizarin , the powerful coloring ingredient of the madder root, the most popular red dye of the time.

In , German chemists Carl Graebe and Liebermann were able to synthesize alizarin, and to produce it from coal tar. The synthetic red was cheaper and more lasting than the natural dye, and the plantation of madder in Europe and import of cochineal from Latin America soon almost completely ceased. The 19th century also saw the use of red in art to create specific emotions, not just to imitate nature.

These studies were avidly followed by artists such as Vincent van Gogh. The hall is blood red and pale yellow, with a green billiard table in the center, and four lamps of lemon yellow, with rays of orange and green. Everywhere it is a battle and antithesis of the most different reds and greens. A Phrygian cap , or liberty cap, was worn by the supporters of the French Revolution of During the Reign of Terror during the later French Revolution, the "Furies of the Guillotine" cheered on each execution.

The Night Cafe , , by Vincent van Gogh , used red and green to express what Van Gogh called "the terrible human passions. In the 20th century, red was the color of Revolution; it was the color of the Bolshevik Revolution in and of the Chinese Revolution of , and later of the Cultural Revolution. In the late 19th and early 20th century, the German chemical industry invented two new synthetic red pigments: The French painter Henri Matisse — was one of the first prominent painters to use the new cadmium red.

He even tried, without success, to persuade the older and more traditional Renoir , his neighbor in the south of France, to switch from vermilion to cadmium red. Matisse was also one of the first 20th-century artists to make color the central element of the painting, chosen to evoke emotions. He wrote, "My choice of colors is not based on scientific theory; it is based on observation, upon feelings, upon the real nature of each experience I just try to find a color which corresponds to my feelings.

Later in the century, the American artist Mark Rothko — also used red, in even simpler form, in blocks of dark, somber color on large canvases, to inspire deep emotions. Rothko observed that color was "only an instrument;" his interest was "in expressing human emotions tragedy, ecstasy, doom, and so on.

Rothko also began using the new synthetic pigments, but not always with happy results. In he donated to Harvard University a series of large murals of the Passion of Christ whose predominant colors were dark pink and deep crimson.

He mixed mostly traditional colors to make the pink and crimson; synthetic ultramarine, cerulean blue, and titanium white, but he also used two new organic reds, Naphtol and Lithol. The Naphtol did well, but the Lithol slowly changed color when exposed to light. Within five years the deep pinks and reds had begun to turn light blue, and by the paintings were ruined and had to be taken down.

Bathing of a Red Horse , by the Russian symbolist painter Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin , used a bright red horse to surprise and shock viewers. It provoked a furious discussion among Russian critics.

Four Darks in Red by Mark Rothko The somber dark reds were chosen to inspire deep human emotions. Surveys show that red is the color most associated with courage.

The banner of the Christian soldiers in the First Crusade was a red cross on a white field, the St. According to Christian tradition, Saint George was a Roman soldier who was a member of the guards of the Emperor Diocletian , who refused to renounce his Christian faith and was martyred.

In , Mary, Queen of Scots , accused of treason against Queen Elizabeth I , wore a red shirt at her execution, to proclaim that she was an innocent martyr. It was widely reported in the British press as an example of courage in the face of overwhelming odds and became a British military legend. In the 19th century novel The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane , a story about the American Civil War , the red badge was the blood from a wound, by which a soldier could prove his courage.

Saint Julia wears red, the traditional color of Christian martyrs. Roman Catholic Popes wear red as the symbol of the blood of Christ. Saint George and the Dragon , by Paolo Uccello — He wears the Saint George's Cross as a cape, which was also the banner of Milan. The name was given by the British press as a symbol of courage against the odds.

The red poppy flower is worn on Remembrance Day in Commonwealth countries to honor soldiers who died in the First World War. Red is the color most commonly associated with love, followed at a great distance by pink. Both the Greeks and the Hebrews considered red a symbol of love as well as sacrifice. The Roman de la Rose , the Romance of the Rose, a thirteenth-century French poem, was one of the most popular works of literature of the Middle Ages.

It was the allegorical search by the author for a red rose in an enclosed garden, symbolizing the woman he loved, and was a description of love in all of its aspects. Saint Valentine , a Roman Catholic Bishop or priest who was martyred in about AD, seems to have had no known connection with romantic love, but the day of his martyrdom on the Roman Catholic calendar, Saint Valentine's Day February 14 , became, in the 14th century, an occasion for lovers to send messages to each other.

In recent years the celebration of Saint Valentine' s day has spread beyond Christian countries to Japan and China and other parts of the world. In Saudi Arabia , in and , religious police banned the sale of all Valentine's Day items, telling shop workers to remove any red items, as the day is considered a Christian holiday.

The Codex Manesse , a 14th-century collection of love songs. Red roses were symbol of courtly love. Fifteenth-century Illustration from the Roman de la Rose , a thirteenth-century French poem about a search for a red rose symbolizing the poet's love.

A valentine from The tradition of sending messages of love on February 14, Valentine's Day , dates back to the 14th century. Red is the color most commonly associated with joy and well being.

A red carpet is often used to welcome distinguished guests. Red is also the traditional color of seats in opera houses and theaters.

Scarlet academic gowns are worn by new Doctors of Philosophy at degree ceremonies at Oxford University and other schools. In China, it is considered the color of good fortune and prosperity, and it is the color traditionally worn by brides.

In Christian countries, it is the color traditionally worn at Christmas by Santa Claus , because in the 4th century the historic Saint Nicholas was the Greek Christian Bishop of Myra , in modern-day Turkey, and bishops then dressed in red. Scarlet academic gowns are worn by new Doctors of Philosophy at a degree ceremony at Oxford University.

In China, red is the color of happiness and celebration. The Lantern Festival in Shanghai. Santa Claus traditionally wears red, because the original Saint Nicholas was a bishop of the Greek Christian church in the 4th century. While red is the color most associated with love, it also the color most frequently associated with hatred, anger, aggression and war.

People who are angry are said to " see red. In ancient Rome , red was the color of Mars , the god of war —the planet Mars was named for him because of its red color. Red is the traditional color of warning and danger. In the Middle Ages, a red flag announced that the defenders of a town or castle would fight to defend it, and a red flag hoisted by a warship meant they would show no mercy to their enemy. Several studies have indicated that red carries the strongest reaction of all the colors, with the level of reaction decreasing gradually with the colors orange, yellow, and white, respectively.

In fact, teachers at a primary school in the UK have been told not to mark children's work in red ink because it encourages a "negative approach". Red is the international color of stop signs and stop lights on highways and intersections.

It was standardized as the international color at the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals of It was chosen partly because red is the brightest color in daytime next to orange , though it is less visible at twilight, when green is the most visible color. Red also stands out more clearly against a cool natural backdrop of blue sky, green trees or gray buildings.

But it was mostly chosen as the color for stoplights and stop signs because of its universal association with danger and warning.

The standard international stop sign, following the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals of Red is the color of a severe terrorist threat level in the United States, under the Homeland Security Advisory System. Red is the color of a UK Railway "Home" signal; the white stripe helps recognition against dark backgrounds. Red is the color that most attracts attention.

Surveys show it is the color most frequently associated with visibility, proximity, and extroverts [ citation needed ]. It is also the color most associated with dynamism and activity. Red is used in modern fashion much as it was used in Medieval painting; to attract the eyes of the viewer to the person who is supposed to be the center of attention.

People wearing red seem to be closer than those dressed in other colors, even if they are actually the same distance away. It is also commonly worn by lifeguards and others whose job requires them to be easily found.

Because red attracts attention, it is frequently used in advertising, though studies show that people are less likely to read something printed in red because they know it is advertising, and because it is more difficult visually to read than black and white text. Red by a large margin is the color most commonly associated with seduction, sexuality, eroticism and immorality, possibly because of its close connection with passion and with danger.

Red was long seen as having a dark side, particularly in Christian theology. It was associated with sexual passion, anger, sin, and the devil. Babylon the Great, the Mother of Harlots and of all the abominations of the earth: And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus.

In , Irving Berlin wrote a song, At the Devil's Ball , and the devil in red appeared more often in cartoons and movies than in religious art. In 17th century New England, red was associated with adultery. In the novel by Nathaniel Hawthorne , The Scarlet Letter , set in a Puritan New England community, a woman is punished for adultery with ostracism, her sin represented by a red letter 'A' sewn onto her clothes.

Red is still commonly associated with prostitution. Prostitutes in many cities were required to wear red to announce their profession, and houses of prostitution displayed a red light.

Beginning in the early 20th century, houses of prostitution were allowed only in certain specified neighborhoods, which became known as red-light districts. Large red-light districts are found today in Bangkok and Amsterdam. In Roman Catholicism , red represents wrath, one of the seven deadly sins. In both Christian and Hebrew tradition, red is also sometimes associated with murder or guilt, with "having blood on one's hands", or "being caught red-handed.

The Whore of Babylon , depicted in a 14th-century French illuminated manuscript. The woman appears attractive, but is wearing red under her blue garment. The red-light district in Amsterdam Red lipstick has been worn by women as a cosmetic since ancient times. In China, red simplified Chinese: It carries a largely positive connotation, being associated with courage, loyalty, honor, success, fortune, fertility, happiness, passion, and summer.

Special red packets simplified Chinese: On the more negative side, obituaries are traditionally written in red ink, and to write someone's name in red signals either cutting them out of one's life, or that they have died.

In Japan, red is a traditional color for a heroic figure. In Central Africa, Ndembu warriors rub themselves with red paint during celebrations. Since their culture sees the color as a symbol of life and health, sick people are also painted with it. Like most Central African cultures, the Ndembu see red as ambivalent, better than black but not as good as white.

The early Ottoman Turks led by the first Ottoman Sultan, Osman I , carried red banners symbolizing sovereignty, Ghazis and Sufism , until, according to legend, he saw a new red flag in his dream inlaid with a crescent. In many Asian countries, red is the traditional color for a wedding dress today, symbolizing joy and good fortune.

The bride at a traditional Chinese wedding dresses in red, the color of happiness and good fortune. A red wedding kimono, or uchikake , from Japan. Brides in Japan can wear either a white kimono or bright colors. In India and Pakistan, brides traditionally have their hands and feet decorated with red henna. A Shinto torii at Itsukushima , Japan. Buddhist monks in Tibet. In Hinduism , red is associated with Lakshmi , the goddess of wealth and embodiment of beauty. Red flags in a celebration of Muharram in Iran.

The red military uniform was adopted by the English Parliament's New Model Army in , and was still worn as a dress uniform by the British Army until the outbreak of the First World War in August Ordinary soldiers wore red coats dyed with madder , while officers wore scarlet coats dyed with the more expensive cochineal.

In the modern British army, scarlet is still worn by the Foot Guards , the Life Guards , and by some regimental bands or drummers for ceremonial purposes.

Officers and NCOs of those regiments which previously wore red retain scarlet as the color of their "mess" or formal evening jackets. The Royal Gibraltar Regiment has a scarlet tunic in its winter dress. Scarlet is worn for some full dress, military band or mess uniforms in the modern armies of a number of the countries that made up the former British Empire. The musicians of the United States Marine Corps Band wear red, following an 18th-century military tradition that the uniforms of band members are the reverse of the uniforms of the other soldiers in their unit.

Since the US Marine uniform is blue with red facings, the band wears the reverse. The uniform was adapted from the tunic of the British Army. Cadets at the Royal Military College of Canada also wear red dress uniforms. The Brazilian Marine Corps wears a red dress uniform. The scarlet uniform of the National Guards Unit of Bulgaria.

Officer of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Soldiers of the Rajput Regiment of the Indian Army. The first known team sport to feature red uniforms was chariot racing during the late Roman Empire. The earliest races were between two chariots, one driver wearing red, the other white.

Later, the number of teams was increased to four, including drivers in light green and sky blue. Twenty-five races were run in a day, with a total of one hundred chariots participating. Today many sports teams throughout the world feature red on their uniforms. Along with blue , red is the most commonly used non-white color in sports. Numerous national sports teams wear red, often through association with their national flags. A few of these teams feature the color as part of their nickname such as Spain with their association football soccer national team nicknamed La Furia Roja or "The Red Fury" and Belgium whose football team bears the nickname Rode Duivels or "Red Devils".

In Major League Baseball the color is featured in the league's logo. Major League Baseball is especially well known for red teams. During the s when red was strongly associated with communism , the modern Cincinnati team was known as the "Redlegs" and the term was used on baseball cards. After the red scare faded, the team was known as the "Reds" again. In club association football soccer , red is a commonly used color throughout the world. A number of teams' nicknames feature the color.

A red penalty card is issued to a player who commits a serious infraction: In rugby union , Ireland's Munster rugby , New Zealand's Canterbury provincial team and the Crusaders Super 14 rugby side wear red as a major color in their playing strips. In the NFL , many teams feature a shade of the color as either the primary color of team's dark "home" jersey or an alternate thereof or its "throwback" jersey.

In order to challenge to a call made on the field, coaches have to throw a red flag onto the football field. In the NBA the color is featured in the league's logo.

Eleven teams prominently feature the color or shades of the color with the Cleveland Cavaliers using a deeper shade of the color, wine. In boxing , red is often the color used on a fighter's gloves.

George Foreman wore the same red trunks he used during his loss to Muhammad Ali when he defeated Michael Moorer 20 years later to regain the title he lost. Rosso Corsa is the red international motor racing color of cars entered by teams from Italy. Since the s Italian race cars of Alfa Romeo , Maserati , Lancia , and later Ferrari and Abarth have been painted with a color known as rosso corsa "racing red".

National colors were mostly replaced in Formula One by commercial sponsor liveries in , but unlike most other teams, Ferrari always kept the traditional red, although the shade of the color varies. In martial arts, a red belt shows a high degree of proficiency, second only, in some schools, to the black belt.

An Alfa Romeo Grand Prix car in , painted Rosso Corsa , "racing red" , the traditional racing color of Italy from the s until the late s. Red is one of the most common colors used on national flags. The use of red has similar connotations from country to country: Red is the color of the flags of several countries that once belonged to the former British Empire. The British flag bears the colors red, white, and blue; it includes the cross of Saint George , patron saint of England, and the saltire of Saint Patrick , patron saint of Ireland, both of which are red on white.

Red flags are also used to symbolize storms, bad water conditions, and many other dangers. Navy flags are often red and yellow. Red is prominently featured in the flag of the United States Marine Corps.

The red on the flag of Nepal represents the floral emblem of the country, the rhododendron. Red, blue, and white are also the Pan-Slavic colors adopted by the Slavic solidarity movement of the late nineteenth century. Initially these were the colors of the Russian flag; as the Slavic movement grew, they were adopted by other Slavic peoples including Slovaks , Slovenes , and Serbs.

In Georgia adopted a new white flag , which consists of four small and one big red cross in the middle touching all four sides. Red, white, and black were the colors of the German Empire from to , and as such they came to be associated with German nationalism.

In the s they were adopted as the colors of the Nazi flag. In Mein Kampf , Hitler explained that they were "revered colors expressive of our homage to the glorious past. Red, white, green and black are the colors of Pan-Arabism and are used by many Arab countries. Red, gold, green, and black are the colors of Pan-Africanism. The Pan-African colors are borrowed from the flag of Ethiopia , one of the oldest independent African countries.

The flags of Japan and Bangladesh both have a red circle in the middle of different colored backgrounds. The flag of the Philippines has a red trapezoid on the bottom signifying blood, courage, and valor also, if the flag is inverted so that the red trapezoid is on top and the blue at the bottom, it indicates a state of war. The flag of Singapore has a red rectangle on the top. The field of the flag of Portugal is green and red. The Ottoman Empire adopted several different red flags during the six centuries of its rule, with the successor Republic of Turkey continuing the Ottoman Flag.

The flag of the Byzantine Empire from to its fall in The St George's cross was the banner of the First Crusade , then, beginning in the 13th century, the flag of England. It is the red color along with that of the Cross of Saint Patrick in the flag of the United Kingdom, and, by adoption, of the red in the flag of the United States.

This is the Grand Union Flag , the first U. It dates back to the banner of Medieval Georgia in the 5th century. The maple leaf flag of Canada, adopted in The red color comes from the Saint George's Cross of England.

The national flag of Cambodia in its present form was originally adopted in and readopted in , after the Constituent Assembly election in and restoration of the monarchy. Red color in the flag represents bravery. In the Middle Ages, ships in combat hoisted a long red streamer, called the Baucans, to signify a fight to the death. A besieged castle or city would raise a red flag to tell the attackers that they would not surrender.

The red flag appeared as a political symbol during the French Revolution , after the fall of Bastille. A law adopted by the new government on October 20, authorized the Garde Nationale to raise the red flag in the event of a riot, to signal that the Garde would imminently intervene. During a demonstration on the Champs de Mars on July 17, , the Garde Nationale fired on the crowd, killed up to fifty people.

The government was denounced by the more radical revolutionaries. In the words of his famous hymn, the Marseillaise , Rouget de Lisle wrote: Beginning in , the most radical revolutionaries adopted the red flag themselves, to symbolize the blood of those killed in the demonstrations, and to call for the repression of those they considered counter-revolutionary. During the French Revolution, many in the Paris crowds also wore a red phrygian cap , a symbol of liberty, modeled after the caps worn in ancient Rome by freed slaves; but the colors of the Revolution finally became blue, white and red.

The red in the French flag was taken from the emblem of the city of Paris, where it represented the city's patron saint, Saint Denis. Karl Marx published the Communist Manifesto in February , with little attention. However, a few days later the French Revolution of broke out, which replaced the monarchy of Louis Philippe with the Second French Republic.

In June , Paris workers, disenchanted with the new government, built barricades and raised red flags. The new government called in the French Army to put down the uprising, the first of many such confrontations between the army and the new worker's movements in Europe. Red was also the color of the movement to unify Italy, led by Giuseppe Garibaldi.

His followers were known as the camicie rosse , or redshirts during the fight for Italian Risorgimento in In , following the stunning defeat of the French Army by the Germans in the Franco-Prussian War , French workers and socialist revolutionaries seized Paris and created the Paris Commune. The Commune lasted for two months before it was crushed by the French Army, with much bloodshed.

The original red banners of the Commune became icons of the socialist revolution; in members of the French Communist Party came to Moscow and presented the new Soviet government with one of the original Commune banners; it was placed and is still in place in the tomb of Vladimir Lenin, next to his open coffin.

With the victory of the Bolsheviks in the Russian Revolution of , the red flag, with a hammer to symbolize the workers and sickle to symbolize peasants, became the official flag of Russia, and, in , of the Soviet Union. It remained so until the breakup of the Soviet Union in After the Communist Party of China took power in , the flag of China became a red flag with a large star symbolizing the Communist Party, and smaller stars symbolizing workers, peasants, the urban middle class and rural middle class.

The flag of the Communist Party of China became a red banner with a hammer and sickle , similar to that on the Soviet flag. In the s and s, other Communist regimes such as Vietnam and Laos also adopted red flags. Some Communist countries, such as Cuba, chose to keep their old flags; and other countries used red flags which had nothing to do with Communism or socialism; the red flag of Nepal , for instance, represents the national flower.

A demonstration in Moscow during the unsuccessful Russian Revolution of , painted by Ilya Repin. Red was the color of the Russian Revolution in The Bolshevik , painting by Boris Kustodiev The flag of the Soviet Union — The hammer symbolized workers, the sickle represented peasants, and the red star symbolized the Communist Party. The Flag of the People's Republic of China. Red symbolizes revolution, the large star is the Communist Party, and the smaller stars represent the working class, the peasants, and the urban middle class, the rural middle class, as described by Mao Zedong.

In 18th-century Europe, red was usually associated with the monarchy and with those in power. The French Revolution saw red used by the Jacobins as a symbol of the martyrs of the Revolution. In the nineteenth century, with the Industrial Revolution and the rise of worker's movements, it became the color of socialism especially the Marxist variant , and, with the Paris Commune of , of revolution. In the 20th century, red was the color first of the Russian Bolsheviks and then, after the success of the Russian Revolution of , of Communist Parties around the world.

Red also became the color of many social democratic parties in Europe, including the Labour Party in Britain founded ; the Social Democratic Party of Germany whose roots went back to and the French Socialist Party , which dated back under different names, to Members of the Christian-Social People's Party in Liechtenstein founded advocated an expansion of democracy and progressive social policies, and were often referred to disparagingly as "Reds" for their social liberal leanings and party colors.

Most Koreans tend to regard dating as a precursor to marriage. There is no dating agency but the market for marriage agencies are growing continuously. Also, "Mat-sun", the blind date which is usually based on the premise of marriage, is held often among ages of late 20s to 30s. However, the majority still takes getting into a relationship seriously.

Dating in Korea is also considered a necessary activity supported by society. College students in their sophomore to junior year who have not been in a relationship feel anxious that they are falling behind amongst their peers.

Most of them try "sogaeting", going out on a blind date, for the first time to get into a relationship. Dating is a duty that most people feel they must take on to not seem incompetent. Where Are We Going? Dating has also been depicted to be an activity of fun and happiness. According to a survey by wedding consulting agency, men consider a physical relation as a catalyst of love, otherwise, women regard it as a confirmation of affection. Adding to it, both Marriages and courtship in Pakistan are influenced by traditional cultural practices similar to those elsewhere in the Indian subcontinent as well as Muslim norms and manners.

Illegitimate relationships before marriage are considered a social taboo and social interaction between unmarried men and women is encouraged at a modest and healthy level. Couples are usually wedded through either an arranged marriage or love marriage.

Love marriages are those in which the individuals have chosen a partner whom they like by their own choice prior to marriage, and usually occur with the consent of parents and family. Arranged marriages on the other hand are marriages which are set and agreed by the families or guardians of the two individuals where the couple may not have met before.

In either cases and in consistency with traditional marital practices, individuals who marry are persuaded to meet and talk to each other for some time before considering marrying so that they can check their compatibility. The original SDU, which controversially promoted marriages among university graduate singles, no longer exists today. On 28 January , it was merged with SDS [Social Development Services], which just as controversially promoted marriages among non-graduate singles.

The merged unit, SDN Social Development Network seeks to promote meaningful relationships, with marriage touted as a top life goal, among all resident [Singapore] singles within a conducive network environment of singles, relevant commercial and public entities. One report suggested that in southern Taiwan , "traditional rules of courtship" still apply despite the influence of popular culture ; for example, men continue to take the initiative in forming relationships.

What caused relationships to break up? In Britain, the term dating bears similarity to the American sense of the tentative exploratory part of a relationship. If two people are going out together , it may mean they're dating but that their relationship has advanced to a relatively long-standing and sexual boyfriend-girlfriend relationship although they're not cohabiting.

Although Britons are familiar with the term dating, the rituals surrounding courtship are somewhat different from those commonly found in North America. Writer Kira Cochrane advises daters to "get out there and meet people" while noting a trend of temporary suspension of marriage until an individual reaches his or her thirties.

She felt "clueless and unwanted", she wrote, and found advice books such as The Rules helpful. Online dating safety in the UK is a concern for authorities and individuals. While analysts such as Harald Martenstein and others suggest that it is easier for persons to initiate contact in America, many Germans view the American dating habits as "unspontaneous", "ridiculous" and "rigid".

Membership in voluntary associations is relatively high in German-speaking countries and these provided further chances for possible partners to meet. Strolling on Esplanades and Promenade walkways such as the one in Hamburg called the Jungfernstieg maidens way , have been another venue for introductions as early as the 19th century.

Analyst Geoffrey Gorer described dating as an American idiosyncrasy focusing on youth of college age and expressed in activities such as American proms. In contrast German speaking countries and the longstanding musical tradition there provided ample opportunity of persons of varying ages enjoying social dances, such as the Vienna Opera Ball and other occasions.

The German term of Stelldichein as translated by Joachim Heinrich Campes is used to signify dating when the age of consent to marriage was relatively high. German traditions to signify lovers who met in hiding were described with terms like Fensterln windowing or Kiltgang dawn stroll used in Bavaria and Switzerland.

Today, most German couples in long-term relationships get to know each other through mutual friends, at work or while going out at night; the first few months of dating often involve sexual intercourse, but are still rather casual and do not imply a serious wish to get married.

Italians maintain a conservative approach to dating. Also, inviting friends or relatives during a date is not uncommon. More modern approaches such as blind dates, speed dating and dating websites are not as popular as abroad, and are not considered very effective by the majority of the population. However, social network members outnumber the European average, [] and they may use Facebook for dating purposes too.

One report suggested Spanish women were the "greatest flirts", based on an unofficial study by a dating website which ranked countries based on initiations of contact. In North Africa like in many parts of the Middle East, sex without marriage is considered unacceptable.

Dating in North Africa is predominantly done under family supervision, usually in a public place. People of different sexes are not allowed to "mix freely" in public. Clerics run officially sanctioned internet dating agencies with strict rules. In Israel, in the secular community, dating is very common amongst both heterosexual and homosexual couples.

However, because of the religious community, there are some religious exceptions to the dating process. In the Haredi and Chasidic communities Ultra-Orthodox Judaism most couples are paired through a matchmaker. In this arranged marriage system, young adults meet a couple times under the supervision of their parents, and after they meet, the two are asked whether they will agree to be married.

Furthermore, in terms of marriage , because the state religion is essentially Orthodox-Judaism, Conservative and Reform Liberal denominations of Judaism Jews cannot get married through a Conservative or Reform Rabbi without the approval of the State's Orthodox Head Rabbi.

There are similar problems in Israel for people of different denominations of other religions as well. Essentially, if you live in Israel, and the head of your religion doesn't want you to get married, you can't get religiously married.

Because people of two different religions or people of the same sex cannot get married in Israel, people in these situations oftentimes have to go overseas to get married since Israel does recognize overseas marriages.

One report suggests the Lebanese dating game is hampered by "the weight of family demands upon individual choice" and that there were difficulties, particularly for people seeking to marry across religious lines, such as a Christian seeking to marry a Muslim.

The Saudi Gazette quoted a Wikipedia article on domestic violence , suggesting it was an issue for Saudis, including abusive behavior while dating by one or both partners. In many cultures around the world, dating is a serious family matter, which is based on its culture and social values.

Parents in said cultures believe in arranged marriage, or at least make sure that their children get married at a certain age. However, in the United States, independency plays an important role in how singles value and date others. In America, dating is mostly a personal decision rather than based off the influence of parents.

Middle class tend to prioritize other things that are more important to them, such as get a college degree, a job, and then date their future spouse to settle down. Before the internet era, some Americans would meet their prospective husband or wife in college, through friends, at work, etc.

But now is very popular that singles are trying to meet people on websites and from cell phone applications. Dating people online can create other social issues. For example, some individuals might get in the illusion that there are so many singles looking for your mate, therefore some can get into a bad habit of constantly meet new people, but do not want to get in a meaningful relationship and they may spend years dating looking for a perfect mate when in reality that does not exist.

Meeting people from social sites might isolate us even more due to lack of communication face to face with friends and interact with new people on public places. One report suggested the United States as well as other western-oriented countries were different from the rest of the world because "love is the reason for mating," as opposed to marriages being arranged to cement economic and class ties between families and promote political stability.

British writer Kira Cochrane, after moving to the U. By waiting and waiting and waiting to commit to someone, our capacity for love shrinks and withers. This doesn't mean that women or men should marry the first reasonable person to come along, or someone with whom they are not in love. But we should, at a much earlier age than we do now, take a serious attitude toward dating and begin preparing ourselves to settle down.

For it's in the act of taking up the roles we've been taught to avoid or postpone——wife, husband, mother, father——that we build our identities, expand our lives, and achieve the fullness of character we desire. Journalist Emily Witt in wrote that while "social mores had changed to accept a wider range of sexual practices", there was still much "loneliness and anxiety".

There is evidence that couples differ in the pace and timing with which they initiate sex in their relationships. Teenagers and college-aged students tend to avoid the more formal activity of dating, and prefer casual no-strings-attached experiments sometimes described as hookups.

It permits young women to "go out and fit into the social scene, get attention from young men, and learn about sexuality", according to one report by sociologists. Muslims living in the United States can choose whether to use traditional Islamic methods, or date American-style; Muslims choosing to stick to Islamic tradition can "only marry another Muslim", according to one Malaysian account. Mosques have been known to try to bring people together——one in California has a dating service for Muslims.

In Australia, men typically ask out women for dates by text messaging. In Brazil there's a longer time interval before children move out of the house, which affects dating. A report in Psychology Today found that homosexual men were attracted to men in their late teens and early twenties and didn't care much about the status of a prospective partner; rather, physical attractiveness was the key.

In India , transgender individuals and eunuchs have used Internet dating to help them find partners, but there continue to be strong societal pressures which marginalize these groups. People can meet other people on their own or the get-together can be arranged by someone else.

Matchmaking is an art based entirely on hunches, since it is impossible to predict with certainty whether two people will like each other or not. Friends remain an extremely common way for people to meet [] However, the Internet promises to overtake friends in the future, if present trends continue. In The Guardian , British writer Hannah Pool was cynical about being set up on a blind date; she was told "basically he's you but in a male form" by the mutual friend.

Parents, via their contacts with associates or neighbors or friends, can introduce their children to each other. In India , parents often place matrimonial ads in newspapers or online, and may post the resumes of the prospective bride or groom. Dating systems can be systematic and organized ways to improve matchmaking by using rules or technology. The meeting can be in-person or live as well as separated by time or space such as by telephone or email or chat-based.

The purpose of the meeting is for the two persons to decide whether to go on a date in the future. Speed dating is a fast and comfortable way to meet people. It helps enlarge my social contacts. I don't care if I can't find a girlfriend there. I just want to try my luck, and if she is there, then that will be a big bonus. Very attractive translates as big-headed Average build means a bit paunchy The picture is always taken from the best, most flattering angle Black and white photos mean I am pretentious or I've something to hide Anyone who writes in text speak or says I heart instead of I like should be avoided Ditto for people whose interests include feet.

The deception got worse. When he met his date who he had befriended online who he dubbed Facebook Guy for the first time, he wrote:. Facebook guy arrived on time.

Facially, he looked the same as his picture. And his arms were as "worked out" as he promised. But he was lacking in the leg department. Facebook Guy had failed to mention that he had no legs. Computer dating systems of the later 20th century, especially popular in the s and s, before the rise of sophisticated phone and computer systems, gave customers forms that they filled out with important tolerances and preferences, which were "matched by computer" to determine "compatibility" of the two customers.

The history of dating systems is closely tied to the history of technologies that support them, although a statistics-based dating service that used data from forms filled out by customers opened in Newark, New Jersey in Patterson's business model was not fully legal, however. He was charged with fraud on several occasions for selling lists of the women who signed up for his service to men who were looking for prostitutes.

Online dating services are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. They charge a fee to enable a user to post a profile of himself or herself, perhaps using video or still images as well as descriptive data and personal preferences for dating, such as age range, hobbies, and so forth. However new entrants continue to emerge. An earlier report suggested that online dating businesses were thriving financially, with growth in members, service offerings, membership fees and with many users renewing their accounts, although the overall share of Internet traffic using online dating services in the U.

Pew Research , based on a survey of 3, adults, estimated that three million Americans had entered into long-term relationships or marriage as a result of meeting on a dating web site. Internet "QQ" chat rooms. This type of dating approach, cheaper than traditional websites and agencies, is gaining ground in China.

Mystery Date is a board game from the Milton Bradley Company , originally released in and reissued in , , and in , whose object is to be ready for a date by acquiring three matching color-coded cards to assemble an outfit. The outfit must then match the outfit of the date at the "mystery door". If the player's outfit does not match the date behind the door, the door is closed and play continues. The game has been mentioned, featured, or parodied in several popular films and television shows.

Numerous television reality and game shows , past and current, address dating. These are described more fully here and in the related article on " reality game shows " that often include or motivate romantic episodes between players. Another category of dating-oriented reality TV shows involves matchmaking , such as Millionaire Matchmaker and Tough Love.

Dating can happen for people in most age groups with the possible exception of children. Teenagers and tweens have been described as dating; according to the CDC , three-quarters of eighth and ninth graders in the United States described themselves as "dating", although it is unclear what is exactly meant by this term.

Young persons are exposed to many in their high schools or secondary schools or college or universities. People over thirty, lacking the recency of a college experience, have better luck online finding partners.

While people tend to date others close to their own age, it's possible for older men to date younger women. In many countries, the older-man-younger-woman arrangement is seen as permissible, sometimes with benefits. It's looked on more positively in the U. Research shows that successful men are, on average, older than their spouses by 12 years; exceptional men, by 17 years; and Nobel laureates, well, they can be 54 years older than their mates.

Why date now when your ideal wives are still in kindergarten! A notable example of the older-woman-younger-man is Demi Moore pairing with years-her-junior Ashton Kutcher. Older women in such relations have recently been described as "cougars", and formerly such relationships were often kept secret or discreet, but there is a report that such relationships are becoming more accepted and increasing. Since divorce is increasing in many areas, sometimes celebrated with " divorce parties ", [] there is dating advice for the freshly divorced as well, which includes not talking about your ex or your divorce, but focusing on "activities that bring joy to your life.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the form of courtship. For other uses, see Dating disambiguation. For other uses, see Double date disambiguation. Cicisbeo Concubinage Courtesan Mistress. Breakup Separation Annulment Divorce Widowhood.

Archived from the original on Forbidding experimental and serial courtship and sanctioning only arranged matches is partly a means of guarding the chastity of young people and partly a matter of furthering family interests The Neurological Origins of Individuality, 2nd edition".

Gender and Agency in the Web-based Personals". Electronic Journal of Sociology. No Dating, No Relationships". The New York Times. What our grandmothers told us about playing hard to get is true.

Internet dating on the rise". Jacobson February 7, More than 60 years later, would that special girl remember me? After the movie, Finney and I took Helen home to her mother, The problem with most dating rules, They make a game and a chore out of something that should be natural and fun and overwhelming.

If you are rejected or ignored, remember that it is not about you. Don't focus on one person Using the Internet as a means of connecting to others. Online or off, couples still have to click". New Berkeley research shows that online daters like each other more before they actually meet in person—it's that first face-to-face where things slide downhill, and average daters report disappointment across the board, let down on everything from looks to personality.

From traditional to cutting-edge, Carlene Thomas-Bailey introduces a handful of ways to meet your match". Blind dates, classified ads, dating websites, hobbies, holidays, office romance, social networking, speed dating In fact, the smarter you are, the more clueless you will be, and the more problems you're going to have in your dating life. Here were smart, funny, good-looking guys surrounded by single women who were dying to be asked out — and not a whole lot was happening.

Lee February 2, Keep it simple by going for coffee or after-work drinks. A new book postulates that women who go through 34 dates should find true love around number To believe love is just a numbers game would leave the bravest of us questioning, why even play? Disappointment can create discouragement affecting other areas of our lives. Too many one-off dates that go nowhere can leave the best of us ready to hang up the little black dress in exchange for a pair of pjs and a pint of you know what.

First of all, my recommendation is to be ready and to be authentic. The most appealing kind of email to send is friendly, funny and flattering, Don't write a tome or reveal too much, and don't suggest meeting up right away. There is, however, an unwritten rule in the internet dating world that it is acceptable to ignore mail from people who don't interest you. A no-reply policy is often the result of experience. Donovan says he has collected information on more than businesses worldwide that offer dating coach services -- with almost of those operating in the U.

Americans who are seeking romance use the internet to help them in their search, but there is still widespread public concern about the safety of online dating". The copulatory gaze, looking lengthily at a new possible partner, Most internet users who are married or in committed relationships met each other offline.

A majority of relationship-seeking singles say it is difficult to meet people where they live. People who met 20, 25 or 30 years ago were more likely to mention co-workers," he says, and people who met in the past 10 years "were less likely to mention co-workers.

The people you interact with most are your coworkers, but office dating is far from ideal. A bad date will lead to workplace awkwardness, at the very least. Online Dating by the Numbers". In the world of online dating, women seek a partner of their age or older who has a high-paying job or has money.

And he must be well-educated. The problem is that men usually have one universal definition of what is attractive and you need to fit that in order to be considered hot , far more than women do, A study by psychology researchers Smith February 8, Why Happiness Eludes the Modern Woman excerpts ". Or as Bill Maher more crudely but usefully summed it up Men want women to shut up. Retrieved February 29, How to recognize the good from the bad and move on". I find the majority of time, it's because of a fear of intimacy," said relationship therapist Laura Berman.

For many of us, the requisite vulnerability and exposure that comes from being really intimate with someone in a committed sense is kind of threatening.

I knew it even before the publication of "The Rules," a dating bible that encouraged women to return to prefeminist mind games by playing hard to get The Rules centres on the premise that "men are born to respond to challenge.

Take away challenge and their interest wanes", and thus followers are instructed to suppress their natural instincts and continue as follows: Instead, he seemed to assume it was because I was busy, popular, and had better things to do. Which seemed to make him keener. When we went on dates, I would always be the one to leave. To my astonishment, he often took that as a cue to ask me out again.

Today, women have gone back to hunting their quarry — in person and in cyberspace — with elaborate schemes designed to allow the deluded creatures to think they are the hunters. Copage June 6, Centers for Disease Control. Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence Lutz told the boys that among high school girls surveyed from the ages of 14 to 18, about 20 percent reported that they had been hit, slapped, shoved or forced into sexual activity by a dating partner. Wikipedia tells us that domestic violence To begin with, it is important that someone knows where you are.

Can apps and algorithms lead to true love? Yet some researchers say dating companies' matchmaking algorithms are no better than Chance for providing suitable partners. At the same time, critics worry that the abundance of prospective dates available online is undermining relationships Courtship may be completely left out in case of arranged marriages where the couple doesn't meet before the wedding.

There are four types of marriage among the Nyangatom marriage by arrangement, by the couple's mutual consent by abduction and by inheritance.

Imsges: red line speed dating

red line speed dating

Eleven teams prominently feature the color or shades of the color with the Cleveland Cavaliers using a deeper shade of the color, wine. Dating can happen for people in most age groups with the possible exception of children.

red line speed dating

Embed Your Favorite Games: We would not have done more than he and would have acted in the same way.

red line speed dating

Red was long seen as having red line speed dating dark side, particularly in Christian theology. This is quite obvious. Mars appears to be red because of iron oxide on its surface. And with so many guys learning these strategies today, the red line speed dating for you has gotten bigger and bigger. One trend is towards exclusive matchmaking events datiny the 'rich and powerful'; for example, an annual June event in Wuhan with expensive entry-ticket prices for men 99, RMB speed dating bg financially secure men choose so-called bikini brides based on their beauty and educationdsting and the financial exclusivity of the event was criticized by the official news outlet China Daily.