Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale
It's not as easy as it might sound. This implies that some of them were originally computed using less accurate values, which is similar to Slusher's point. One cannot always use an isochron, since many minerals may have about the same K and Ar40 concentrations, and there may be some fractionation of argon among the minerals. And faster cooling could increase the ages by further large factors. By a combination of diffusion through cracks and channels, and short passages through unbroken regions of the mineral, argon may be able to reach a considerable distance into the mineral. Return to top PART 1:
MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR EACH GROUP
Multimethod radiometric age for a bentonite near the top of the Baculites reesidei Zone of southwestern Saskatchewan Campanian-Maastrichtian stage boundary? Since the magma has old radiometric dates, depending on how much the clock gets reset, the crust can end up with a variety of younger dates just by partially inheriting the dates of the magma. For example, dates may be accepted even when there is evidence of weathering, and rejected when there is not. However, in interpreting these results, some facts need to be kept in mind. Calibrating the time scale A theoretical example Circularity? It's also not uncommon for two methods to agree and for the date to be discarded anyway. RNA Abbreviation of ribonucleic acid.
Water Potential Exercise 5: Osmosis Analysis of Results Lab Quiz. Enzyme Structure Concept 2: Binding Specificity Concept 3: Induced Fit Concept 4: The Cell Cycle Closer Look: Nuclear Division Karyokinesis Closer Look: Cytoplasmic Division Cytokinesis Concept 2: Spore Formation in Sordaria Exercise 1: The Process of Respiration Closer Look: Features and Functions of a Respirometer Exercise 2: How the Respirometer Works Exercise 3: How to Read a Pipette Exercise 4: Assembling the Respirometer Exercise 5: More Information on Germinating Peas Exercise 6: Bacterial Colonies Concept 2: Transformation Procedure Closer Look: Step 1 Closer Look: Step 2 Closer Look: Step 3 Closer Look: Step 4 Closer Look: Step 6 Exercise 2: Transformation Procedure Animation Exercise 3: How Do Restriction Enzymes Work?
Preparing the Gels Exercise 2: Loading the Gel Exercise 3: Filling the Wells Exercise 4: Running the Gel Exercise 6: Parental Generation Exercise 2: A Large Breeding Population Concept 2: Random Mating Concept 3: No Immigration or Emigration Concept 5: No Natural Selection Concept 6: Estimating Allelic Frequency Concept 7: The Hardy-Weinberg Equation Concept 8: Sample Problem 1 Concept 9: Sample Problem 2 Concept Sample Problem 3 Concept Hydrogen Bonding Concept 2: How Do Guard Cells Function?
Guard Cell Function Animation Concept 5: Transpiration and Photosynthesis Concept 6: An Overview of the Experiment Experiment 2: Blood Pressure Concept 2: Understanding Blood Pressure Concept 3: Measuring Blood Pressure Concept 4: Procedure for Measuring Blood Pressure Concept 5: Fruit Fly Mating Behavior Concept 2: Pillbug Behavior Concept 3: Scientific Sketching Concept 4: Dissolved Oxygen Availability Concept 2: Primary Productivity Concept 4: Membrane Structure and Transport Introduction Concept 1: Membrane Structure Practice 1 page Review 1 page Concept 2: Membrane Dynamics and Communication Introduction Concept 1: Endocytosis and Exocytosis Practice 1 page Review 3 pages Concept 3: Building Biomolecules Introduction Concept 1: Valence and Covalent Bonding Concept 3: Hydrocarbons Practice 1 page Review 1 page Concept 4: Isomers Review 3 pages Concept 5: Polarity Review 2 pages Concept 6: The Beating Heart Introduction Concept 1: Heart Anatomy Practice 2 pages Review 4 pages Concept 2: The Vascular Highway Introduction Concept 1: Capillary Function Practice 1 page Review 2 pages Concept 4: Cell Respiration Introduction Concept 1: Overview of Respiration Practice 1 page Review 1 page Concept 2: Glycolysis Practice 1 page Review 1 page Concept 3: Krebs Cycle Practice 1 page Review 2 pages Concept 4: Fermentation Practice 1 page Review 3 pages Concept 6: Cell Structure and Function Introduction Concept 1: Common Features of All Cells Concept 2: The Nucleotide Practice 1 page Review 1 page Concept 2: From Gene to Protein: Transcription Introduction Concept 1: The Central Dogma Concept 2: Transcription and Translation in Cells Concept 3: Translation Protein Synthesis Introduction Concept 1: Amino Acid Building Blocks Concept 3: The Different Amino Acids Concept 4: The Peptide Bond Concept 5: Protein Practice 1 page Review 1 page Concept 6: Translation in a Eukaryotic Cell Concept 7: Molecular Components of Translation 1 Concept 8: Molecular Components of Translation 2 Concept 9: Molecular Components of Translation 3 Concept Initiation of Translation Review 1 page Concept Elongation of the Polypeptide Chain Review 1 page Concept Termination of Translation Practice 1 page Review 1 page Concept Meiosis Introduction Concept 1: An Overview Concept 2: The Process of Meiosis Concept 3: Premeiotic Interphase Concept 4: Prophase I Concept 5: Metaphase I Concept 6: Anaphase I Concept 7: Telophase I Concept 8: Meiosis I Animated Concept 9: Assembling the Stages of Meiosis I Concept Prophase II Practice 1 page Concept Metaphase II Practice 1 page Concept Anaphase II Practice 1 page Concept Telophase II Practice 1 page Concept These geological principles are not assumptions either.
Each of them is a testable hypothesis about the relationships between rock units and their characteristics. They are applied by geologists in the same sense that a "null hypothesis" is in statistics -- not necessarily correct, just testable.
In the last or more years of their application, they are often valid, but geologists do not assume they are. They are the "initial working hypotheses" to be tested further by data. Using these principles, it is possible to construct an interpretation of the sequence of events for any geological situation, even on other planets e. The simplest situation for a geologist is a "layer cake" succession of sedimentary or extrusive igneous rock units arranged in nearly horizontal layers.
In such a situation, the " principle of superposition" is easily applied, and the strata towards the bottom are older, those towards the top are younger. For example, wave ripples have their pointed crests on the "up" side, and more rounded troughs on the "down" side. Many other indicators are commonly present, including ones that can even tell you the angle of the depositional surface at the time "geopetal structures" , "assuming" that gravity was "down" at the time, which isn't much of an assumption: In more complicated situations, like in a mountain belt, there are often faults, folds, and other structural complications that have deformed and "chopped up" the original stratigraphy.
Despite this, the "principle of cross cutting relationships" can be used to determine the sequence of deposition, folds, and faults based on their intersections -- if folds and faults deform or cut across the sedimentary layers and surfaces, then they obviously came after deposition of the sediments.
You can't deform a structure e. Even in complex situations of multiple deposition, deformation, erosion, deposition, and repeated events, it is possible to reconstruct the sequence of events.
Even if the folding is so intense that some of the strata is now upside down, this fact can be recognized with "way up" indicators. No matter what the geologic situation, these basic principles reliably yield a reconstructed history of the sequence of events, both depositional, erosional, deformational, and others, for the geology of a region. This reconstruction is tested and refined as new field information is collected, and can be and often is done completely independently of anything to do with other methods e.
The reconstructed history of events forms a "relative time scale", because it is possible to tell that event A occurred prior to event B, which occurred prior to event C, regardless of the actual duration of time between them.
Sometimes this study is referred to as "event stratigraphy", a term that applies regardless of the type of event that occurs biologic, sedimentologic, environmental, volcanic, magnetic, diagenetic, tectonic, etc.
These simple techniques have widely and successfully applied since at least the early s, and by the early s, geologists had recognized that many obvious similarities existed in terms of the independently-reconstructed sequence of geologic events observed in different parts of the world.
One of the earliest relative time scales based upon this observation was the subdivision of the Earth's stratigraphy and therefore its history , into the "Primary", "Secondary", "Tertiary", and later "Quaternary" strata based mainly on characteristic rock types in Europe. The latter two subdivisions, in an emended form, are still used today by geologists. The earliest, "Primary" is somewhat similar to the modern Paleozoic and Precambrian, and the "Secondary" is similar to the modern Mesozoic. Another observation was the similarity of the fossils observed within the succession of strata, which leads to the next topic.
As geologists continued to reconstruct the Earth's geologic history in the s and early s, they quickly recognized that the distribution of fossils within this history was not random -- fossils occurred in a consistent order. This was true at a regional, and even a global scale. Furthermore, fossil organisms were more unique than rock types, and much more varied, offering the potential for a much more precise subdivision of the stratigraphy and events within it.
The recognition of the utility of fossils for more precise "relative dating" is often attributed to William Smith, a canal engineer who observed the fossil succession while digging through the rocks of southern England. But scientists like Albert Oppel hit upon the same principles at about about the same time or earlier. In Smith's case, by using empirical observations of the fossil succession, he was able to propose a fine subdivision of the rocks and map out the formations of southern England in one of the earliest geological maps Other workers in the rest of Europe, and eventually the rest of the world, were able to compare directly to the same fossil succession in their areas, even when the rock types themselves varied at finer scale.
For example, everywhere in the world, trilobites were found lower in the stratigraphy than marine reptiles. Dinosaurs were found after the first occurrence of land plants, insects, and amphibians. Spore-bearing land plants like ferns were always found before the occurrence of flowering plants. The observation that fossils occur in a consistent succession is known as the "principle of faunal and floral succession". The study of the succession of fossils and its application to relative dating is known as "biostratigraphy".
Each increment of time in the stratigraphy could be characterized by a particular assemblage of fossil organisms, formally termed a biostratigraphic "zone" by the German paleontologists Friedrich Quenstedt and Albert Oppel. These zones could then be traced over large regions, and eventually globally. Groups of zones were used to establish larger intervals of stratigraphy, known as geologic "stages" and geologic "systems".
The time corresponding to most of these intervals of rock became known as geologic "ages" and "periods", respectively. By the end of the s, most of the presently-used geologic periods had been established based on their fossil content and their observed relative position in the stratigraphy e.
These terms were preceded by decades by other terms for various geologic subdivisions, and although there was subsequent debate over their exact boundaries e. By the s, fossil succession had been studied to an increasing degree, such that the broad history of life on Earth was well understood, regardless of the debate over the names applied to portions of it, and where exactly to make the divisions.
All paleontologists recognized unmistakable trends in morphology through time in the succession of fossil organisms. This observation led to attempts to explain the fossil succession by various mechanisms. Perhaps the best known example is Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. Note that chronologically, fossil succession was well and independently established long before Darwin's evolutionary theory was proposed in Fossil succession and the geologic time scale are constrained by the observed order of the stratigraphy -- basically geometry -- not by evolutionary theory.
For almost the next years, geologists operated using relative dating methods, both using the basic principles of geology and fossil succession biostratigraphy. Various attempts were made as far back as the s to scientifically estimate the age of the Earth, and, later, to use this to calibrate the relative time scale to numeric values refer to "Changing views of the history of the Earth" by Richard Harter and Chris Stassen.
Most of the early attempts were based on rates of deposition, erosion, and other geological processes, which yielded uncertain time estimates, but which clearly indicated Earth history was at least million or more years old. A challenge to this interpretation came in the form of Lord Kelvin's William Thomson's calculations of the heat flow from the Earth, and the implication this had for the age -- rather than hundreds of millions of years, the Earth could be as young as tens of million of years old.
This evaluation was subsequently invalidated by the discovery of radioactivity in the last years of the 19th century, which was an unaccounted for source of heat in Kelvin's original calculations. With it factored in, the Earth could be vastly older. Estimates of the age of the Earth again returned to the prior methods. The discovery of radioactivity also had another side effect, although it was several more decades before its additional significance to geology became apparent and the techniques became refined.
Because of the chemistry of rocks, it was possible to calculate how much radioactive decay had occurred since an appropriate mineral had formed, and how much time had therefore expired, by looking at the ratio between the original radioactive isotope and its product, if the decay rate was known. Many geological complications and measurement difficulties existed, but initial attempts at the method clearly demonstrated that the Earth was very old.
In fact, the numbers that became available were significantly older than even some geologists were expecting -- rather than hundreds of millions of years, which was the minimum age expected, the Earth's history was clearly at least billions of years long. Radiometric dating provides numerical values for the age of an appropriate rock, usually expressed in millions of years.
Therefore, by dating a series of rocks in a vertical succession of strata previously recognized with basic geologic principles see Stratigraphic principles and relative time , it can provide a numerical calibration for what would otherwise be only an ordering of events -- i.
The integration of relative dating and radiometric dating has resulted in a series of increasingly precise "absolute" i. Given the background above, the information used for a geologic time scale can be related like this: A continuous vertical stratigraphic section will provide the order of occurrence of events column 1 of Figure 2.
These are summarized in terms of a "relative time scale" column 2 of Figure 2. Geologists can refer to intervals of time as being "pre-first appearance of species A" or "during the existence of species A", or "after volcanic eruption 1" at least six subdivisions are possible in the example in Figure 2. For this type of "relative dating" to work it must be known that the succession of events is unique or at least that duplicate events are recognized -- e.
Unique events can be biological e. Ideally, geologists are looking for events that are unmistakably unique, in a consistent order, and of global extent in order to construct a geological time scale with global significance. Some of these events do exist. For example, the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods is recognized on the basis of the extinction of a large number of organisms globally including ammonites, dinosaurs, and others , the first appearance of new types of organisms, the presence of geochemical anomalies notably iridium , and unusual types of minerals related to meteorite impact processes impact spherules and shocked quartz.
These types of distinctive events provide confirmation that the Earth's stratigraphy is genuinely successional on a global scale. Even without that knowledge, it is still possible to construct local geologic time scales. Although the idea that unique physical and biotic events are synchronous might sound like an "assumption", it is not. It can, and has been, tested in innumerable ways since the 19th century, in some cases by physically tracing distinct units laterally for hundreds or thousands of kilometres and looking very carefully to see if the order of events changes.
Geologists do sometimes find events that are "diachronous" i. Because any newly-studied locality will have independent fossil, superpositional, or radiometric data that have not yet been incorporated into the global geological time scale, all data types serve as both an independent test of each other on a local scale , and of the global geological time scale itself.
The test is more than just a "right" or "wrong" assessment, because there is a certain level of uncertainty in all age determinations. For example, an inconsistency may indicate that a particular geological boundary occurred 76 million years ago, rather than 75 million years ago, which might be cause for revising the age estimate, but does not make the original estimate flagrantly "wrong". It depends upon the exact situation, and how much data are present to test hypotheses e. Whatever the situation, the current global geological time scale makes predictions about relationships between relative and absolute age-dating at a local scale, and the input of new data means the global geologic time scale is continually refined and is known with increasing precision.
This trend can be seen by looking at the history of proposed geologic time scales described in the first chapter of [Harland et al, , p. The unfortunate part of the natural process of refinement of time scales is the appearance of circularity if people do not look at the source of the data carefully enough. Most commonly, this is characterised by oversimplified statements like:. Even some geologists have stated this misconception in slightly different words in seemingly authoritative works e.
When a geologist collects a rock sample for radiometric age dating, or collects a fossil, there are independent constraints on the relative and numerical age of the resulting data. Stratigraphic position is an obvious one, but there are many others. There is no way for a geologist to choose what numerical value a radiometric date will yield, or what position a fossil will be found at in a stratigraphic section. Every piece of data collected like this is an independent check of what has been previously studied.
The data are determined by the rocks , not by preconceived notions about what will be found. Every time a rock is picked up it is a test of the predictions made by the current understanding of the geological time scale. The time scale is refined to reflect the relatively few and progressively smaller inconsistencies that are found.
This is not circularity, it is the normal scientific process of refining one's understanding with new data. It happens in all sciences. If an inconsistent data point is found, geologists ask the question: However, this statistical likelihood is not assumed, it is tested , usually by using other methods e. Geologists search for an explanation of the inconsistency, and will not arbitrarily decide that, "because it conflicts, the data must be wrong. If it is a small but significant inconsistency, it could indicate that the geological time scale requires a small revision.
The continued revision of the time scale as a result of new data demonstrates that geologists are willing to question it and change it. The geological time scale is far from dogma. If the new data have a large inconsistency by "large" I mean orders of magnitude , it is far more likely to be a problem with the new data, but geologists are not satisfied until a specific geological explanation is found and tested.
An inconsistency often means something geologically interesting is happening, and there is always a tiny possibility that it could be the tip of a revolution in understanding about geological history. Admittedly, this latter possibility is VERY unlikely.
There is almost zero chance that the broad understanding of geological history e. The amount of data supporting that interpretation is immense, is derived from many fields and methods not only radiometric dating , and a discovery would have to be found that invalidated practically all previous data in order for the interpretation to change greatly.
So far, I know of no valid theory that explains how this could occur, let alone evidence in support of such a theory, although there have been highly fallacious attempts e. It contains a mixture of minerals from a volcanic eruption and detrital mineral grains eroded from other, older rocks. If the age of this unit were not so crucial to important associated hominid fossils, it probably would not have been dated at all because of the potential problems.
After some initial and prolonged troubles over many years, the bed was eventually dated successfully by careful sample preparation that eliminated the detrital minerals. Lubenow's work is fairly unique in characterising the normal scientific process of refining a difficult date as an arbitrary and inappropriate "game", and documenting the history of the process in some detail, as if such problems were typical.
Another example is "John Woodmorappe's" paper on radiometric dating , which adopts a "compilation" approach, and gives only superficial treatment to the individual dates.
Among other problems documented in an FAQ by Steven Schimmrich , many of Woodmorappe's examples neglect the geological complexities that are expected to cause problems for some radiometrically-dated samples. This section is important because it places a limit on the youngest age for a specific ammonite shell -- Baculites reesidei -- which is used as a zonal fossil in western North America.
It consistently occurs below the first occurrence of Bacultes jenseni and above the occurrence of Baculites cuneatus within the upper part of the Campanian, the second to last "stage" of the Cretaceous Period in the global geological time scale.
The biostratigraphic situation can be summarized as a vertically-stacked sequence of "zones" defined by the first appearance of each ammonite species: About 40 of these ammonite zones are used to subdivide the upper part of the Cretaceous Period in this area.
Dinosaurs and many other types of fossils are also found in this interval, and in broad context it occurs shortly before the extinction of the dinosaurs, and the extinction of all ammonites. The Bearpaw Formation is a marine unit that occurs over much of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and it continues into Montana and North Dakota in the United States, although it adopts a different name in the U. The numbers above are just summary values.
Imsges: radiometric dating lab exercise
Principles of Isotope Geology, 2nd. It's hard to believe, according to conventional geological time scales, that this coal was compressed any time within the past several thousand or even hundred million years.
So this confirms that argon can travel from rock to rock when one rock is heated. The synthesis of work like this by thousands of international researchers over many decades is what defines geological time scales in the first place refer to Harland et al.
A Triassic, Jurassic radiometric dating lab exercise Cretaceous time scale. They rely on the same scientific principles as are used to refine any scientific concept: If a rock gives a too old date, one says there is excess argon. Also, zircons can survive transport through magma p. A hormone produced by neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the vertebrate brain that stimulates or inhibits the secretion of hormones by the anterior pituitary.
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