Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages Use dmy dates from July Articles with 'species' microformats All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July Articles to be expanded from February All articles to be expanded Articles using small message boxes Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers. On an FMSF advisory board composed mainly of psychologists, psychiatrists and college professors, Spencer Harris Morfit stands out as an exception. She has also authored over reviews and chapters in major psychiatric textbooks.
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How to get over self-doubt. The separate species and subspecies developed from a single type of gorilla during the Ice Age , when their forest habitats shrank and became isolated from each other. Primatologists continue to explore the relationships between various gorilla populations. The proposed third subspecies of Gorilla beringei , which has not yet received a trinomen , is the Bwindi population of the mountain gorilla, sometimes called the Bwindi gorilla.
Some variations that distinguish the classifications of gorilla include varying density, size, hair colour, length, culture, and facial widths. Gorillas move around by knuckle-walking , although they sometimes walk bipedally for short distances while carrying food or in defensive situations. Adult males are 1. Female gorillas are shorter, with smaller arm spans. The tallest gorilla recorded was a 1.
The heaviest gorilla recorded was a 1. Adult males also have a prominent sagittal crest. The eastern gorilla is more darkly coloured than the western gorilla, with the mountain gorilla being the darkest of all. The mountain gorilla also has the thickest hair. The western lowland gorilla can be brown or grayish with a reddish forehead. In addition, gorillas that live in lowland forests are more slender and agile than the more bulky mountain gorillas.
The eastern gorilla also has a longer face and broader chest than the western gorilla. Studies have shown gorilla blood is not reactive to anti-A and anti-B monoclonal antibodies , which would, in humans, indicate type O blood.
Due to novel sequences, though, it is different enough to not conform with the human ABO blood group system , into which the other great apes fit. Gorillas have a patchy distribution. The range of the two species is separated by the Congo River and its tributaries. The western gorilla lives in west central Africa, while the eastern gorilla lives in east central Africa. Between the species, and even within the species, gorillas live in a variety of habitats and elevations.
Gorilla habitat ranges from montane forests to swamps. Gorillas construct nests for daytime and night use. Gorillas, unlike chimpanzees or orangutans, tend to sleep in nests on the ground. The young nest with their mothers, but construct nests after three years of age, initially close to those of their mothers.
A gorilla's day is synchronized, divided between rest periods and travel or feeding periods. Diets differ between and within species. Mountain gorillas mostly eat foliage, such as leaves, stems, pith, and shoots, while fruit makes up a very small part of their diets. Eastern lowland gorillas have more diverse diets, which vary seasonally.
Since fruit is less available, lowland gorillas must travel farther each day, and their home ranges vary from 2. Eastern lowland gorillas will also eat insects, preferably ants. Termites and ants are also eaten.
Gorillas rarely drink water "because they consume succulent vegetation that is comprised of almost half water as well as morning dew",  although both mountain and lowland gorillas have been observed drinking.
Gorillas live in groups called troops. Troops tend to be made of one adult male or silverback, multiple adult females and their offspring. Silverbacks also have large canine teeth that also come with maturity.
Both males and females tend to emigrate from their natal groups. For mountain gorillas, females disperse from their natal troops more than males. Mature males also tend to leave their groups and establish their own troops by attracting emigrating females.
However, male mountain gorillas sometimes stay in their natal troops and become subordinate to the silverback. If the silverback dies, these males may be able to become dominant or mate with the females.
This behaviour has not been observed in eastern lowland gorillas. In a single male group, when the silverback dies, the females and their offspring disperse and find a new troop. Joining a new group is likely to be a tactic against this. This likely serves as protection from leopards.
The silverback is the center of the troop's attention, making all the decisions, mediating conflicts, determining the movements of the group, leading the others to feeding sites, and taking responsibility for the safety and well-being of the troop. Younger males subordinate to the silverback, known as blackbacks, may serve as backup protection. Blackbacks are aged between 8 and 12 years  and lack the silver back hair. The bond that a silverback has with his females forms the core of gorilla social life.
Bonds between them are maintained by grooming and staying close together. Relationships between females may vary. Maternally related females in a troop tend to be friendly towards each other and associate closely. Otherwise, females have few friendly encounters and commonly act aggressively towards each other. Females may fight for social access to males and a male may intervene. Males in all-male groups, though, tend to have friendly interactions and socialise through play, grooming, and staying together,  and occasionally they even engage in homosexual interactions.
One possible predator of gorillas is the leopard. Gorilla remains have been found in leopard scat, but this may be the result of scavenging. Females mature at 10—12 years earlier in captivity , and males at 11—13 years. The gestation period lasts 8. Female mountain gorillas first give birth at 10 years of age and have four-year interbirth intervals.
Gorillas mate year round. Females will purse their lips and slowly approach a male while making eye contact. This serves to urge the male to mount her. If the male does not respond, then she will try to attract his attention by reaching towards him or slapping the ground. Gorilla infants are vulnerable and dependent, thus mothers, their primary caregivers, are important to their survival. Infants begin to break contact with their mothers after five months, but only for a brief period each time.
By 12 months old, infants move up to five meters 16 feet from their mothers. At around 18—21 months, the distance between mother and offspring increases and they regularly spend time away from each other. They enter their juvenile period at their third year, and this lasts until their sixth year.
At this time, gorillas are weaned and they sleep in a separate nest from their mothers. Twenty-five distinct vocalisations are recognised, many of which are used primarily for group communication within dense vegetation.
Sounds classified as grunts and barks are heard most frequently while traveling, and indicate the whereabouts of individual group members. Screams and roars signal alarm or warning, and are produced most often by silverbacks. Deep, rumbling belches suggest contentment and are heard frequently during feeding and resting periods.
They are the most common form of intragroup communication. For this reason, conflicts are most often resolved by displays and other threat behaviours that are intended to intimidate without becoming physical.
The ritualized charge display is unique to gorillas. The entire sequence has nine steps: A gorilla's lifespan is normally between 35 and 40 years, although zoo gorillas may live for 50 years or more. Colo , a female western gorilla at the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium was the oldest known gorilla , at 60 years of age when she died on January 17, Gorillas are considered highly intelligent. A few individuals in captivity, such as Koko , have been taught a subset of sign language.
Like the other great apes , gorillas can laugh, grieve, have "rich emotional lives", develop strong family bonds, make and use tools, and think about the past and future.
The following observations were made by a team led by Thomas Breuer of the Wildlife Conservation Society in September Gorillas are now known to use tools in the wild. A second female was seen using a tree stump as a bridge and also as a support whilst fishing in the swamp. This means all of the great apes are now known to use tools.
In September , a two-and-a-half-year-old gorilla in the Republic of Congo was discovered using rocks to smash open palm nuts inside a game sanctuary. Great apes are endowed with semiprecision grips, and have been able to use both simple tools and even weapons, by improvising a club from a convenient fallen branch, for example. American physician and missionary Thomas Staughton Savage obtained the first specimens the skull and other bones during his time in Liberia.
Other species of gorilla were described in the next few years. The explorer Paul Du Chaillu was the first westerner to see a live gorilla during his travel through western equatorial Africa from to He brought dead specimens to the UK in The first systematic study was not conducted until the s, when Carl Akeley of the American Museum of Natural History traveled to Africa to hunt for an animal to be shot and stuffed.
On his first trip, he was accompanied by his friends Mary Bradley , a mystery writer, her husband, and their young daughter Alice, who would later write science fiction under the pseudonym James Tiptree Jr. She later became an advocate for the conservation of gorillas, and wrote several more books mainly for children. In the late s and early s, Robert Yerkes and his wife Ava helped further the study of gorillas when they sent Harold Bigham to Africa.
Yerkes also wrote a book in about the great apes. In , he conducted a systematic study of the mountain gorilla in the wild and published his work. Years later, at the behest of Louis Leakey and the National Geographic , Dian Fossey conducted a much longer and more comprehensive study of the mountain gorilla. When she published her work, many misconceptions and myths about gorillas were finally disproved, including the myth that gorillas are violent.
Western lowland gorillas G. The gorilla became the next-to-last great ape genus to have its genome sequenced. The first gorilla genome was generated with short read and Sanger sequencing using DNA from a female western lowland gorilla named Kamilah. This gave scientists further insight into the evolution and origin of humans.
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Archived from the original on 29 August This behaviour has not been observed in eastern lowland gorillas.
By 12 months old, infants move up to five meters 16 feet from their mothers.
Frederick Crews earned his Ph. Gorillas' natural habitats cover tropical or subtropical forests in Sub-Saharan Africa. She maintains that online dating can work for introverts in ways offline dating doesn't. I have published papers on malingering, factitious disorder, drug seekers, wandering patients, and pretenders of post-traumatic stress disorder. Pope first became pn in the issues ph 7 social dating "repression" and childhood sexual abuse after many years of studying eating disorders.