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Subscribe Now Do you want to show or other products of your own company. Serial Killer Culture examines the reasons why artists and collectors are fascinated by serial killers. This compelling yet horrifying array of 51 disturbing quotes from 19 disturbed serial killers is drawn from the public domain. Although I m quite certain that each and everyone of these killers had their moments of intense terror and loneliness, I am struck by the fact that some of them seem far more unhappy than others.

For example, Aileen Wuornos may have been one of the most unhappy women that every lived. Compared to her, suave Mr. Bundy seems to to be feeling only moderate pain, while the deadly Dahmer appears to be consumed with guilt over his actions.

What all of this boils down to is that although serial killers may well shares many basic personality characteristics, they are all different which makes it tough to generalize effectively about them. To me, this world is nothing but evil, and my own evil just happened to come out cause of the circumstances of what I was doing.

Hello from the gutters of New York City, which are filled with dog manure, vomit, stale wine, urine and blood. I was literally singing to myself on my way home, after the killing. The tension, the desire to kill a woman had built up in such explosive proportions that when I finally pulled the trigger, all the pressures, all the tensions, all the hatred, had just vanished, dissipated, but only for a short time.

Gein lived in my home state of Wisconsin. Edmund Kemper Big Ed was tall, large and reportedly had the I. He has been a model prisoner. I remember there was actually a sexual thrill. Whipping their heads off, their body sitting there. That d get me off. With a girl, there s a lot left in the girl s body without a head. Of course, the personality is gone. H Holmes completely unique in that he built his notorious Murder Castle where he apparently did in his victims.

I was born with the devil in me. I could not help the fact that I was a murderer, no more than the poet can help the inspiration to sing.. I was born with the evil one standing as my sponsor beside the bed where I was ushered into the world, and he has been with me since. Henry Lee Lucas Henry was without a doubt the victim of bad parenting. The cult film, Henry: Portrait of a Serial Killer is loosely based on him and possibly Ottis Toole.

I strongly recommend it but keep in mind, it is not for the faint at heart. I hated all my life. When I first grew up and can remember, I was dressed as a girl by mother.

And I stayed that way for two or three years. And after that was treated like what I call the dog of the family.

I was made to do things that no human bein would want to do. Sex is one of my downfalls. I get sex any way I can get it. If I have to force somebody to do it, I do I rape them; I ve done that. I ve killed animals to have sex with them, and I ve had sex while they re alive. Ian Brady Brady, killer of children along with his partner Myra Hindley, was apparently quite the intellectual.

He is old and ill now and has expressed his fervent desire to die but the British authorities insist on keeping him alive by means of a feeding tube. Contrary to popular perception, the so-called Moors Murders were merely an existential exercise of just over a year, which was concluded in December My consuming lust was to experience their bodies.

I viewed them as objects, as strangers. It is hard for me to believe a human being could have done what I ve done. I couldn t find any meaning for my life when I was out there, I m sure as hell not going to find it in here. This is the grand finale of a life poorly spent and the end result is just overwhelmingly depressing it s just a sick, pathetic, wretched, miserable life story, that s all it is.

How it can help anyone, I ve no idea. After my head has been chopped off, will I still be able to hear, at least for a moment, the sound of my own blood gushing from my neck. That would be the best pleasure to end all pleasure.

Richard Ramirez The Night Stalker was smart and could have done much good in the world if he d had a decent childhood. We ve all got the power in our hands to kill, but most people are afraid to use it. The ones who aren t afraid, control life itself. A little too suave and self-serving for my taste. I haven t blocked out the past. I wouldn t trade the person I am, or what I ve done — or the people I ve known — for anything.

So I do think about it. And at times it s a rather mellow trip to lay back and remember. You learn what you need to kill and take care of the details Its like changing a tire The 1st time you re careful By the 30th time, you can t remember where you left the lug wrench.

You feel the last bit of breath leaving their body. You re looking into their eyes. A person in that situation is God. Albert DeSalvo Although DeSalvo was definitely a rapist, it has not been definitively settled whether he was actually a murderer. That could be why his quote seems unlike those of the real serial killers. His remains have been exhumed in hopes of obtaining DNA matches. It wasn t as dark and scary as it sounds. I had a lot of fun killing somebody s a funny experience.

I always had the desire to inflict pain on others and to have others inflict pain on me. I always seemed to enjoy everything that hurt. The desire to inflict pain, that is all that is uppermost. Arthur Shawcross This execrable human claimed to have eaten the vaginas of 3 of his 11 known female victims. I took the right leg of that woman s body, from the knee to the hip took the fat off and ate it while he stared at the other girl.

When I bit into it she just urinated right there. When this monster entered my brain, I will never know, but it is here to stay. How does one cure himself. I can t stop it, the monster goes on, and hurts me as well as society. Maybe you can stop him. I ve killed no one. I ve ordered no one to be killed. These children who come to you with their knives, they re your children. I didn t teach them, you did. You know, if I wanted to kill somebody, I d take this book and beat you to death with it.

And I wouldn t feel a thing. It d be just like walking to the drug store. Carl Panzram Panzram confessed to 22 murders, and to having sodomized over 1, males. He was hanged for having murdered a prison employee at Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary in The Zodiac Killer Quotes The Zodiac was very smart although he certainly might have been brought to justice if modern forensic techniques had been available during his reign of terror.

A violent, psychotic killer with a Freudian Excuse gets sick pleasure out of the suffering of his victims. It sounds like he s your basic Serial Killer, right.

Can you tell if these quotes belong in Fifty Shades of Grey or a murder trial. Barry the Chopper from Fullmetal Alchemist is a comically violent serial killer even after his death. That said, the images of his backstory are rather unnerving, and.

From Milwaukee Cannibal Jeffrey Dahmer to Vampire of Dusseldorf Peter Kurten, these 21 serial killer quotes come from the worst mass murderers of all time. Below you will find the most complete list of serial killer quotes and mass murderer quotes on the internet. We are constantly adding new quotes.

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There is a 19 upgrade charge if you upgrade to 2. In particular, it adds the Proxy Mode. However if your phone runs Windows Mobile 5.

PdaNet connects properly but browser fails to open any web pages. After the installation, soft reset the phone and tap the PdaNet icon, now uncheck Proxy Mode and save it. To fix this, go to Control Panel on your computer, select Administrative Tools then Services and turn back on all the Dialup or Remote connection related services In particular one named Remote Access Service. LAN connections on your computer might send data packets to the cellphone connection and cause the network to drop.

Some applications on your phone might attempt to periodically connect to the Internet every few minutes, this will cause the PdaNet connection to drop. You need to change their settings to stop doing the auto connection when PdaNet is in use. Certain network programs on your computer might also cause this to happen, for example VPN software that installs extra network service over the connection.

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There could be different causes for this error. If you have recently swapped your phone or updated the firmware on the phone,. If PdaNet works for you before and you are getting the error without any changes, then. In most cases this error is caused by corrupted network configurations on your computer, especially if PdaNet works. It could be because of installation of some network or security software that impacts. Try to search for dialup error on the Internet and you might be able find some suggestions.

This problem is due to your cellphone service changing APN when you are not at your home area. To do this, click on the PdaNet tray icon on Windows and. This error indicates the RAS system is corrupted by Vista updates. To resolve the issue, you can either user System Restore back. If you have a software called Zone Alarm version 6. If you have Windows you need to completely uninstall Zone Alarm and install 5. You can check the build number by clicking on the ZA tray icon and select About.

The original build of Zone Alarm 6. This is fixed in build on XP together with other Zone Alarm problems. See details at story1. If you don t have Zone Alarm installed, the most likely cause for this is that your system mistakenly picks up the native modem on your PC when dialing. If it does, you can re-install the driver for the native modem and the problem should not repeat. This could also happen if your uninstallation failed to clean up the modem driver for some reason.

PdaNet provides your PC with full Internet access, however your email account is provided by your. If they don t, maybe it is time to consider a free email service. When I try to connect I receive error message: Please attach your device to the PC before connecting.

My device is already connected to the computer s USB port. First of all make sure the ActiveSync icon has turned green when you attach the device. Then after that both the PdaNet tray icon on the computer AND the one on your device side should change state from grey out to active. If the PdaNet icon does not become active, the two sides are not talking to each other.

You can try to soft reset your device unplug and take out the battery then put it back and see if it makes any difference. You can try to turn it off. This is usually because the previous connection was not terminated cleanly for some reason data connection stability issue etc.. When you get this problem, you can do a soft reset on your device unplug, take out the battery and put it back to clear it.

To avoid this problem, try to alway disconnect using the Disconnect menu of the standard network tray icon the one with two blinking screens on your.

If you were able to use PdaNet previously on the same phone, then try to soft reset the phone and see if this error goes away. Otherwise try to see if this helps: You can see more details from Bluetooth setup. No it does not. PdaNet for Windows Mobile is a different product vs.

The serial number you purchased for Treo or lower will not work on. Windows Mobile or vice versa. However you will be able to get a 5 discount as a returning customer. Detailed, step-by-step instructions for using the free PdaNet app to tether your Android phone and use it as a modem for your computer.

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Best Golf Drivers for Beginners. Accomplished golfers can hit drives with a diminished loft, but a beginner should choose a driver with far more loft because it. The Best Golf Drivers for Beginners. The number one wood, or the driver, has the flattest face least loft of any club short of the putter. The Best Drivers for Beginners when choosing the best golf driver, harmful to a beginner. Stating a driver should have perimeter weighting.

In addition to the loft aspect of shots, Best Beginner Driver. If you haven t yet taken a look at my best golf clubs for a beginner article, make sure you do, as I touch on all the clubs in the your bag, not just your driver. Often when people come to me asking what the best beginner golf driver is, I tell them about the two main elements, the driver loft, and the shaft flex.

These are the two areas in which you need to look at before purchasing your driver. For a beginner golfer, the ideal loft on a golf driver should be In fact, for a beginner I d go as far as an 11, 12, or maybe even 13 degree loft driver.

The reason I recommend a higher degree of loft is because a club with a higher loft is generally more forgiving and therefore much easier to hit consistently. Just look at a 9 iron or a wedge, they re the easiest clubs in your bag to hit. Compare that to how difficult the long irons such as 3, 4, or 5 are to hit. The higher loft encourages the ball flight to go upwards rather than outwards, helping with the slices or hooks I often see in a beginner s game.

The shaft flex is another common problem I see when it comes to the best beginner golf driver. The stiffness of the shaft affects the swing a great deal.

It s important that the shaft on the driver is soft enough so you can learn how to swing it correctly and release. Also, if you re a beginner whose swing speed isn t quite as high as a 20 something then I recommend going with a regular to light flex shaft.

If you re in your twilight years then maybe even a senior flex shaft will be better. Remember loft and a soft shaft are the two most important elements to have in your driver.

It will help with consistency and accuracy, two of the main aspects of golf beginners continue to forget. Distance should be a distant thought, never to be engaged until you get the consistency and the accuracy into your driving. Essentially, a maximum C. The titanium matrix construction is perfect for long shots off the tee. The graphite shaft is strong and stable, and the grip means the club will stay securely in your hand. This right-handed club delivers great distance and a low trajectory, and is great choice for any amateur looking for an affordable driver.

Beginner s Guide to Golf Clubs. Most beginning golfers should use a driver with either a New models arriving in pro shops feature moveable weight systems, exotic materials and designs that look nothing like what Old Tom Morris would have swung. So before you plunk down your hard-earned greenbacks, you d better arm yourself with some information. Here are five things you ll want to know before you make your next driver purchase. You want to hit the ball farther.

Or to be more accurate, you want to humble your buddies and quietly walk down the fairway with a smirk on your face, then nod as if to say, You fellas are away. Here s the deal: Back in the day, it was thought that the best drives started low, then shot high in the air.

We now know that those kinds of shots have too much backspin. In order to get the ball really deep down the fairway, we now know that you need to maximize carry distance. You want get the ball started on a high launch angle, and once it is in the air, you want it to hang up there due to just the right amount of backspin.

Too much backspin and the shot will balloon up, then fall straight down. Too little spin and you can t keep the ball in the air long enough. To make that happen, to create those perfect launch conditions, you need to have the ideal combination of clubhead, shaft and ball for your swing.

Do your drives feel rock solid when you hit them, but fall like a stone and drop short. That s a sure sign that you are not generating enough backspin with your driver. It s also likely that you are one of those players who hits your 3-wood better off the tee than your driver. Don t worry, you re not alone. More than a few players get more carry distance and better control with their 3-wood off the tee. Sure, the shorter shaft of your 3-wood will give you more control, but it s the loft, which is about 15, that really is the key.

If your driver has 9. Generally speaking, the slower your swing, the more loft you need on your driver. The faster your swing, the less loft your driver needs to create the ideal amount of backspin. FYI The more backspin you impart on the ball, the straighter your shot will probably fly. For this reason, you never hear about someone slicing a 9-iron or wedge. It s pretty safe to say that any player with a swing speed slower than 75 mph should be playing with a driver that has at least 12 of loft.

But unfortunately, you can t make a nice, clean assumption about how much loft you need if you swing much faster than that because there are so many variables in the golf swing. One 90 mph players may be So what about those pros you hear about who have a driver with something like 8 of loft. Well, those guys probably swing their driver around mph.

If they played a Flexpoint simply refers to the area of the shaft where it bends kickpoint, which you might also hear, means the same thing.

Generally speaking, a lower flexpoint will produce a higher ball flight, which can be good for slower-swinging players.

The shaft literally flexes closer to the head of your driver and kicks it through the impact area so the ball goes higher into the air. A high flexpoint, again, generally speaking, won t kick the ball up as much and produces a lower ball flight.

This would be ideal for someone who swings his driver very fast, and therefore creates a lot of natural backspin. But don t get the impression that we re talking about spots that are spread far apart.

The standard length of a driver shaft is 45 inches and in reality, the flex point range is only about an inch or two wide. If you haven t, here s the kicker no pun intended: If you select the perfect clubhead and ball to use, but if your shaft doesn t compliment them, it will be very tough to consistently hit drives that are as long and straight as they could be.

And if you change any one of those variables, you will change the flight of your drives. Slicing is the bane of the amateur ranks. And golf club manufacturers know this. A slice is produced when you hit a shot with a clubface that is open to your swing path. This imparts left-to-right spin on the ball for a right-handed player and makes the shot curve right. Drivers with draw bias have weight in the heel area. That weight will make the clubface naturally close more easily on your downswing, so you will be less likely to slice.

Several of the new cc monster-size drivers have this feature. Some drivers look like the face of the club points left when you set them behind the ball. That s because they do. Clubs with hook-faces are designed to impart right-to-left spin. Again, this will help you avoid the conditions that create a slice. But not all of them are the same. Think about it this way: Mercedes and Yugo both make sedans, but those cars are nothing alike.

Don t assume that every cc driver will maximize power and offer lots of forgiveness on off-center hits. Weights and designs differ, and therefore, so does performance. That s why you need to get out there and demo several drivers before you purchase one. CAT7 features even more stringent specifications for crosstalk and system noise than CAT6, and is designed specifically for Gigabit Ethernet applications Gigabit over copper. Patch cords have stranded copper conductors for flexibility - great for frequent changes that occur at the wall outlet or patch panel.

Network high speed fiber patch cables. Category 6 Cables will operate up to meters. AmazonBasics products are quality electronics accessories offered at a great value. Ma Labs, premier IT distributor, offers full selection of computer components, just-in-time integration services, flexible payment options, and best value to VARS. I am having a problem with the display driver on my computer that causes it to freeze up, the screen goes black, and then an error message appears t - Finding the correct driver for your device has never been easier.

DriverGuide maintains an archive of Hitachi drivers available for free Download. I am having the same issue a failing display driver. I have an HP tx running Windows 7 Professional. I did some upgrades to this system as I bought it in August of and am past the warranty period. I still have the old HD with Windows Vista and am tempted to put it back into the machine if all else fails.

The display will fail only when the laptop is running on battery power. If I have the AC plugged in, I have no problems. The display will only fail if the computer is under moderate load running on battery power.

If I play Youtube videos or any moderate flash content from websites, the display driver will fail. If I play video files, the display driver will fail. I have experienced a few failures with word processing, but it is not as regular. If the system is idle, there are no failures. I will not get the BSOD. The display driver will just fail regularly and recover, sometimes every seconds. Since I saw no issues when using AC power, I figured my battery might be the problem.

So I tried using a new battery, an 8-cell HP replacement more power than the 4-cell battery that came with my laptop, but the display driver still fails. Could it have been my HD replacement. Will a RPM drive draw more power and cause other systems the display driver to fail. Or is this a Windows 7 issue. I feel like the battery cannot supply enough power voltage.

While installing video drivers in your HP laptop, you would have to ensure whether the available memory in your HP Laptop is able to accommodate the video drivers you are installing.

If the available memory in your HP laptop does not have the capacity to hold the video drivers, you would have to stop your installation. You would have to face certain installation troubles in your PC if you try to do so.

I got my 1st HP dv6 laptop in June Since I was under the 90 day return period, I took that laptop back and got another HP dv6. Less than 2 weeks after obtaining this laptop, same thing all over again.

However, being only 2 weeks into my 90 day grace period and extremely busy, it was awhile before I attempted return 2. My 90 days was approaching, so back to the store I went. This time, they had the dv7 laptop available, so I opted for that one instead. I was soooooo mad. Clearly, this was more than just bad luck. However, with laptop 3, I noticed even more patterns. The episodes more often than not, occurred when I had been watching a show online, paused it, and returned some time later to finish watching the show.

As SOON as I would press play, like clock work, display driver down, the video box that had been playing the show would turn green, the blue screen of death appeared, the laptop froze, and crash.

In addition, I also took notice that a lot of times when these episodes took place, my laptop fan would start spinning like crazy and the base would get extremely hot. However, this overheating aspect only occured during or just before the episodes approximately 30 of the time. Anyway, exchanged laptop 3 in for laptop 4; also an HP dv7. What a shocker, the SAME thing happens all of the time.

Again, times a day, and just about every single time, as a result of me pressing the play button on a paused tv show. I can t do it and I can t take it anymore. I have lost too many partially or fully unsaved documents due to an unexpectedly crashing laptop. A laptop should be able to handle some video afterall. I know what you are thinking, just quit watching tv online. I don t have tv at home and I love to carry my laptop around the house with me and have a tv show playing while I am doing laundry, dishes, showering, getting ready, cooking, cleaning, etc.

When I have a show playing in the background while I am doing such unpleasant chores, I don t even mind doing them. And yes, I am the fool for going back to HP four times in a row. Foolishly believing that each time, the probelm would have been fixed and that my new laptop would be bug-free. Anyway, hopefully the details of my story can better help others in similar situations, or help HP to figure out what in the world is wrong with their laptop computers and the display driver.

BTW, one last thing. When I was using firefox instead of chrome, when the display driver has stopped working message would appear, I could hurry and open the task manager and kill the related process can t think of the name. Sadly, firefox had too many things that drove me crazy so I stopped using it.

Chrome operates differently because when the display driver message appears, there is no corresponding process. They sent me an empty box, told me to stick my laptop in it back up all my stuff and mail it somewhere.

I do trust HP, but I don t have time to backup my computer, and I don t have any resources to facilitiate it. To be without the computer for 3 weeks was also not an option. Also, the phone number they gave me something did not work in Canada - so I was uber cautious and decided not to mail it quite yet. They did follow up with me later and ask what I did, but obviously they should check their own forums and get a solution. I thought about it and thought about for a long time, and since sometimes restoring your computer works if suddenty it has stopped working, perhaps restoring to a previous version might also work go back to something tried and true and ignore the new software for awhile till they get the bugs out kind of thinking.

I had visited the HP site supports to look at the AMD drivers for my machine and had tried installing them but always the same problem. I rolled back my AMD driver to a previous version.

I would suspect something is up with the updates and that is what is driving people bonkers. I have a HP Probook s, and when I finally rolled back the display drivers, they stopped freezing up.

It took me over 1 year to figure it out. I can have windows open now and it works reasonably well - at least it stops freezing and giving me silly error reports. Register yourself if you are not registered. Right down your user name and password so you have it handy.

I usualy just had to keep refreshing page and pray to work. Now it s happening on all network sites including HULU and gets worse by the day.

I have wasted soooooooooooooooooo many hours of my life due to these issues. And with these problems and I get back on websites to continue watching shows. I have to sit through all the commercials again wasting more hours of my life. If you are really interested in subnet masks, there are a number of subnet calculators on the Internet, including TunnelsUp. Most Internet protocols specify that addresses be supplied in the form of a fully-qualified host name or an IP address in dotted decimal form.

However, spammers and others have found a way to obfuscate IP addresses by supplying the IP address as a single large decimal number. Remember that IPv4 addresses are bit quantities. We write the address in dotted decimal for the convenience of humans; the computer still interprets dotted decimal as a bit quantity.

Therefore, writing the address as a single large decimal number will still allow the computer to see the address as a bit number. For that reason, the following URLs will all take you to the same Web page on most browsers:. The use of class-based or classful addresses in IP is one of the reasons that IP address exhaustion has been a concern since the early s. Consider an organization, for example, that needs IP addresses. A Class C address is obviously too small so a Class B address would get assigned.

But a Class B address offers more than 64, address, so more than 63, addresses are wasted in this assignment. An alternative approach is to assign this organization a block four Class C addresses, such as By using a bit subnet mask In the example above, routing information for what is essentially four Class C addresses can be specified in a single router table entry. But this concept can be expanded even more.

CIDR is an important contribution to the Internet because it has dramatically limited the size of the Internet backbone's routing tables. Today, IP addresses are not assigned strictly on a first-come, first-serve basis, but have been preallocated to various numbering authorities around the world.

The numbering authorities in turn, assign blocks of addresses to major or first-tier ISPs; these address blocks are called CIDR blocks. This range of addresses could be represented in a routing table with the single entry But don't stop now!

As the Class C address space grew nearer and nearer to being exhausted, users were under increasing pressure to accept assignment of these sub-Class C addresses. An organization with just a few servers, for example, might be assigned, say, 64 addresses rather than the full So, for example, the IP address space Each user, then, has 62 addresses that can be assigned to hosts.

The pressure on the Class C address space is continuing in intensity. Today, the pressure is not only to limit the number of addresses assigned, but organizations need to show why they need as many addresses as they want. Consider a company with 64 hosts and 3 servers.

The scheme works because every host on the user's network can be assigned an IP address from the pool of RFC private addresses; since these addresses are never seen on the Internet, this is not a problem. Consider the scenario shown in Figure 6. NAT works because of the assumption that, in this example, no more than 27 of the 64 hosts will ever be accessing the Internet at a single time.

But suppose that assumption is wrong. Port numbers are used by higher layer protocols e. The server's port number is defined by the standards while client port numbers can be any number greater than The scenario in Figure 7 shows the following three connections: The client with the "private" IP address PAT works in this scenario as follows.

Both of these solutions work and work fine, but they require that every packet be buffered, dissassembled, provided with a new IP address, a new checksum calculated, and the packet reassembled. In addition, PAT requires that a new port number be placed in the higher layer protocol data unit and new checksum calculated at the protocol layer above IP, too. With NAT, only the servers need to be renumbered. DHCP is also an excellent solution for those environments where users move around frequently; it prevents the user from having to reconfigure their system when they move from, say, the Los Angeles office network to the New York office.

The Domain Name System While IPv4 addresses are 32 bits in length, most users do not memorize the numeric addresses of the hosts to which they attach; instead, people are more comfortable with host names. Most IP hosts, then, have both a numeric IP address and a name.

While this is convenient for people, however, the name must be translated back to a numeric address for routing purposes. Earlier discussion in this paper described the domain naming structure of the Internet. This was an adequate measure while the ARPANET was small and had a slow rate of growth, but was not a scalable solution as the network grew. There is a single authoritative name server for every domain that contains all DNS-related information about the domain; each domain also has at least one secondary name server that also contains a copy of this information.

Thirteen root servers around the globe maintain a list of all of these authoritative name servers. Although most of the root servers have multiple instances around the globe to improve performance and minimize vulnerability to attack, most of the primary DNS root servers are in the U. When a host on the Internet needs to obtain a host's IP address based upon the host's name, a DNS request is made by the initial host to a local name server.

The local name server may be able to respond to the request with information that is either configured or cached at the name server; if necessary information is not available, the local name server forwards the request to one of the root servers. The root server, then, will determine an appropriate name server for the target host and the DNS request will be forwarded to the domain's name server.

Suppose you have a server with the IP address You could set this up in DNS with four A-records, as follows:. Note that if you ever need to change the IP address of this system, you need to change all four A-records.

In this case, if you ever need to change the address of the server, you only need to change a single A-record. To be fair, however, the former method also has its advantages; if you ever migrate, say, www. The IANA administers the root zone i. It maintains a list of all authoritative zone administrations at its Root Zone Database. Every transmission on the LAN contains the local network, or medium access control MAC , address of the source and destination nodes. MAC addresses are bits in length and are non-hierarchical, so routing cannot be performed using the MAC address.

MAC addresses are never the same as IP addresses. If the destination host is on another network, the sender will look instead for the MAC address of the default gateway, or router. Unfortunately, the sender's IP process may not know the MAC address of the intended receiver on the same network.

The process is actually relatively simple: Other address resolution procedures have also been defined, including: IP hosts maintain a cache storing recent ARP information. But it is routing protocols , and not IP, that populate the routing tables with routing information. Since the routing is inside of the domain, these protocols are generically referred to as interior gateways protocols.

The Routing Information Protocol version 2 RIP-2 , described in RFC , describes how routers will exchange routing table information using a distance-vector algorithm. With RIP, neighboring routers periodically exchange their entire routing tables. RIP uses hop count as the metric of a path's cost, and a path is limited to 16 hops. Unfortunately, RIP has become increasingly inefficient on the Internet as the network continues its fast rate of growth. Designed to be used within a single organization's network, RIP is an interior gateway protocol.

OSPF uses a link state routing algorithm that is more robust than RIP, converges faster, requires less network bandwidth, and is better able to scale to larger networks. With OSPF, a router broadcasts only changes in its links' status rather than entire routing tables, making it more robust and scalable than RIP. The "open" in the name of OSPF refers to the non-proprietary nature of the algorithm rather than an "open shortest path.

BGP is a distance vector protocol, like RIP, but unlike almost all other distance vector protocols, BGP tables store the actual route to the destination network.

BGP-4 also supports policy-based routing, which allows a network's administrator to create routing policies based on political, security, legal, or economic issues rather than technical ones. As an alternative to using a routing protocol, the routing table can be maintained using "static routing.

Edge router's, too, commonly use static routing; the single router connecting a site to an ISP, for example, will usually just have a static routing table entry indicating that all traffic leaving the local LAN be forwarded to the ISP's access router.

Since there's only a single path into the ISP, a routing protocol is hardly necessary. All IP hosts and routers maintain a table that lists the most up-to-date routing information that that device knows. On a Windows system, you can examine the routing table by issuing a route print command; on Unix systems, use netstat -r.

IP version 6 The official version of IP that has been in use since the early s is version 4. Due to the tremendous growth of the Internet and new emerging applications, it was recognized that a new version of IP was becoming necessary. IPv6 is designed as an evolution from IPv4, rather than a radical change, so as to allow for an orderly transition. Primary areas of change relate to: IPv6 packet header format. The basic IPv6 packet header format is shown in Figure 8: Specifies the IP version of the packet, in this case "6" Eight-bit value used for traffic management.

Eight-bit value identifying the type of header immediately following the IPv6 header. Similar to the IPv4 Protocol field, except that this allows IPv6 with the flexibility to use only additional fields that it needs to use, thus reducing packet size e. Eight-bit value used like IPv4's TTL field; is assigned a value from 0 to by the sender, indicating the number of hops that this packet is allowed to take before discarded within the network. Even if you can't comprehend the magnitude of this number, it is pretty impressive given that there are only estimated to be 2 80 stars in the galaxy!!!

IPv6 addresses are written in eight blocks of two-octets, separated by a colon: Leading zeroes within a group may be dropped, so you might see an address written as As an additioknal shorthand, one or more consecutive all-zero groups can be replaced with a ":: In July , the IANA delegated the initial IPv6 address space to the worldwide regional registries in order to begin immediate worldwide deployment of IPv6 addresses.

Without going into too much gory detail about IPv6 addresses, suffice it to say that subnet masks can be of any length. Here is one example of the IPv6 address hierarchy:. Finally, many of the common IPv4 command line tools have IPv6 functionality. In general, Windows uses the same command but employs a -6 switch while Unix including Linux and Mac OS X employs a variant command name by adding a 6 to the end. For more information about IPv6, check out: The port identifier and IP address together form a socket , and the end-to-end communication between two hosts is uniquely identified on the Internet by the four-tuple source port, source address, destination port, destination address.

Port numbers are specified by a bit number. Port numbers in the range are called Well Known Ports. These port numbers are assigned to the server side of an application and, on most systems, can only be used by processes with a high level of privilege such as root or administrator.

Port numbers in the range are called Registered Ports , and these are numbers that have been publicly defined as a convenience for the Internet community to avoid vendor conflicts.

Server or client applications can use the port numbers in this range. Some well-known port numbers include:. TCP, described in RFC , provides a virtual circuit connection-oriented communication service between hosts across the network. TCP includes rules for formatting messages, establishing and terminating virtual circuits, sequencing, flow control, and error correction. The TCP data unit is called a segment ; the name is due to the fact that TCP does not recognize messages, per se, but merely sends a block of bytes from the byte stream between sender and receiver.

The fields of the segment Figure 9 are: Source Port and Destination Port: Identify the source and destination ports to identify the end-to-end connection and higher-layer application. Contains the sequence number of this segment's first data byte in the overall connection byte stream; since the sequence number refers to a byte count rather than a segment count, sequence numbers in contiguous TCP segments are not numbered sequentially.

Used by the sender to acknowledge receipt of data; this field indicates the sequence number of the next byte expected from the receiver. Points to the first data byte in this segment; this field, then, indicates the segment header length. A set of flags that control certain aspects of the TCP virtual connection. When set, indicates that the current segment contains urgent or high-priority data and that the Urgent Pointer field value is valid.

When set, indicates that the value contained in the Acknowledgment Number field is valid. This bit is usually set, except during the first message during connection establishment. Used when the transmitting application wants to force TCP to immediately transmit the data that is currently buffered without waiting for the buffer to fill; useful for transmitting small units of data.

When set, immediately terminates the end-to-end TCP connection. Set in the initial segments used to establish a connection, indicating that the segments carry the initial sequence number. Set to request normal termination of the TCP connection in the direction this segment is traveling; completely closing the connection requires one FIN segment in each direction.

Used for flow control, contains the value of the receive window size which is the number of transmitted bytes that the sender of this segment is willing to accept from the receiver. Provides bit error detection for the TCP segment. Urgent data is information that has been marked as high-priority by a higher layer application; this data, in turn, usually bypasses normal TCP buffering and is placed in a segment between the header and "normal" data.

The Urgent Pointer, valid when the URG flag is set, indicates the position of the first octet of nonexpedited data in the segment. Used at connection establishment to negotiate a variety of options; maximum segment size MSS is the most commonly used option and, if absent, defaults to an MSS of Another option is Selective Acknowledgement SACK , which allows out-of-sequence segments to be accepted by a receiver.

Some applications, such as those that involve a simple query and response, are better suited to the datagram service of UDP because there is no time lost to virtual circuit establishment and termination. UDP's primary function is to add a port number to the IP address in order to provide a socket for the application. The fields of a UDP datagram Figure 10 are: Identifies the UDP port being used by the sender of the datagram; use of this field is optional in UDP and may be set to 0.

Identifies the port used by the datagram receiver. Indicates the total length of the UDP datagram. Provides bit error detection for the UDP datagram. This collateral protocol is particularly important in the connectionless environment of IP. ICMP messages can be sent between two host systems or from a router to a host.

Commonly employed ICMP message types include: Indicates that a packet cannot be delivered because the destination host cannot be reached. The reason for the non-delivery may be that the host or network is unreachable or unknown, the protocol or port is unknown or unusable, fragmentation is required but not allowed DF-flag is set , or the network or host is unreachable for this type of service.

Echo and Echo Reply: These two messages are used to check whether hosts are reachable on the network. One host sends an Echo message to the other, optionally containing some data, and the receiving host responds with an Echo Reply containing the same data. These messages are the basis for the Ping command. Indicates that a router or host encountered a problem with some aspect of the packet's Header.

Used by a host or router to let the sending host know that packets should be forwarded to another address. For security reasons, Redirect messages should usually be blocked at the firewall. Sent by a router to indicate that it is experiencing congestion usually due to limited buffer space and is discarding datagrams.

Indicates that a datagram has been discarded because the TTL field reached 0 or because the entire packet was not received before the fragmentation timer expired. Timestamp and Timestamp Reply: These messages are similar to the Echo messages, but place a timestamp with millisecond granularity in the message, yielding a measure of how long remote systems spend buffering and processing datagrams, and providing a mechanism so that hosts can synchronize their clocks.

TCP connections have three main parts: The connection establishment phase comprises a three-way handshake during which time the client and server exchange their initial sequence numbers ISN and acknowledge the other host's ISN.

In this example, the client starts by sending the server a TCP segment with the syn-bit set and a Sequence Number of The syn-bit tells the receiver i. The segment's Acknowledgement Number isn't shown because its value is, at this point, invalid.

The server responds with a segment with the syn- and ack-bits set, a Sequence Number of , and an Acknowledgement Number of The syn-bit and ISN of have the same meaning as above.

The ack-bit indicates the value of the Acknowledgement Number field is valid and the ACK value of is the way in which the server confirms the client's ISN. The final part of the three-way handshake is when the client sends a segment with just the ack-bit set. It is important for a number of reasons. For individuals looking at packet traces, recognition of the three-way handshake is how to find the start of a connection. For firewalls, proxy severs, intrusion detectors, and other systems, it provides a way of knowing the direction of a TCP connection setup since rules may differ for outbound and inbound connections.

The second part of the TCP connection is data exchange. The information here is more or less made up for example purposes only; it shows a POP server sending a banner message to the client system, the user sending the "quit" command, and the server signing off. These segments show the changing of, and relationship between, the client's and server's sequence and acknowledgement numbers. The final phase is connection termination. Although TCP connections are full-duplex even if a given application does not allow two-way simultaneous communication , the TCP protocol views the logical connection as a pair of simplex links.

Therefore, connection termination requires four segments or, more properly, two pair of segments. In this case, the client sends the server a segment with the fin- and ack-bits set; the server responds with a segment with just the ack-bit set and the Acknowledgment Number is incremented.

The paragraphs above describe a normal scenario setting up a TCP connection between a client and server. Two UDP hosts communicate in a much simpler fashion; one host sends a UDP datagram to the other which is presumably listening on the port indicated in the datagram. If the sender does not receive an expected response in a timely fashion, it doesn't try to figutre out why but merley retransmiyts its message. But what happens if a host isn't listening on a port to which a connection is attempted or the host doesn't actually exist?

Here's what happens in these "abnormal" conditions:. This section will list a number of these applications and show a sample packet decode of all protocol layers. A utility that allowed a user to search all registered anonymous FTP sites for files on a specified topic. Obsolete by the lates, obviated by the World Wide Web. The Domain Name System described in slightly more detail in Section 3. Anonymous FTP allows a user to download files from a site without requiring that the user have an account at the site; in this case, the user employs the username anonymous and the password guest although, later, users were asked to use their e-mail address as the anonymous password.

A tool that allowed users to search through data repositories using a menu-driven, hierarchical interface, with links to other sites. A utility that allowed a user to search Gopher sites for files on a specified topic. The Internet Mail Access Protocol defines an alternative to POP as the interface between a user's mail client software and an e-mail server, used to download mail from the server to the client and providing significant flexibility in mailbox management.

A utility that allows a user at one system to determine the status another host and the latency in getting a message to that host. For more information and insight, see The Ping Page. The Post Office Protocol defines a simple interface between a user's mail client software e. SMTP is used between e-mail servers on the Internet or to allow an e-mail client to send mail to a server.

Reference books on electronic mail systems include! Addressing and Networks by D. The Secure Shell is a protocol that allows remote logon to a host across the Internet, much like Telnet. Unlike Telnet, however, SSH encrypts passwords and data traffic.

The Secure Sockets Layer SSL , originally developed in by Netscape in order to enable e-commerce, provides a mechanism for secure communications over the Internet, based on certificates and public key cryptography. There are many time servers on the Internet. At one time, the two standard time servers were tick. Navy is the official timekeeper of the U.

NIST also displays official U. A tool that displays the route taken by packets across the Internet between a local and remote host.

More information about the operation and background of traceroute can be found at the InetDaemon traceroute page. A utility that allowed a user to search all Gopher sites for files on a specified topic. A utility that searches databases for information about Internet domains and domain contact information RFC Full-blown protocol analysis is well beyond the scope of this paper. But a little introduction is ok!! In the deep past, network managers would use serial line analyzer hardware to display the 0s and 1s on the line; most had a mode that displayed hexadecimal so that we had a fighting chance to know the octet boundaries.

Protocol analyzers had software to interpret the bit stream and display the interpreted protocol values. In the lates, we started to see specialized packet sniffing software that would perform protocol analysis. When using such software, a computer's network interface card NIC operates in promiscuous mode so that the NIC captures every packet that flies by on the wire rather than only those packets addressed to this particular NIC.

Figure 12 shows an Ethereal screenshot. The lowest level unit of transmission at the Network Interface Layer protocol is called a frame. Within the frame is an IP packet. Data units at the Application Layer are also referred to as messages. Note that the packet sniffer display has three sections.

The top part shows a summary of the frames in the capture buffer. Note here that we see frames numbered No. The Time column displays the relative time of the packet transmission, where the first packet is at time 0.

The next two columns list the source sender's and destination receiver's IP addresses. The Protocol column indicates the protocol associated with this packet, while the Info column provides some summary information about the packet. In this case we see:. The middle section of the display shows the decode and interpretation of a single transmission, in this case, Frame The bottom section shows the selected transmission in hexadecimal.

This is the raw bit stream. Note that some of the bytes are highlighted here; they match the block highlighted in the middle part of the display, namely the entire IP header portion of the transmission. Note that this frame contains the Anonymous user name as shown in the upper section of the display ; this can also be seen in the raw byte stream.

The discussion here is only meant to give readers a taste of one of the coolest tools that we get to play with in data communications; it is also an important tool for network managers and security administrators. Increasingly, these protocols are referred to as the Internet Protocol Suite , but the older name will not disappear anytime soon.

Applications and utilities reside in host, or end-communicating, systems. TCP provides a reliable, virtual circuit connection between the two hosts. UDP, not shown, provides an end-to-end datagram connection at this layer.

IP provides a datagram DG transport service over any intervening subnetworks, including local and wide area networks.

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