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There is a vibrant arts scene in the city including a highly regarded art gallery, [25] and an active Hunter Writers' Centre. Rowan Atkinson , actor best known for Mr. Retrieved 25 January A "green belt" protecting plant and wildlife flanks the city from the west Watagan mountains around to the north where it meets the coast just north of Stockton. Rail transport, however, is accessible to only a relatively small percentage of the population along the major rail transport routes and ferry services are restricted to those commuting between Newcastle and Stockton.

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G'day, I am a casual easy going sort of bloke that gets a bit lonely. The city developed around the Roman settlement Pons Aelius [13] [14] and was named after the castle built in by Robert Curthose , William the Conqueror 's eldest son. The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade in the 14th century, and later became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the River Tyne , was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres.

Among its icons are Newcastle United football club and the Tyne Bridge. Since the city has hosted the Great North Run , a half marathon which attracts over 57, runners each year. The first recorded settlement in what is now Newcastle was Pons Aelius , a Roman fort and bridge across the River Tyne. This rare honour suggests Hadrian may have visited the site and instituted the bridge on his tour of Britain.

The population of Pons Aelius then is estimated at 2, The course of the "Roman Wall" can be traced eastwards to the Segedunum Roman fort in Wallsend —the "wall's end"—and to the supply fort Arbeia in South Shields. After the Roman departure from Britain , completed in , Newcastle became part of the powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria , and was known throughout this period as Monkchester. Conflicts with the Danes in left the river Tyne and its settlements in ruin.

Because of its strategic position, Robert Curthose , son of William the Conqueror , erected a wooden castle there in the year The town was henceforth known as Novum Castellum or New Castle. The wooden structure was replaced by a stone castle in Much of the keep which can be seen in the city today dates from this period.

Throughout the Middle Ages , Newcastle was England's northern fortress. Incorporated first by Henry II , the city had a new charter granted by Elizabeth in Newcastle was successfully defended against the Scots three times during the 14th century, and was created a county corporate with its own sheriff by Henry IV in From , a royal act restricted all shipments of coal from Tyneside to Newcastle Quayside , giving a monopoly in the coal trade to a cartel of Newcastle burgesses known as the Hostmen.

This monopoly, which lasted for a considerable time, helped Newcastle prosper and develop into a major town. The phrase taking coals to Newcastle was first recorded contextually in He was persuaded to sail a shipment of coal to Newcastle by merchants plotting to ruin him; however his shipment arrived on the Tyne during a strike that had crippled local production; unexpectedly he made a considerable profit.

In the Sandgate area, to the east of the city, and beside the river, resided the close-knit community of keelmen and their families.

In the s, about 7, out of 20, inhabitants of Newcastle died of plague , more than one-third of the population. In , the Scots then captured the reinforced fortification on the Lawe in South Shields following a siege. It was eventually stormed "with roaring drummes" and sacked by Cromwell's allies. The grateful King bestowed the motto "Fortiter Defendit Triumphans" "Triumphing by a brave defence" upon the town.

Charles I was imprisoned in Newcastle by the Scots in —7. In the 18th century, Newcastle was the country's fourth largest print centre after London, Oxford and Cambridge , [32] and the Literary and Philosophical Society of , [32] with its erudite debates and large stock of books in several languages, predated the London Library by half a century.

A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of Fenham Barracks in The Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead was a tragic and spectacular series of events starting on Friday 6 October , in which a substantial amount of property in the two North East of England towns was destroyed in a series of fires and an explosion which killed 53 and injured hundreds.

The status of city was granted to Newcastle on 3 June In the 19th century, shipbuilding and heavy engineering were central to the city's prosperity; and the city was a powerhouse of the Industrial Revolution. In , Newcastle became the seat of an Anglican diocese , with St. Nicholas' Church becoming its cathedral.

Newcastle's public transport system was modernised in when Newcastle Corporation Tramways electric trams were introduced to the city's streets, though these were replaced gradually by trolley buses from , with the tram service finally coming to an end in The city acquired its first art gallery, the Laing Art Gallery in , so named after its founder Alexander Laing, a Scottish wine and spirit merchant [45] who wanted to give something back to the city in which he had made his fortune.

Another art gallery, the Hatton Gallery now part of Newcastle University , opened in With the advent of the motor car, Newcastle's road network was improved in the early part of the 20th century, beginning with the opening of the Redheugh road bridge in [47] and the Tyne Bridge in Efforts to preserve the city's historic past were evident as long ago as , when the Museum of Science and Industry opened, [49] as did the John G Joicey Museum in the same year.

Council housing began to replace inner city slums in the s, and the process continued into the s, along with substantial private house building and acquisitions. Unemployment hit record heights in Newcastle during the Great Depression of the s. The city's last coal pit closed in , [50] though a temporary open cast mine was opened in During the Second World War the city and surrounding area were a target for air raids as heavy industry was involved in the production of ships and armaments.

The raids caused deaths and injuries. The public sector in Newcastle began to expand in the s. The federal structure of the University of Durham was dissolved. That university's colleges in Newcastle, which had been known as King's College, became the University of Newcastle upon Tyne now known as Newcastle University , which was founded in , [54] followed by a Newcastle Polytechnic in ; the latter received university status in and became the Northumbria University.

Further efforts to preserve the city's historic past continued in the later 20th century, with the opening of Newcastle Military Vehicle Museum in and Stephenson Railway Museum in The Military Vehicle museum closed in Newcastle is situated in the North East of England, in the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear and the historical and traditional county of Northumberland.

The city is located on the northwestern bank of the River Tyne. The ground beneath the city is formed from Carboniferous strata of the Middle Pennine Coal Measures Group—a suite of sandstones , mudstones and coal seams which generally dip moderately eastwards. To the west of the city are the Upper Pennine Coal Measures and further west again the sandstones and mudstones of the Stainmore Formation, the local equivalent of the Millstone Grit.

In large parts, Newcastle still retains a medieval street layout. Narrow alleys or ' chares ', most of which can only be traversed by foot, still exist in abundance, particularly around the riverside.

Stairs from the riverside to higher parts of the city centre and the extant Castle Keep , originally recorded in the 14th century, remain intact in places. Close, Sandhill and Quayside contain modern buildings as well as structures dating from the 15th—18th centuries, including Bessie Surtees House , the Cooperage and Lloyds Quayside Bars, Derwentwater House and House of Tides, a restaurant situated at a Grade I-listed 16th century merchant's house at 28—30 Close.

The city has an extensive neoclassical centre referred to as Tyneside Classical [62] largely developed in the s by Richard Grainger and John Dobson , and recently extensively restored. Broadcaster and writer Stuart Maconie described Newcastle as England's best-looking city [63] [64] and the German-born British scholar of architecture, Nikolaus Pevsner , [65] describes Grey Street as one of the finest streets in England. Immediately to the northwest of the city centre is Leazes Park , established in [69] after a petition by 3, working men of the city for "ready access to some open ground for the purpose of health and recreation".

Another green space in Newcastle is the Town Moor , lying immediately north of the city centre. It is larger than London's famous Hyde Park and Hampstead Heath put together [70] [71] and the freemen of the city have the right to graze cattle on it. James' Park , Newcastle United Football Club's ground ; this is not exercised, although the Freemen do collect rent for the loss of privilege.

In the southeastern corner is Exhibition Park , which contains the only remaining pavilion from the North East Coast Exhibition of From s until this housed the Newcastle Military Vehicle Museum; which closed in The pavilion is now being used as a microbrewery and concert venue for Wylam Brewery.

The wooded gorge of the Ouseburn in the east of the city is known as Jesmond Dene and forms another popular recreation area, linked by Armstrong Park and Heaton Park to the Ouseburn Valley , where the river finally reaches the River Tyne. The spring time dawn chorus at 55 degrees latitude has been described as one of the best in the world. A new Chinese arch, or paifang , providing a landmark entrance, was handed over to the city with a ceremony in The UK's first biotechnology village, the Centre for Life is located in the city centre close to the Central railway station.

The village is the first step in the City Council's plans to transform Newcastle into a science city. Large-scale regeneration has replaced former shipping premises with imposing new office developments; an innovative tilting bridge, the Gateshead Millennium Bridge was commissioned by Gateshead Council and has integrated the older Newcastle Quayside more closely with major cultural developments in Gateshead, including the BALTIC Centre for Contemporary Art , the venue for the Turner Prize [86] and the Norman Foster -designed The Sage Gateshead music centre.

The Newcastle and Gateshead Quaysides are now a thriving, cosmopolitan area with bars, restaurants and public spaces. As a tourist promotion, Newcastle and Gateshead have linked together under the banner " NewcastleGateshead ", to spearhead the regeneration of the North-East. The River Tyne had the temporary Bambuco Bridge in for ten days; it was not made for walking, road or cycling, but was just a sculpture. The historic heart of Newcastle is the Grainger Town area. Established on classical streets built by Richard Grainger , a builder and developer, between and , some of Newcastle upon Tyne's finest buildings and streets lie within this area of the city centre including Grainger Market , Theatre Royal , Grey Street, Grainger Street and Clayton Street.

Richard Grainger was said to 'have found Newcastle of bricks and timber and left it in stone'. Hodges, who also built Nelson's Column, designed and built the statue, [90] and the monument plinth was designed and built by Benjamin Green. The Grainger Market replaced an earlier market originally built in called the Butcher Market. The opening was celebrated with a grand dinner attended by guests, and the Laing Art Gallery has a painting of this event.

The development of the city in the s saw the demolition of part of Grainger Town as a prelude to the modernist rebuilding initiatives of T. Dan Smith , the leader of Newcastle City Council.

A corruption scandal was uncovered involving Smith and John Poulson , a property developer from Pontefract , West Yorkshire, and both were imprisoned. Situated in the rain shadow of the North Pennines , Newcastle is amongst the driest cities in the UK.

Temperature extremes recorded at Newcastle Weather Centre include Newcastle upon Tyne shares the same latitude as Copenhagen, Denmark and southern Sweden.

Durham's inland, less urbanised setting results in night-time temperature data about 1 degree cooler than Newcastle proper throughout the year. It is a part of the local development plan which is in conjunction with Gateshead borough, and was created in the s. Its stated aims [99] are to:. Landscape features and facilities such as Ryton Island, Tyne Riverside Country Park, the city's golf courses, Newcastle Racecourse, and Newcastle Airport are also within the green belt area.

Newcastle played a major role during the 19th-century Industrial Revolution , and was a leading centre for coal mining, ship building, engineering, munitions and manufacturing. Heavy industries in Newcastle declined in the second half of the 20th century; with office, service and retail employment now becoming the city's staples.

The city was recognised for its commitment to environmental issues, with a programme planned for Newcastle to become "the first Carbon Neutral town" [] however those plans have slipped considerably and they now hope to be carbon neutral by [].

Newcastle is the commercial, educational and, in partnership with nearby Gateshead , the cultural focus for North East England. In , Newcastle was positioned ninth in the retail centre expenditure league of the UK. The largest of these is the Eldon Square Shopping Centre , one of the largest city centre shopping complexes in the UK. This John Lewis branch was formerly known as Bainbridges.

Newcastle store Bainbridge's , opened in , is often cited as the world's first department store. The Bainbridge's official ledgers reported revenue by department, giving birth to the name department store. A new bus station, replacing the old underground bus station, was officially opened in March The main shopping street in the city is Northumberland Street.

In a report, it was ranked as the most expensive shopping street in the UK for rent, outside London. Both stores have entrances into Eldon Square Shopping Centre. Outside the city centre, the largest suburban shopping areas are Gosforth and Byker.

The Tyneside flat was the dominant housing form constructed at the time when the industrial centres on Tyneside were growing most rapidly. They can still be found in areas such as South Heaton in Newcastle but once dominated the streetscape on both sides of the Tyne. A new development in the Ouseburn valley has recreated them; Architects Cany Ash and Robert Sakula were attracted by the possibilities of high density without building high and getting rid of common areas.

In terms of housing stock, the authority is one of few authorities to see the proportion of detached homes rise in the Census to 7. According to the ONS in the city of Newcastle had a population of , Areas of suburban Newcastle with major student populations include Jesmond, Gosforth and Heaton.

According to the same statistics, the average age of people living in Newcastle is Many people in the city have Scottish or Irish ancestors. The International Organization for Migration states there are estimated to be between and 2, Bolivians in Newcastle, one of the largest populations in any city in the UK. Like most cities, Newcastle has diverse cross sections and classes.

In , , people lived in the unparished area of Newcastle upon Tyne but , people lived in the actual city and metropolitan borough. The unparished area excludes Newburn, Gosforth and the wards of Castle, Woolsington and Parklands and is made up of 17 wards from Walkergate in the east to Benwell and Scotswood in the west. According to figures, [] the city's ethnic make-up is as follows:.

The regional nickname for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie. The Latin term Novocastrian , which can equally be applied to residents of any place called Newcastle , is also used for ex-pupils of the city's Royal Grammar School. Year and current total population [].

The dialect of Newcastle is known as Geordie , and contains a large amount of vocabulary and distinctive words and pronunciations not used in other parts of the United Kingdom. The Geordie dialect has much of its origins in the language spoken by the Anglo-Saxon populations who migrated to and conquered much of England after the end of Roman Imperial rule.

This language was the forerunner of Modern English ; but while the dialects of other English regions have been heavily altered by the influences of other foreign languages—particularly Latin and Norman French —the Geordie dialect retains many elements of the old language. An example of this is the pronunciation of certain words: Other Geordie words with Anglo-Saxon origins include: Some words used in the Geordie dialect are used elsewhere in the Northern United Kingdom.

The words "bonny" meaning "pretty" , "howay" "come on" , " stot " "bounce" and "hadaway" "go away" or "you're kidding" , all appear to be used in Scots ; "aye" "yes" and "nowt" IPA: Many words, however, appear to be used exclusively in Newcastle and the surrounding area, such as "canny" a versatile word meaning "good", "nice" or "very" , "hacky" "dirty" , "netty" "toilet" , "hoy" "throw", from the Dutch gooien , via West Frisian , "hockle" "spit".

The health of people in Newcastle upon Tyne is generally worse than the England average: Newcastle Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust has one of the lowest mortality rates in the country and is ranked seventh in the country for confidence in doctors.

In a report, published in early February by the Ear Institute at the University College London , and Widex , a Danish hearing aid manufacturer, Newcastle was named as the noisiest city in the whole of the UK, with an average level of The report claimed that these noise levels would have a negative long-term impact on the health of the city's residents. Larger than London's Hyde Park and Hampstead Heath combined, and even larger than New York's Central Park the town moor dates back to the 12th century, with the land tenure and its use being regulated by an Act of Parliament.

Newcastle was in the top ten of the country's top night spots, [] and The Rough Guide to Britain placed Newcastle upon Tyne's nightlife as Great Britain's no. There are concentrations of pubs, bars and nightclubs around the Bigg Market and the Quayside area of the city centre. There are many bars on the Bigg Market, and other popular areas for nightlife are Collingwood Street, popularly referred to as the 'Diamond Strip' due to its concentration of high-end bars, Neville Street, the Newcastle station area and Osborne Road in the Jesmond area of the city.

In recent years " The Gate " has opened in the city centre, a new indoor complex consisting of bars, clubs, restaurants and a screen Empire multiplex cinema. There has also been a growth in premium restaurants in recent years with top chefs. The city has a proud history of theatre. Stephen Kemble of the famous Kemble family successfully managed the original Theatre Royal, Newcastle for fifteen years — Stephen Kemble guided the theatre through many celebrated seasons.

The city still contains many theatres. Northern Stage , formally known as the Newcastle Playhouse and Gulbenkian Studio, hosts various local, national and international productions in addition to those produced by the Northern Stage company.

Newcastle has a strong reputation as a poetry centre. The Morden Tower , run by poet Tom Pickard , is a major venue for poetry readings in the North East, being the place where Basil Bunting gave the first reading of Briggflatts in Its music library contains 8, CDs and 10, LPs. The old City library designed by Basil Spence , [] was demolished in [] and replaced. The new building opened on 21 June [] and was named after 18th century composer Charles Avison ; the building was opened by Dr Herbert Loebl.

The Seven Stories is a museum dedicated to children's books. Opened in , it is based in the Ouseburn Valley. In January or February, Newcastle's Chinatown is at the centre of a carnival of colour and noise as the city celebrates the Chinese New Year. This event makes a return to the region since the last event in It is hoped it will now continue as an annual event. The North East Art Expo, a festival of art and design from the regions professional artists, is held in late May.

NewcastleGateshead, a festival of food and drink, runs for 2 weeks each year in mid June. The event has its origins in the Temperance Movement during the early s, and coincides with the annual race week at High Gosforth Park. The Ouseburn Festival, a family oriented weekend festival near the city centre, incorporating a "Family Fun Day" and "Carnival Day", is held in late July.

Newcastle Mela , held on the late August Bank Holiday weekend, is an annual two-day multicultural event that blends drama, music and food from Punjabi , Pakistani , Bengali and Hindu cultures. Newcastle's vernacular music was a mixture of Northumbrian folk music and nineteenth-century songs with dialect lyrics, by writers such as George "Geordie" Ridley , whose songs include one which became an unofficial Tyneside national anthem, Blaydon Races.

Lindisfarne are a folk-rock group with a strong Tyneside connection. Their most famous song, " Fog on the Tyne " , was covered by Geordie ex-footballer Paul Gascoigne in Venom , reckoned by many to be the originators of black metal and extremely influential to the extreme metal scene as a whole, formed in Newcastle in Folk metal band Skyclad , often regarded as the first folk metal band, also formed in Newcastle after the break-up of Martin Walkyier thrash metal band, Sabbat.

Andy Taylor , former lead guitarist of Duran Duran was born here in Newcastle is the home of Kitchenware Records c. The s boom in progressive house music saw the city's Global Underground record label publish mix CDs by the likes of Sasha , Paul Oakenfold , James Lavelle , and Danny Howells recording mix compilations. Newcastle's leading classical music ensemble is the Royal Northern Sinfonia , which was founded in and performed regularly at Newcastle City Hall until Nowadays it is based at The Sage, Gateshead.

ICMuS, Newcastle University 's music department, has been a driving force for music in the region, producing innovative work, organising concerts and festivals, instigating the first degree programme in folk music in the British Isles, and engaging creatively with communities in the region.

The largest music venue in Newcastle is the 11,seat Metro Radio Arena , which opened in and hosts major pop and rock concerts. On 14 October the 2, capacity O2 Academy Newcastle opened in the city centre. It had previously been a music venue in the s, hosting concerts by The Beatles and The Who. The former Riverside music venue on Melbourne Street, open from until , famously hosted Nirvana 's first European show in Newcastle's Legendary Alternative Music Venue.

The small music venue Think Tank? Apart from the city centre chain-cinema, the Empire multiplex, the city has its own independent cinema, the Tyneside Cinema. The Pilgrim Street building was refurbished between November and May ; during the refurbishment works, the cinema relocated to the Old Town Hall, Gateshead. In May the Tyneside Cinema reopened in the restored and refurbished original building. There are several museums and galleries in Newcastle, including the Centre for Life [] with its Science Village; [] the Discovery Museum [] a museum highlighting life on Tyneside, including Tyneside's shipbuilding heritage, and inventions which changed the world; the Great North Museum ; [] in the Newcastle on Tyne Museum of Antiquities merged with the Great North Museum Hancock Museum ; [] Seven Stories a museum dedicated to children's books, [] [] the Side Gallery historical and contemporary photography from around the world and Northern England [] and the Newburn Hall Motor Museum.

The Laing Art Gallery, like other art galleries and museums around the world, has collections digitised on the Google Cultural Institute , [] [] an initiative that makes important cultural material accessible online.

The earliest known movie featuring some exterior scenes filmed in the city is On the Night of the Fire , [] though by and large the action is studio-bound. Later came The Clouded Yellow and Payroll , both of which feature more extensive scenes filmed in the city. The gangster thriller Get Carter was shot on location in and around Newcastle and offers an opportunity to see what Newcastle looked like in the early s.

The city has been the setting for films based around football; films such as Purely Belter , [] The One and Only [] and Goal! Crime drama Harrigan was filmed in the city as well as Gateshead and Teesside.

The city has a strong sporting tradition. Football club Newcastle United has been based at St James' Park since the club was established in , although any traces of the original structure are now long gone as the stadium now holds more than 52, seated spectators, being England's seventh largest football stadium.

The Newcastle Falcons are the only rugby union team in north-east England to have played in the Aviva Premiership. Newcastle Thunder formerly Gateshead Thunder are a professional rugby league club based in the city who now also play at Kingston Park Stadium. They currently play in the Kingstone Press League 1. Newcastle has a horse racing course at Gosforth Park. Newcastle also hosts the start of the annual Great North Run , the world's largest half-marathon in which participants race over the Tyne Bridge into Gateshead and then towards the finish line The London Olympic committee selected Newcastle as one of the UK host venue cities, [] [] with the stadium St James' Park hosting 9 matches in both the men's and women's football.

The Newcastle Warriors were a professional ice hockey team that played the —96 season in the British Hockey League. The Newcastle Vipers were also a professional ice hockey team in the British National League from and then the Elite Ice Hockey League between and when the team folded. Newcastle upon Tyne was one of the 11 host cities for the Rugby World Cup.

Newcastle is governed using the leader and cabinet system, and the executive is Labour , as they have 55 councillors against the Liberal Democrats ' No other parties hold seats on the city's council, however there are 3 independent councillors.

For the purposes of City Council elections, Newcastle is divided into 26 electoral wards. Newcastle Airport is located approximately 6 miles 9. Newcastle station is one of the busiest stations in Britain. In , work was completed on the stations historic entrance.

The city's other mainline station, Manors , is to the east of the city centre. Train operator Virgin Trains East Coast [] provides a half-hourly frequency of trains to London King's Cross , with a journey time of about three hours, and north to Scotland with all trains calling at Edinburgh Waverley and a small number of trains extended to Glasgow Central , Aberdeen and Inverness.

Northern provides local and regional services. It was opened in five phases between and , and was Britain's first urban light rail transit system; [] two extensions were opened in and The Metro consists of two lines. The Green line starts at Newcastle Airport , goes through the city centre and into Sunderland, terminating at South Hylton. The yellow line starts at St James , runs north of the river alongside Byker towards Whitley Bay, before returning to the city, on to Gateshead Interchange and terminates at South Shields.

The system is currently undergoing a period of refurbishment and modernisation, entitled ' Metro: All Metro trains are being completely refurbished and most stations are undergoing improvement works or in some cases complete reconstruction, for example North Shields.

In addition; tracks, signalling and overhead wires are also being overhauled. Proposed routes include to Newcastle's west end, to the Cobalt business park in North Tyneside, to the Metrocentre in Gateshead and to additional locations in Gateshead, South Tyneside and Sunderland.

Several of the proposed routes would require trams as opposed to the current light rail trains. Many of these designations are recent—upon completion of the Western Bypass, and its designation as the new line of the A1, the roads between this and the A1's former alignment through the Tyne Tunnel were renumbered , with many city centre roads changing from a 6-prefix [] to their present 1-prefix numbers. In November the capacity of the Tyne Tunnel was increased when a project to build a second road tunnel and refurbish the first tunnel was completed.

There are two major bus stations in the city: Haymarket bus station and Eldon Square bus station. Arriva mainly operates from Haymarket bus station providing the majority of services to the north of Newcastle, Northumberland and North Tyneside. Stagecoach is the primary operator in the city proper, with cross-city services mainly between both the West and East ends via the city centre with some services extending out to the MetroCentre, Killingworth , Wallsend and Ponteland.

Many bus services also pass Newcastle railway station , a major interchange for rail and metro services. Newcastle coach station , near the railway station, handles long distance bus services operated by National Express.

Newcastle is accessible by several mostly traffic-free cycle routes that lead to the edges of the city centre, where cyclists can continue into the city by road, using no car lanes. The traffic-free C2C cycle route runs along the north bank of the River Tyne , enabling cyclists to travel off-road to North Shields and Tynemouth in the east, and westwards towards Hexham.

Suburban cycle routes exist, which use converted trackbeds of former industrial wagonways and industrial railways. A network on Tyneside 's suburban Victorian waggonways is being developed. Newcastle has a growing culture of bicycle usage. Newcastle is also home to a cycling campaign, called the 'Newcastle Cycling Campaign. To raise the profile of cycling, especially utility cycling around the city; [] to educate decision makers over the benefits of cycling; [] to promote equality.

Following guidelines set in the National Cycling strategy, Newcastle first developed its cycling strategy in The company cited high fuel prices and new competition from low-cost air services as the cause. Since summer , Thomson cruise lines have included Newcastle as a departure port on its Norwegian and Fjords cruise.

There are thirteen LEA -funded 13 to 20 schools and seven independent schools with sixth forms in Newcastle. The largest co-ed independent school is the Royal Grammar School. The largest girls' independent school is Newcastle High School for Girls. Both schools are located on the same street in Jesmond. Newcastle School for Boys is the only independent boys' only school in the city and is situated in Gosforth.

Newcastle College is the largest general further education college in the North East and is a Beacon Status college; there are two smaller colleges in the Newcastle area.

St Cuthbert's High School and Sacred Heart are the two primary state-Catholic run high schools, and are both achieving results on par with the independent schools in Newcastle. The city has two universities — Newcastle University and Northumbria University. Newcastle University has its origins in the School of Medicine and Surgery, established in and became independent from Durham University on 1 August to form the University of Newcastle upon Tyne.

Newcastle University is now one of the UK's leading international universities. Northumbria University has its origins in the Newcastle Polytechnic, established in and became the University of Northumbria at Newcastle in as part of the UK-wide process in which polytechnics became new universities. Newcastle has three cathedrals, the Anglican St. Nicholas , with its elegant lantern tower of , the Roman Catholic St. St Mary's became a cathedral in and St Nicholas' in Another prominent church in the city centre is the Church of St Thomas the Martyr which is the only parish church in the Church of England without a parish and which is not a peculiar.

One of the largest evangelical Anglican churches in the UK is Jesmond Parish Church , situated a little to the north of the city centre. Newcastle was a prominent centre of the Plymouth Brethren movement up to the s, and some small congregations still function.

The Parish Church of St Andrew is traditionally recognised as 'the oldest church in this town'. This older church would have been one of several churches along the River Tyne dedicated to St Andrew, including the Priory church at Hexham.

It is surrounded by the last of the ancient churchyards to retain its original character. Many key names associated with Newcastle's history worshipped and were buried here.

The church tower received a battering during the Siege of Newcastle by the Scots who finally breached the Town Wall and forced surrender. Three of the cannonballs remain on site as testament to the siege. The Crack is a monthly style and listings magazine similar to London's Time Out.

The adult comic Viz originated in Jesmond and includes many references to Newcastle, and The Mag is a fanzine for Newcastle United supporters. Independent Local Radio stations include Metro Radio and sister station Metro 2 Radio , which are both based in a building on the Swan House roundabout on the north side of the Tyne Bridge.

Capital North East broadcasts across Newcastle from its studios in nearby Wallsend. NE1fm launched on 8 June , the first full-time community radio station in the area. Newcastle is one of the first in the UK to have its city centre covered by wireless internet access.

It was developed and installed at the end of and went active in March Charles Avison , the leading British composer of concertos in the 18th century, was born in Newcastle upon Tyne in and died there in Ironmaster , metallurgist, and member of parliament Isaac Lowthian Bell was born in the city in Other notable people born in or associated with Newcastle include: John Dunn , inventor of keyed Northumbrian smallpipes , the most characteristic musical instrument in the region, lived and worked in the city.

Kathryn Tickell OBE, the celebrated Northumbrian piper and composer, has longstanding associations with Newcastle as a resident, frequent performer at Sage Gateshead and teacher at Newcastle University. Marc Smith palaeographer born , French palaeographer, was born in Newcastle upon Tyne. Alan Shearer , former footballer an iconic Newcastle United player and the Premier League 's all-time top goalscorer and England Captain. Rowan Atkinson , actor best known for Mr. Bean , Studied at Newcastle University.

Musician and lead singer of rock band the Police , Gordon Matthew Thomas Sumner, better known by his stage name Sting , grew up in the Newcastle area.

A large majority of the Geordie Shore cast were born and reside in Newcastle. Newcastle upon Tyne is twinned with:.

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The federal structure of the University of Durham was dissolved. Merewether High School is a fully selective high school in the suburb of Broadmeadow. Narrow alleys or ' chares ', most of which can only be traversed by foot, still exist in abundance, particularly around the riverside. The city's main provider of tertiary newcastle dating site free is the University of Newcastle. With the advent of the motor car, Fres road network was improved in the early part of the 20th century, beginning with the opening of the Redheugh road bridge in newcstle and the Tyne Bridge in Ceremonial county of Tyne newcastle dating site free Wear. Retrieved 21 July