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European missionaries in southern Africa: the role of the missionaries

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This created a need for large numbers of skilled and unskilled labourers to work on public and private enterprises in the Colony. Casalis wrote at Thaba Bosiu, Lesotho, in about , that:. Gospel students would be encouraged to make personal commitments to attend church, to read the Book of Mormon and to be baptized.

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Consequently, the effect of a migrant labour system upon the local built environment must be seen to have achieved the following: Our buildings and plantations would also serve as a model for the Basutos, whom we regretted to see dwelling in huts, and living in a manner so precarious and so little worthy of the intelligence with which they were gifted. Berlin and Hermannsburg missionaries who minimized liturgical spectacles won adherents while the Oblates who staged impressive ceremonies failed utterly. Now, however, ample employment can be given to all" Office of the Secretary for Native Affairs He then went on to outline a scheme whereby youths from mission stations could be formed into groups of fifty, under the " guidance " of a paid elder, who would see to their " moral " welfare during their sojourn in the Cape as migrant manual labourers. In the last two decades, the LDS Church has stepped up its call for senior couple missionaries. Don't say that you're not available right now, but that you'd love to listen if they'd come back at a later time.

This happens to all missionaries and you're probably just trying to avoid being rude, but missionaries are absurdly hopeful and they will keep coming back for quite a while. Instead say that you're not interested. Say it kindly and politely, but be honest.

Say you already have your own church you're happy with. Say you don't believe in God. Say you don't like organized religion. I don't recommend saying that you know that Mormons are polygamous and you don't want to join a cult--the missionaries will feel obliged to correct you about this.

Don't make an appointment with a missionary at a time when you know you will not be home. This may seem like an easy way to get out of having to tell them you're not interested, but it's rude. Missionaries always follow up on appointments and sometimes they will either walk or bike to your house and find you not there. Then they will have to call and hound you to find out why.

It's just easier to say no to begin with. If you're curious about Mormonism, but have no interest in joining, you can be honest and upfront about this as well. Missionaries can decide for themselves then if they have time just trying to build goodwill with non-members rather than trying to find someone who might be more genuinely interested in joining.

More and more, missionaries are encouraged to make appointments as much as possible and do less street "tracting," which has been proven statistically to be less effective. This means that if you have a Mormon friend who has asked if you'd like to hear more about the gospel, it's likely they will have you meet missionaries in their home rather than teaching you about it themselves. Some Mormons are more fervent in their attention to this duty than others.

If you've had lessons from the missionaries and are not interested in more, again, please be up front about this. The missionaries will be sad, but it's better than them spending hours over the next few months trying to follow up. You may feel like it's best to confront missionaries with the "truth" about Mormonism, telling them about Joseph Smith's multiple wives, or other horrible things you've heard about the church.

You may think that you're being kind to them by helping them get out of the "cult" they're caught in. I really don't think this is helpful. Most missionaries have grown a pretty thick skin about anti-Mormon stuff and won't listen to you at all.

You can find members who are more willing and able to deal with walking you through some of the messy parts of the church's past. Of course, you have no obligation to help out Mormon missionaries you see.

But if you worry about them, here are some things you can do to show kindness without suggesting that you want to hear a spiritual message:. Offer a drink of water, especially in the summer time. They can't have iced tea or coffee, however. Some will refuse a Coke because it has caffeine, but other soft drinks should be fine. Watch out for them or give them some words of warning if you feel that it is necessary and they are, for instance, going into a dangerous neighborhood.

Ask them about genealogy. Even if you're not interested in hearing about the "gospel," missionaries can and will show you how to use the Mormon church's genealogical resources, which are huge. It counts as missionary work even if you're just researching your family history. Gradually his word and his example produce their effect, and the converts from heathenism begin to build new and more decent dwellings for themselves. It is doubtful that many of the early missionaries were well, if at all, prepared for this aspect of their mission.

The London Missionary Society was a little more realistic on this point and in recommended that missionaries:. It was left for the French to take the initiative in this field. When Casalis and Arbousset were chosen to be sent out to southern Africa by the Paris Missionary Society, they were given basic training in the skills of drawing, building and architecture. Not only that, they were also joined by Gosselin who, as " missionary artisan ", was sent out to assist them erect their first dwellings Germond Casalis wrote at Moriah in that:.

The box of tools that we had brought from Europe was opened, and my two fellow-workers and myself took each of us a hatchet and a saw Our excellent friend, Mr.

Gosselin, who had joined us in the capacity of a missionary artisan, handled with equal skill the hammer of the stone-cutter and the mattock of the husbandman. The " box of tools " brought from Europe included, among other items, agricultural implements and tools for the trades of stone quarrying and cutting, masonry, carpentry, joinery, coopering, shoe-making and surveying Germond The attachment of Gosselin to the party was an inspired piece of fore-planning on the part of the French.

Once his task of building mission houses for his colleagues was completed, his brief was also:. This policy foreshadowed events in the region by nearly half a century and paved the way for the subsequent establishment of Industrial Training Institutions in southern Africa. The first of these was founded, naturally enough, by the Paris Missionary Society at Morija, Lesotho, in , but others soon followed this example.

Lovedale in , St Matthews in , Leloaleng in , Amanzimtoti in and Blythswood in were but a few Dennis The report for Leloaleng in stated that:. Sir Bartle Frere, Governor of the Cape Colony, made the official position regarding industrial training clear when, in a message to Parliament in c he stated that:.

Charles Brownlee, Secretary for Native Affairs, issued a circular in , in which he proclaimed that:. The expense would be large, but it is a matter of vital importance to the Colony that the young may be so trained that they can take their places worthily as members of a civilized and industrious community.

It is not an easy matter to assess the results of these missionary efforts. We know that in such matters as initiation and teenage sexual morality they had little impact. This however does not appear to have been the case with building technology where some considerable influence seems to have been wielded through the medium of education. Most appear to have originated from the Eastern Cape and Transkei region Lovedale Missionary Institution , where they also subsequently plied their trades Blue Books on Native Affairs , but it is not impossible that, with time, they spread further afield.

Certainly the missionaries themselves were not slow in proclaiming the fruits of their labours, as seen from this report from Leloaleng, made in In the case of some specialised areas of construction such as roof carpentry, stone masonry and brick making, the effects of missionary education remain evident to the present day. Despite this obvious element of technological transposition however, the nature of the indigenous rural environment has remained essentially vernacular.

Most important, this missionary input does not appear to have had a direct effect upon the nature and form of indigenous settlement patterns which are a more direct manifestation of local " culture " than the dwelling form itself. The work of missionaries during the last century should not be viewed in isolation from the activities of either traders or government officials. In many ways they shared common interests and often what was of benefit to the one group was equally good for the others.

They can also be seen to be part of a progression of events which paved the way for the colonialisation of indigenous groups not only in southern Africa, but the world over. Warneck wrote in that:. He saw the missionary as generating a demand for consumer goods while, at the same time, creating conditions which facilitated the establishment of trade links.

It creates the needs for a civilized life, and is at the same time a protective power The impact of trading activity on rural southern Africa is made clear by the various statements to this effect found in Government reports during the s and s. At public meetings and other public gatherings, it is considered a sign of inferiority to appear dressed in clothes other than those of European manufacture MW Liefeldt, Assistant Magistrate for Matatiele, East Griqualand echoed the reports of many of his colleagues when he stated in that:.

There are now fourteen trading stations in the district. There is a great demand for European clothing, ploughs, blankets, etc. The larger picture was described by the missionary Duvoisin who, in , wrote from Berea, Lesotho, that:. They have gradually begun to replace the native hut with stone or brick cottages, which offer a greater resemblance to European houses; finally they have begun to imitate them in their habits and their mode of life.

The missionary concern for actively promoting consumer goods usually stopped at European clothing and agricultural implements, but it is not impossible that, from time to time, other goods could also have been promoted. Warneck tells that a conference of native pastors, deacons and teachers held at the Pacific island of Rarotonga passed a resolution encouraging:.

The missionaries' relationship with colonial officials is perhaps not quite as clearcut as in the previous case. Certainly we know that the former performed a number of ad hoc duties on behalf of the Government such as reporting on events in remote areas and fulfilling various diplomatic functions Williams In some cases there was active collusion between the two parties, to the detriment of indigenous interests Etherington Generally however interaction took place on a more formal level, with missionaries encouraging local people to obey the laws and pay their hut taxes, and occasionally interceding on their behalf with officialdom.

Sometimes written recommendations would be submitted to the authorities, such as those made to the Cape Parliament by the Moravian missionary Meyer, stationed at Elukolweni, who in asked, among other things, that hut tax relief be offered:. It is not thought that the colonial officials acceded to this request, if for no other reason than the fact that hut-tax had already become an important source of revenue with which to subsidise the administration of the outlying districts.

A factor which was to have a profound influence upon the long term social and economic make-up of southern Africa was the creation of a migrant labour system from the s onwards. Provisions for the contractual binding of labourers to employers had already been in force in the Cape since the early years of the nineteenth century Burchell , but these were largely directed at the Khoi who, even then, did not inhabit the region in sufficient numbers to satisfy the needs of the Colonial employment market.

With the discovery, and subsequent development, of the Cape diamond fields from onwards came the extension of the local infrastructure as well as the rapid growth of such coastal commercial centers as Cape Town, Port Elizabeth and East London. This created a need for large numbers of skilled and unskilled labourers to work on public and private enterprises in the Colony.

The resultant shortage of labour caused both private employers and the Cape Government to look further afield for potential sources of workers, the most obvious being the Transkei and eastern Cape. A newspaper editorial of March , on the subject of local labour, among other things urged missionaries to:. The missionary's work is not done when the work of the pulpit and the duties of religious instruction are over. The LDS Church is one of the most active modern practitioners of missionary work, reporting that it had more than 70, full-time missionaries worldwide at the end of [1] as well as more than 33, part-time church-service missionaries.

Missionaries are often assigned to serve far from their homes, including in other countries. Many missionaries learn a new language at a missionary training center as part of their assignment.

Missions typically last two years for males, 18 months for females, and 1 to 3 years for older couples. The LDS Church strongly encourages, but does not require, missionary service for young men. All Mormon missionaries serve voluntarily and do not receive a salary for their work; they typically finance missions themselves or with assistance from family or other church members.

Many Latter-day Saints save money during their teenage years to cover their mission expenses. Throughout the church's history , over one million missionaries have been sent on missions. Kimball said, "Every young man should fill a mission". Hinckley had suggested that a mission is not to be a rite of passage, [11] this cultural aspect remains.

Young men between the ages of 18 and 25 who meet standards of worthiness are strongly encouraged to consider a two-year, full-time proselytizing mission. This expectation is based in part on the New Testament passage "Go ye therefore, and teach all nations" Matt.

The minimum age had previously been age 19 in most countries until October 6, , when church president Thomas S. Monson announced that all male missionaries, regardless of nation, could serve from age In cases where an immediate family member dies, the missionary has the choice to travel home for the funeral or to remain on the mission. However, the vast majority of missionaries serve the whole two-year men or eighteen-month women terms.

Women generally serve as missionaries for 18 months. Married retired couples, on the other hand, are encouraged to serve missions, but their length of service may vary from 6 to 36 months depending on their circumstances and means.

In the last two decades, the LDS Church has stepped up its call for senior couple missionaries. All missionaries must meet certain minimum standards of worthiness. Among the standards that a prospective missionary must demonstrate adherence to are: In addition to spiritual preparedness, church bishops are instructed to ensure that prospective missionaries are physically, mentally, and emotionally capable of full-time missionary work.

In the same speech where he called for "every young man" to fill a mission, Kimball added, "we realize that while all men definitely should, all men are not prepared to teach the gospel abroad. Those excluded include those who would have to leave dependent children in the care of someone else; young couples who are still of childbearing age; those who are in debt and have not made arrangements to meet these obligations; those who are on legal probation or parole; couples with serious unresolved marital problems; those who are HIV-positive; and those who have been convicted of sexual abuse.

Additionally, members who have submitted to, performed, encouraged, paid for, or arranged for an abortion except in the case of rape, incest, or the mother's life is in danger are usually excluded from missionary service, as are members who have fathered or borne a child out of wedlock; men under 26 and women under 40 who have been divorced; and anyone who has participated in homosexual activity after age From the beginnings of the LDS Church, people of black African descent could be members of the church, but up until the LDS Church did not call men of black African descent to serve on missions, due to the ban on blacks holding the priesthood.

The priesthood ban was lifted during Kimball's presidency and since there has been no restrictions to missionary service that are based on race or ethnicity. After application to the church and the requisite approval, prospective missionaries receive a "call to serve"—an official notification of their location assignment—through the mail from the President of the Church. The mission call also informs the prospective missionary what language he or she will be expected to use during his or her mission.

Members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles are responsible for assigning missionaries to a particular mission. A prospective missionary receiving the call to serve is generally considered to be a major event in LDS culture; family members, friends, and members of the prospective missionary's congregation often gather together when a call arrives, which the prospective missionary opens and reads aloud to the group.

Before beginning their mission, prospective male missionaries are usually ordained to the office of an elder in the Melchizedek Priesthood if they do not hold this office already. All missionaries are set apart by the laying on of hands to preach the gospel; this is usually performed by the missionary's stake president.

Prospective missionaries also usually attend the temple for the first time to receive their endowment if they have not already done so. Newly called missionaries attend a short training period at one of 15 church Missionary Training Centers MTCs worldwide. Missionaries who will not be learning a language in order to serve their missions spend three weeks at an MTC where they practice using proselytizing materials, learn expected conduct, and study the scriptures.

Missionaries bound for foreign-language missions spend six to nine weeks at an MTC, depending on the language to be learned. During this period, they are encouraged not to speak in their native tongue but rather to immerse themselves in the new language. The basic standards of missionary service and conduct are contained in the Missionary Handbook. Mission presidents have discretion to adjust some of the standards according to local circumstances.

Previously, full-time LDS missionaries were required to adhere to a dress code: For women, modest and professional dresses or blouses and mid-calf length skirts were worn. In recent years, [ when? Young men are no longer required to wear dark suits, and they do not have to wear a full suit during regular everyday proselytizing activities. They must, however, remain in professional, conservative attire. For instance, a light colored suit is acceptable.

They are also allowed to wear a sweater or suit vest over their dress shirt and are encouraged to wear colored ties. Sister missionaries may wear skirts and dresses that cover their knees. In areas infested with mosquitoes, particularly in Central and South America where the humidity yields infestations, sister missionaries are now permitted to wear slacks.

In some areas these standards are altered slightly according to the discretion of the mission president. For example, in hot, humid climates, suit coats are not required, and dress shirts may be short-sleeved. Casual clothes may be worn only in limited circumstances, such as when missionaries provide manual labor or exercise.

In , the dress guidelines were updated to allow for "simple and conservative" sunglasses and "wide-brimmed hats" as part of a missionary's attire to provide missionaries protection from excessive heat.

All full-time missionaries wear a name tag that gives their surname with the appropriate title "Elder" or "Sister" in English-speaking areas, or their equivalent titles in other languages. The name tag also bears the church's name, unless the mission president considers this inadvisable due to circumstances in the area e. Missionaries are required to wear the tag at all times in public.

A missionary companionship , consisting of two or occasionally, three missionaries, is the smallest organizational unit of a mission. Every missionary is assigned by the mission president to be another missionary's companion.

Missionary companionships are generally maintained for months at a time and most missionaries will have served with multiple companions by the end of their mission. These companions very rarely have prior acquaintance outside of the mission. Companionships are always of the same gender. Missionary companions are instructed to stay together at all times and not to go out of the hearing of their companion's voice.

One of the intentions of this strict policy of staying together is to discourage missionaries from breaking any mission rules. When companions have conflicting personalities or interests, they are encouraged to try to resolve them themselves.

If a missionary's companion is having difficulty with the work or with personal problems, missionaries are instructed to give criticism constructively, in private and with respect. Missionaries are urged to treat the companionship as a relationship that must succeed in being cooperative and selfless, thus improving the spirituality, character and social skills of each individual missionary.

Senior couples serve as a companionship for the entirety of their mission and have more relaxed rules. Unlike single missionaries, they share the same bed and are able to travel outside of the mission boundaries. Missionaries are encouraged to write a letter to their parents weekly.

Since almost all of their time is otherwise occupied, other communication is limited. However, a missionary may use preparation day to correspond with any person that is resident outside of the boundaries of the mission. Missionaries do not go on vacation and are generally permitted to telephone their parents only on Christmas Day, and one other day of the year, usually Mother's Day. Single missionaries are prohibited from dating or courting while serving missions.

The policy of companionships staying together at all times serves to discourage these activities. While missionaries may interact with members of the opposite sex, they may never be alone with them or engage in any kind of intimate physical or emotional activity e. They may not telephone, write, e-mail, or accept letters from members of the opposite sex that live in the area where they are assigned to proselytize.

In the early days of the LDS Church, men were called to serve missions regardless of marital status. Today, however, married young men are not expected to serve missions, unless called to oversee a mission as a mission president.

A call to be a mission president is typically extended to the married couple, and in turn, the entire family of the chosen mission president. Older retired couples also may serve as missionaries, but do not take their families with them. Generally, missionaries wake up at 6: If they are teaching in a foreign language, they'll spend another 30 minutes to an hour studying the language.

They plan for the next day's activities, pray, and are encouraged to write in their personal journal, but are not required to. They then retire to bed at On January 25, , the church announced that schedules can be modified depending on the area in which missionaries serve. Missionaries are admonished to "avoid all forms of worldly entertainment.

They are not permitted to listen to music that has romantic lyrics or overtones, or merely entertains. They are permitted to read only books, magazines, or other materials authorized by the church. These guidelines were updated in October , when the church announced that in some missions, missionaries would be issued smart phones and be permitted to use technology on a wider scale. This is intended to enable the missionaries to more easily find "religiously minded people.

Missionaries are instructed to avoid slang and casual language including when they are alone in their apartment and in their letters to family. Some words and expressions are mission- or language-specific, while others are universal, such as calling the halfway point of a mission the "hump" or hump day , [31] or describing a missionary who is excited about returning home as "trunky" as he has already packed his trunk.

As of the end of , there were 70, full-time LDS missionaries serving in church missions throughout the world. The most visible and most common type of missionaries are typically those who proselytize door-to-door and ride bicycles for transportation.

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Building missionaries were called by the president of the Tongan Mission in the early s. When my daughter came home, it took her weeks to get used to the idea that she could go places on her own.

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The Salt Lake Tribune. Regular proselytizing missionaries are asked to engage in welfare activities and community service , limited to four hours a week on days other than weekends or preparation day. Older retired couples also may serve as missionaries, but do not take their families with them.

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From on, Wendell B. Missionaries dating site paid them wages which could then be used to purchase these same materials. I borderline personality disorder dating signs previously tried TrueLDS, dwting without success, and I doubted if I could actually meet anyone, since I had not succeeded previously. They save their whole lives to go on a mission. Now, however, ample employment can be given to all" Office of the Missionaries dating site for Native Affairs Many Latter-day Saints save money during their missionzries years to cover their mission expenses.