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Japan's Secret - History of Harsh Working Environments of Japanese Developers [Dark Pixel Gaming]

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Refund to Heroes Evolved Mobile Message: Alucard, son of Dracula and the handsome hero of Symphony of the Night, has the distinction of being half-human, half-vampire. The Dynamics of Korean Economic Development ,

27 December, 2017

There's a sense that you never quite know what's lurking around the next corner, and leaping before you look can quickly bring your latest adventure to an end. Social Welfare and Change Programs Much progress has been made in the area of social welfare since the s, especially in the health care system. You can kit out JC Denton to be a door-crashing super soldier if you prefer the direct approach, or maybe boost his Cloak augmentation and sneak in unnoticed. The 3D Metroid games Buy it on Amazon. You haven't known tension in a game until you've had mere seconds to decide if you save a child and doom a young man, or vice versa. In general, industrialization and urbanization have contributed to a leveling of the nonkin hierarchy in social life, but the income gap between the working classes and the industrialist class as a new power elite has grown. Eighty-three percent of those with a college education perceived themselves as belonging to the middle class, compared with 41 percent of those with a primary school education.

Robust enough to provide consistency, yet also strong enough to bend without breaking, Quake 3's lightning-fast, high-flying control rules are a theme park for experimentation. Once you've mastered its mobility possibilities, like the bunny-hop or rocket jump, the possibilities for strategy or just showing off become endless.

A free-to-play online collectible card game has no right to be this good. But Blizzard pulled all of its best tricks to take Hearthstone from being a fun little diversion for Warcraft fans to one of the most intuitive card games we've ever played. All you need to do is look at the cards in your hand and decide how best to spend your ramping allotment of mana each turn. Sounds simple, and it is: But you'll only know true mastery hundreds of hours later.

As you practice with each class and unlock more style-defining cards, you'll find there are so many interesting ways to fill out your deck and crush your opponents. By the time you realize that you can earn booster packs just by completing daily quests - and that you can break down the cards you don't need, to synthesize them into cards you actually want - you're as good as hooked. Reboots are dime-a-dozen these days, but few hit a homerun as clear and true as Crystal Dynamics' reinvigoration of a venerable action icon.

Emerging from the disproportionate image that first propelled then diminished her on consoles gone by, the new Ms. Croft is younger, fiercer and more resilient than ever. Time to watch your back, Mr.

The treacherous island that surrounds Croft is everything you could hope for in a reborn Tomb Raider. A vicious tale of survival and the ignorance of youth tempered into adulthood, Lara's reimagined origins build a captivating synergy between environmental puzzles and gunfights that more than stand their ground in a post-Uncharted world.

Whether you're battling wolves, bandits, or the elements themselves, this Tomb Raider sets a new standard for captivating adventures. Sometimes, games are just games. Go in, fight the things, get the best sword, beat the worst thing, save the world, roll credits.

But sometimes games are more than that: Dragon Age has always been about lore and love stories, and Dragon Age: Inquisition perfects the art. Nuance is the key: The landscape and story don't just unfold, they radically change based on your unflagging efforts, making it totally ok to play this for something hours rather than focusing on boring things like socializing or personal hygiene.

What's a game about spherical simians doing on this list? Surely there are better options than one which involves rolling around collecting fruit on floating, tilting platforms in a barely-explained premise? As a puzzle game, there's plenty to love, hate, or be driven mad by - particularly the low-friction banana frenzy, with levels that twist, turn, and ripple beneath you, threatening to cast you off into the abyss below.

Its mini-games, particularly the still-perfect Monkey Target, are the precursor to the kind of colorful point-grabbing you'll find in any number of modern party games. Ergo, Super Monkey Ball is the precursor to all games ever, and that's why it's the best and there's nothing more to say on the matter. Built atop Resident Evil 4's solid foundation, Dead Space takes a fresh approach to the survival horror genre.

With more than a little inspiration from Ridley Scott's Alien - not to mention a dash of John Carpenter's The Thing - the developers at Visceral were out to make the game as terrifying as possible, trapping players in quiet corridors with some of the most horrific enemies in gaming. Dead Space's vision of the future is lonely, dark, and bloody.

The original Dead Space lacks the larger conspiracies and action set-pieces that bogged down later entries. Instead we follow one desperate man's lonely, terrified search for his girlfriend on a space station that long ago gave way to madness. The game's HUD-less display and sparing use of sound gives a naturalism to the sci-fi, all of which heightens the terror. And even when the scares might be too much for you, there's always something oddly addictive to shooting off enemy limbs.

It's like popping bubblewrap - so satisfying. Sid Meier's Civilization 5 remains one of the best entry points into the series, as well as a great game in its own right. It skillfully blends the depth and complexity of previous Civ games with the accessibility of Civilization Revolution to create a unified whole that'll get you hooked in under an hour, and keep you playing for a hundred more.

Designing your strategy maybe absolute conquest with Russia, or a cultural victory with the French and then adapting that game plan based on the changing geopolitical landscape, is a fun and engrossing challenge every time you play. But Civ 5's greatest strength is its bottomless well of fan-made content. From Game of Thrones to My Little Pony , if there's a feature you hope to see in the game, chances are someone has made it a reality. EarthBound treads where few RPGs dare: Instead of quaffing health potions that you picked up from the local general store, order a pizza and take it to-go.

Or better yet, scarf down a cheeseburger you found in a trash can - no one's judging. Hitch a ride to the next town with a band that looks an awful lot like The Blues Brothers. Most games would be lucky to have one or two memorable moments like this. EarthBound has them in spades. It's a pastiche of American pop culture wrapped up in the wackiest Japanese role-playing game ever made. It's heartwarming yet haunting; playful yet sincere. But most of all, EarthBound proves that the adventure of a lifetime can start right in your own backyard.

And there's nothing else like it. Treasure has crafted so many wonderfully obscure shoot-'em-ups that it seems almost gauche to nominate one of their best-known and most accessible works for this list.

But Ikaruga 's genius lies in the way it serves as a gateway drug of sorts, teaching shoot-'em-up dabblers how to swoop and swoosh across the screen like a score-chasing fiend.

Almost more puzzler than shooter, Ikaruga is built around a 'black and white polarity' conceit: Thus, the screen's entire geometry changes in an instant, leading to countless death-defying, heart-stopping runs through waves of lethal plasma.

Fable 2 provides a more literal take on role-playing, letting you shape a hero through behavioral gestures that see you turn from twinkle-in-the-eye Prince Charming to pants-shitting jester with the press of a button. This latter accident - the result of a farting mini-game gone wrong - is funnier than it should be, especially when deployed before a crowd of yokels who've gathered to admire your fine dancing.

You'd never see that in a Zelda game. By putting its focus on silly moment-to-moment decisions in a world where even meat-eating can contribute to your unethical standing, Fable 2 allows your hero to gradually form over a virtual life, rather than defining them at a handful of colossal moral crossroads.

Not that the game doesn't do those, too. In fact, such is the general silliness of life in Albion that when those tough calls do arrive, they hit all the harder for it. One of the smoothest, slickest platformers ever made, this sequel fixes the few shortcomings of its predecessor.

The two-act-per-level structure means the pacing is wonderful - and a perfect fit for the fastest thing alive. The opening sequence of Emerald Hill, Chemical Plant Zone and Aquatic Ruin is magnificent, packing three servings of gorgeous scrolling backgrounds, speed, hardcore platforming, and bosses into some 15 minutes of gaming.

And with timeless iconography, an ultra-dramatic final level, and countless opportunities for fun pinball flippers, launch ramps, slot machines, secret paths, 3D special stages, etc.

Enemy Within looks confusing in screenshots and videos - with all the little icons and aiming percentages - but it's actually quite easy to play. You don't lose a game of XCOM because you didn't understand what was happening, or because you forgot how to command your characters.

The game doles out all the information in a way that's easy to understand. Instead, you lose because you made a mistake. Maybe you charged your elite troops into a bad situation, or clumped them all up only to get wiped out by a single grenade. Whatever the reason, you understand why it happened. The action is framed within a classic alien invasion scenario that gives enough context without getting in the way of the fun.

And since it comes from the same house as Civilization, you know it has that oh-so-addictive, one-more-turn effect that'll keep you up until the wee hours of the morning. Who'd have thought the best AC game to date would be so That's not to say that Assassin's Creed 4: Black Flag doesn't offer all the hallmarks of the stab-happy series; there's white hoods, sneaking missions and ancient MacGuffins aplenty.

But it's the new elements that make this swashbuckling story so captivating. Boiled down to two words? Fleshing out a small feature of AC3 into a fully-fledged part of your adventure, AC4 gives you a vibrant 17th-century Caribbean to explore and a ship all your own to rule it with. In doing so, Black Flag becomes one of most compelling pirate stories ever told, tightly embracing the role-playing tenant that the adventure you make for yourself is far more memorable than any pre-scripted mission.

Team 17's very British turn-based battler is a true curio, something that could've only come from the mad minds of late '90s games developers. Here you play a squad of fighty worms as they attempt to eradicate the opposing team by blasting them or knocking them into water.

True, but that doesn't mean these invertebrates can't use artillery. There's exploding sheep, banana bombs, kamikaze pigeons, and sacrilegious holy hand grenades, all taking chunks out of the level as they go off. You can use grappling hooks, jetpacks, bungee cords, and scaffolding to reach new vantage points, and when you want to rub your opponent's' nose in it, do a bit of disrespectful skipping. Just make sure you don't let your exuberant trooper get prodded off a ledge to his or her watery death.

The first Thief practically invented the stealth genre as we now know it. But Thief 2 does everything the original did, only better. Despite his wish for a simple life of grand larceny, Garrett once again finds himself ensnared in an intriguing plot full of pagan cults and evil machinations. The sheer atmosphere of the shadowy stages, which blend a gothic setting with steampunk inventions, more than makes up for any ancient-looking polygons.

But most importantly, the AI in Thief 2 is remarkably smart, with enemies that feel like thinking entities that you must react to instead of simply manipulating. Every area in the complex, non-linear level designs feels like a new logic puzzle, which can only be solved through the proper mix of cunning and the ability to adapt when your best-laid plans go to hell in a handbasket. Ok, so it's more of a visual novel with sprite trappings than a full-blown RPG - but wow, what a story.

Wrapping up themes as weighty as death, memory, love, loss and the interpersonal toll of mental illness, To the Moon is a game which will likely take you about three to four hours to polish off, but will stay with you forever.

Two doctors are tasked with delving into the memories of a dying man and reordering them to make his dream of reaching the moon come true. As they dig deeper into his past, however, his dream seems strangely at odds with some of his most treasured memories. You don't have any real control over how events unfold, but To The Moon is an outlier for gaming storytelling which pretty much every other title on this list could learn from.

SSX the third polishes up the series' already stellar board-based acrobatics to create an enthralling, accessible, yet fiendishly demanding rollercoaster playground. Then it explodes the whole concept outwards to create a full-blown video game holiday.

In both concept and execution, the three interconnected peaks of the sprawling Big Mountain resort are a staggering achievement, mind-blowing in and still a joy to explore now. One huge, alpine open-world, littered with race tracks, stunt parks, and trick runs, its eclectic atmospheres - from crisp, woodland backcountry to pulsating neon cities - is matched by its breadth, depth, and the sheer joy of just being there. Once you've tried a minute run from the mountain's peak to its base, taking in every area in between, you'll realize that SSX3 isn't just the best snowboarding game ever - it's among the greatest games period.

Four-player TowerFall is the best thing you can do with a lunch break - yes, even better than lunch itself. It's a frenzied mini-tournament that takes place in short, frantic bursts of rapid-fire arrows, where winning is a combination of luck, skill, and other people's mistakes. Up to four archers, each with a quiver of arrows, fight for supremacy in a tiny space filled with platforms, item chests, and a ton of ways to die.

There's something for everyone: Its accessible, easy controls jump, fire arrows, repeat make it perfect for beginners, but genius rule variations and tons of unique battlefields will keep you brawling for years.

TowerFall is a simple premise executed brilliantly, as the best games often are. The year-old F-Zero GX not only still looks incredible, running at a ludicrously slick 60fps, but plays that way, too.

Learn the tracks and train yourself to look past the eye-watering pace, and you'll enter a zen-like state of almost precognitive proportions. Where you see the upcoming corner, the loop, and the vital boost pad, unpracticed onlookers only see a blur.

With no weapon pick-ups in sight, the focus is kept strictly on white-knuckle racing. Besides, it's not like the game needs much inter-craft combat, as the courses themselves put up a fight, with harrowing cylinders suspended over flames, slippery glass roads snaking through futuristic cities, and routes littered with mines. Wonder why Nintendo hasn't made a new F-Zero?

Because GX already exists, and it's still brilliant. Computer-generated levels usually can't hold a candle to the ones that've been carved out by actual human beings. Imagine how lame Super Mario World would have been if Miyamoto's expert designs were replaced with a different set of jumbled-up eyesores every time you booted it up. But Derek Yu's potholing platformer pulls it off. Spelunky 's randomly-generated stages create a sense of wonder and exploration that pre-crafted levels simply can't compete with.

There's a sense that you never quite know what's lurking around the next corner, and leaping before you look can quickly bring your latest adventure to an end. Not to mention the fact that the action is underpinned by hidden secrets and clever thematic twists that make the game as deep and absorbing as its near-endless cave systems. The trouble with most co-op games is that you have to rely on other people ugh or AI 'bots with the intellect of a raisin.

A Tale of Two Sons neatly sidesteps this by giving you control of both its titular leads simultaneously: Essentially, you are your own co-op buddy - and it works wonderfully. Directed by Swedish filmmaker Josef Fares, it's a brief game crammed with detail, character development, and cute set-pieces, whether you're tricking a blood cult or hiding from a yeti. This fantastic fairy tale of familial relations is bold, cinematic, and entirely unmissable for anyone with a heart that isn't made of icicles.

When Grim Fandango hit the scene in , there was nothing like it. Fast-forward nearly two decades and Part film noir, part Mexican folklore, with a heavy dash of LucasArts wit thrown in for good measure, Grim Fandango's tale of intrigue set in the seedy underbelly of the Land of the Dead feels just as fresh now as it did over 15 years ago.

Thanks to a recent port courtesy of Double Fine the studio headed by Grim's original director, Tim Schafer , returning fans and newcomers alike can finally step back into Manny's bones and explore the dangerous yet breathtaking Sixth Underworld on modern machines. You'll still get frustrated by a wonky bit of old-school puzzle logic here and there, but Grim hasn't lost one bit of its well-considered charm.

Fighting games were born in the once-dominant world of the arcade, but for years, developers struggled to translate the magic of the stand-up cabinet onto home consoles.

Then Tekken 3 came along, whipped off its shades, and made the whole thing look effortless. It's so good you can almost smell that air of stale cigarette smoke and teenage ambition. So what makes a year-old PS1 fighter so good in ? It possesses one of the finest fighting systems ever, the series' well-known juggle formula percolated into a perfect storm of throws, strikes, and suplexes. It even adds two of the most iconic and rewarding characters to ever spill blood in the genre, in the forms of flame-trousered emo Jin Kazama and Chun-Li-aping kick connoisseur Hwoarang.

Add to that a serving of tempo-accelerating dance tunes and enough mini-games to shake a fiery fist at, and you've got one hell of a fighting champion. Once upon the late '90s, it seemed as if everyone wanted to make the next Super Mario Some say Rare was one such contender, and cartoonish 3D platformer Banjo-Kazooie was its hopeful Mario clone.

But Banjo-Kazooie is much more than that. It's a title with a ton of heart, charming in its silliness and endlessly fun to play. Benefiting from a focus on expansive, themed worlds, Banjo-Kazooie directs all its energy toward making you want to explore its every nook and cranny. Airtight platforming controls make each location fully accessible, and a plethora of fun puzzles and silly characters leaves them feeling rich and full of life.

Add in a great sense of humor that inspires some serious hilarity we can't really think of another game where you save your sister via a life-or-death game show , and it's clear that Banjo-Kazooie does ridiculous fun ridiculously well. World of Warcraft might be the MMO that paved the way, but in the subsequent maelstrom of wannabes, only ArenaNet's daring take on the formula broke into 'must-play' territories.

As soon as you log in to Guild Wars 2 's world of Tyria and start adventuring, you're immediately doing so alongside armies of fellow players. Dynamic events with ever-shifting objectives kick off all over creation, with no finicky partying system required to partake.

Amazingly, here's an MMO which doesn't require a subscription, and yet manages to be updated constantly with consistently innovative content. You can expect a fresh helping of story every two weeks, alongside puzzles, mini-games, and huge boss battles requiring hundreds of players to join forces to succeed.

And if you're more of a solo adventurer, that's ok too - each character's complex personal story is reason enough to keep questing. If you're looking for a stellar co-op game, you can't go wrong with Left 4 Dead.

As the survivors, not only do you fight off hundreds of hungry zeds as they bum-rush you at full sprint - there's also a team of zombie players hiding in the shadows, waiting to rip you to shreds. Nothing is better than playing with a well-coordinated team and shotgun-blasting your way through a horde of zombies - or, alternatively, simultaneously pouncing on the survivors as the special infected. Left 4 Dead has some of the most nerve-wracking gameplay you can find in a co-op shooter.

The AI director knows just when to spring a surprise on the group, so every match feels different from the last. Even more unpredictable are the actions of your teammates and foes: It'd be terrifying if it wasn't so fun. C'mon, no one really wanted to be a lawyer before Phoenix Wright made his case. Wanting to be a lawyer is like wanting to start a pension fund, or getting excited about tax returns.

But as it turns out, the life of a defense attorney is full of intrigue, mystery, and horrible, revenge-driven murder. The first Ace Attorney game marks the beginning of a gorgeously detailed, well-written, and often wacky series; a narrative-led, understated handheld experience in a time when guns-'n'-gore were the order of the day.

Why should you play it? The music; the look; the slow, tense unfolding of the story that will keep you gripped from Press Start to finish. It's Shu Takumi's masterpiece, and its only flaw is that it makes lawyering look too cool.

Quite simply, this is the smartest puzzle-platformer ever created. To call it Super Mario with time manipulation would do Braid a great disservice: Each world presents distinct time-distorting powers and puzzles that feed your brain through the wringer, squeeze it out, let it air, and then forcefully knead it afterwards for good measure.

It's the rare product of brutal, uncompromising game design. Eager to avoid repeating a single idea, creator Jonathan Blow famously cut entire worlds from the plans when he discovered some time mechanics weren't generating enough wholly unique puzzles.

Those that remain, combined with David Hellman's classical art style and a soothing soundtrack that matches your clock-spinning antics, ensure that Braid has and will stand the test of time. Reenacting an entire year of high school one day at a time may not sound like one of the best RPGs of the last decade, but Persona 4 Golden 's looks can be deceiving. Inaba is a mundane town that's troubled by a bizarre string of murders, and the only way to solve them is for a group of students to band together and figure it out.

Finding the answers to the crimes involves an ingenious combination of dungeon crawling and personal introspection. Persona 4 is a spinoff from Shin Megami Tensei, so it shares the same demonic style of monster collection and dense RPG combat. You get to know each of your classmates intimately as their story unfolds over the school year, and they grow and change along with the protagonist.

Little moments, like sewing a stuffed bunny or fishing with a friend, can feel just as earthshaking as any boss battle. Maniac Mansion may have put LucasArts or LucasFilm Games, as it was once known on the map - but it's the sequel, Day of the Tentacle, that really holds a special place in our hearts. Well, it's about time. See, Purple Tentacle is a little deranged, and he's gone off to take over the world. Luckily, you've got a porta-potty-turned-time-machine, and you're off to stop the megalomaniacal appendage before he can enact his plan.

But the plot doesn't just span the centuries - the puzzles do too. Sending objects through the time-tripping toilets will change events in the past, and always with hilarious results. As a bonus Easter egg, you can even find a full copy of the original Maniac Mansion hidden in the game.

It's an excellent adventure that still stands the test of Not even atrocities like Tony Hawk Ride or Downhill Jam can ever take away from the greatness of this skate-or-die classic. THPS3 is the pinnacle of the franchise, with ludicrously smooth controls and a playful, over-the-top mentality that hasn't yet veered into Bam Margera worship.

Each of the wildly varied stages is full of sick combo lines and nifty secrets, but the two-minute time limit keeps you focused on what really matters: Let us not forget the glory of the revert, which - when paired with the manual move from the preceding game - turns every level into one giant playground. Once you've mastered the art of stringing together your favorite tricks and slick signature moves, you can traverse the entire map in a single magnificent combo.

The eclectic soundtrack's unforgettable mix of punk rock, hip-hop, and ska ties it all together like grip tape to make this greatest skating game on the block. There are sane, rational people in the world who've been playing World of Warcraft for over ten years.

That's because WoW has been and still is the gold standard for MMOs, serving as the template that many have tried to mimic and none have topped.

With every expansion, countless refinements and fresh zones added to the realm of Azeroth justify the monthly subscription fee for veterans and latecomers alike. What makes WoW so everlasting is the way it caters to players of all kinds.

Newbies are eased into learning the pristinely tuned class mechanics, taking on quests that make them feel like the hero at the center of their own personal epic.

Meanwhile, experts will always have new ways to test themselves, either against brilliantly designed raid bosses or their fellow adventurers in intense PvP. You know it's been a great party when you wake up as a corpse the morning after. It might sound bonkers, but such is main character Sissel's predicament at the outset of this ectoplasmic twist on the humble point-and-clicker.

As a recently deceased ghost, Sissel must piece together the events that led to his demise while simultaneously averting disaster for a cast of characters in the present. He's only able to interact with things by possessing them, and can only travel a certain distance at a time. Oh, and when things do go wrong, Sissel's only able to manipulate events within a tiny window of time. Cue brain-melting puzzles which gleefully dance along the line between frustration and satisfaction. We don't just mean the Nintendo worlds it brings together, but how it seamlessly fuses the competitive edge of the fighting genre with the accessibility and just-plain-fun that Nintendo is known for.

While every Smash title has its upsides, the Wii U entry is a cut above what's come before. Its gameplay is simple enough to enjoy immediately, while the depth it lends to character mastery will keep you coming back. Refined balance makes every fighter an attractive option; you're just as likely to win with Jigglypuff as you are with Star Fox, assuming you know how to play them. Add a roster of over 50 characters with an insane amount of alternate costumes you can be any of the seven Koopalings!

Alucard, son of Dracula and the handsome hero of Symphony of the Night, has the distinction of being half-human, half-vampire.

That kind of unique fusion brilliantly captures what makes one of the great grandfathers of 'Metroidvania' so great. It combines the tight 2D platforming of Super Castlevania with the open-ended structure of Super Metroid. The timeless graphical style blends the best of bit-era spritework with bit special effects. There's all the excitement of a side-scroller, mixed with the rich loot cycle and constant stream of new abilities typical of an RPG. Just when you think you've reached the finale, SOTN reveals that you're only at the halfway point.

But you won't be mad, because Dracula's castle is rife with secrets and monstrous, imaginative enemies, making the exploration and combat captivating from start to finish. Say what you will about the melodramatic voice acting, but SOTN's hauntingly beautiful score is still one of the most enchanting highlights of video game audio to date.

Not many games can boast the combination of strategic battles and romantic matchmaking, but Fire Emblem Awakening does. Too few strategy games stop to think about life outside the battlefield, but this 3DS outing is all the richer for its relationship-focused narrative. It's completely up to you whether you just want to play Cupid and set up the couples you think are cutest, or go full eugenicist and engineer the most powerful warrior babies.

The turn-based strategy is compelling enough to distract you from your romantic meddling, with endless combinations of moves, weapons, and characters to mix up into your very own flavor of tactical mayhem. Just don't mess up if you're playing Classic Mode - because once a character dies, they're dead forever, and you can't marry them off any more.

Where do we even start with Secret of Mana? The beautiful world full of waving grass and gentle rivers? The swelling music that fills the air with adventure and mystery?

The real-time, stamina-based combat that favors patience and timing over mad dashes? The unprecedented three-player co-op which lets each person fall madly in love with their own unique protagonist? It's a bit difficult to choose. Secret of Mana is still amazing more than two decades later, its moments of desperate struggle and quiet awe no less powerful than the first time we experienced them.

Please file a ticket through the official website. Your ticket must contain the required information based on the following format: Refund to Heroes Evolved Mobile Message: We would like to apologize for the inconvenience caused. Players select from a huge roster of playable characters, each with their own unique skills and attributes. Earn gold, level up, and acquire powerful artifact gear as you co-ordinate with your team, balancing defense and offense on the road to victory!

Get to know their attributes and abilities and lead them to victory in battle! Players can experience Heroes Evolved as a solo player or with their friends to battle against opponents of similar skill. Players can also create game lobbies to freely invite teammates and opponents.

This Mode is more suitable for beginners to experience. Players can practice with Bots to improve their skills. Moreover, by playing matchmaking games players will earn a game Rank which represents their skill. Gather your teammates to level up together!

Now, it finally comes to Steam. Team Synergy from the Americas region won the Grand Final. From only nineteen institutions of higher education in , the number has increased to nine hundred fifty. Over 26 percent of men and about 13 percent of women age twenty-five and over received higher education as of Koreans are very status conscious, and their speech behavior reflects the hierarchical relationship between social actors.

Except among former classmates and other very close friends, adults do not use first names to address each other. Position titles such as "professor," "manager," "director," and "president" are used in combination with the honorific suffix nim to address a social superior. Koreans are generally courteous to the extent of being ceremonious when they interact with social superiors but can be very outgoing and friendly among friends and acquaintances of equal social status.

Their behavior with strangers in urban public situations may be characterized by indifference and self-centeredness. Koreans appear to be rude to strangers since they generally do not say a word when they accidentally push or jostle other people on the streets, and in the stores, train stations, and airports. Traditional Confucian teaching emphasized propriety in the five sets of human relationships, which included the relations between sovereign and subject, father and son, husband and wife, senior and junior, and friend and friend.

Confucianism still serves as the standard of moral and social conduct for many people. As a result of constitutional guarantees of freedom of religion, there is a wide range of religious beliefs, from shamanism, Confucianism, and Buddhism to Christianity, Islam, and other religions. Indigenous folk beliefs and shamanism have co-evolved, sharing a fundamental belief in the existence of a myriad of gods such as the mountain gods, the house gods, and the fire god and spirits of the dead, all of which may influence people's fortunes.

Korean Buddhism has both doctrinal and meditative traditions. Buddhists believe that human suffering is caused mainly by desire. Thus, some Buddhists try to obtain enlightenment by cultivating an attitude of detachment, while others seek to fulfill their desires by offering prayers of requests to Kwanum, the Bodhisattva of Compassion. Confucianism is a political and social philosophy that emphasizes the virtues of in , usually translated as "human-heartedness," and hyo or filial piety, which is expressed through ceremony such as ancestor rites.

The Confucian concept of heaven is an impersonal yet willful force in nature and society, and is beyond human control. Early Korean Catholics who embraced Catholicism as part of Western Learning Sohak , suffered persecution during the Choson Dynasty for renouncing their ancestral rites as "pagan" rites. Christianity, including both Catholicism and Protestantism, has become a major religion. Ch'ondogyo the Teaching of the Heavenly Way , which began as Tonghak Eastern Learning , founded by Ch'oe Che U in , is a syncretistic religion that grew on the grassroots level.

Shamans derive their power from their ability to serve as a medium between the spirit world and their clients during kut shaman rituals. The Buddhist and Christian clergy derive their power from their knowledge of scripture. Another source of power for the clergy of major religions is the wealth their churches have accumulated from the contributions of followers.

The activities of the Christian clergy include not only sermons but also routine personal visits to the homes of their congregants. Buddhist monks may perform personalized prayer services in return for monetary donations. Rituals and Holy Places. A shaman keeps a shrine where her guardian deity and the instruments for ritual services are kept. Kut , which include songs, dances, and incantations, are performed at various places to secure good fortune, cure illnesses, or guide the spirit of a deceased person to heaven.

The National Confucian Academy in Seoul holds semi-monthly and semiannual ceremonies to honor Confucius, his disciples, and other Confucian sages. Christian churches are ubiquitous in urban and rural areas. Some offer services not only on Sundays but also at predawn hours on weekdays.

Leading Christian churches have huge new buildings that can accommodate several thousand worshipers. Buddhist temples used to be located away from urban centers near the mountains, but more temples are now being erected in urban areas. Death and the Afterlife. Many Koreans believe in ancestral spirits and observe Confucian rituals concerning funerals, mourning practices, and memorial services.

Folk beliefs about the afterlife are somewhat influenced by Buddhism but are characterized by diversity. Mourning periods vary, depending on the social status of the deceased, from one day to two years. Selecting good grave sites according to geomantic principles is regarded as important for both the ancestral spirit and the descendants' Shoppers indulge in the markets and stores of the Namdaemun shopping district in downtown Seoul, South Korea. At domestic rites performed on the eve of the death day and on major holidays, the ancestral image is that of living, dependent, and inactive parents to whom food and wine are offered.

The health care system includes both Western and traditional medicine. As a result of increasing public demand for traditional medicine, the Oriental Medicine Bureau was established in the Ministry of Health and Welfare in There were 62, Western doctors and 9, traditional doctors in Traditional doctors practice acupuncture and prescribe herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of illness.

Some people turn to a shaman for elaborate kut performance to cure illnesses attributed to evil spirits. The two most important national holidays are New Year's Day and Ch'usok which falls on the eighth full moon by the lunar calendar. Koreans observe both solar and lunar New Year's holidays of which many people wear hanbok traditional dress , offer sebae New Year's greetings with a "big bow" to their parents, eat ttok-kuk rice-cake soup , play traditional games, and observe ancestor rites.

On Ch'usok, the harvest festival celebrations include eating special foods such as songp'yon half-moon-shaped rice cakes and making family visits to ancestral graves to tidy the tomb area and offer fruits and other foods, including steamed rice cooked with newly harvested grain.

Korean classical literature was written in Chinese, and the late Koryo and early Choson sijo poems dealt mainly with the theme of loyalty. The kasa form of Choson poetry expressed individual sentiments and moral admonitions. After the creation of the Korean alphabet, many works of fiction were written in Han'gul and royal ladies wrote novels depicting their personal situations and private thoughts.

Modern literature started in the mid-nineteenth century as a result of the new Western-style education and the Korean language and literature movement. The themes of twentieth-century literature reflect the national experiences colonization, postliberation division of the homeland, the Korean War, urbanization, and industrialization.

Translations of literary works began to appear in foreign countries in the s. The novelists whose works have been most widely translated are Hwang Sun-won and Kim Tong-ri. Traditional brush paintings include realistic landscapes; genre paintings of flowers, birds, and the daily lives of ordinary people; and calligraphic presentations of Chinese phrases extolling Confucian virtues such as filial piety and loyalty decorated with designs and pictures.

Traditional sculptures in bronze, stone, and rock were inspired by Buddhism. The Sakyamuni Buddha in the rotunda of the Sokkuram Grotto is regarded as a national masterpiece. Korean music and dance evolved over three thousand years from the religious ceremonies of shamanism and Buddhism and often were linked to the agricultural cycle.

Traditional music has two genres: Chong'ak "correct music" , a genre of chamber music with a leisurely tempo and a meditative character, and minsok'ak folk music , characterized by spontaneity and emotionality. P'ansori as a category of folk vocal music is a unique combination of singing and storytelling by a single vocalist with the accompaniment of a changgo traditional drum. The Tale of Ch'unhyang , a love story and one of the five extant traditional p'ansori compositions, requires more than eight hours to perform.

Among folk instrumental music, samul nori has been the most popular form since the s. The primarily percussive music is played on gongs made of bronze and leather and double-headed hourglass and barrel drums. Koreans also enjoy classical and popular Western music. South Korea has thirty-one symphony orchestras and has produced internationally renowned violinists such as Kyung-hwa Chung and Sarah Chang.

There are two categories of traditional dance: Kut and nong-ak farmers' festival music , which combine music and dance with ritual and entertainment, continue to be popular. Mask dances performed by villagers combined dance with satiric drama, making fun of erring officials and monks for entertainment and ethical edification.

The Traditional Dance Institute of the Korean National University of Arts was established in to educate future generations in the traditional dance heritage. The Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology was established by the government in as a model for research-oriented universities producing scientists and engineers.

The Korean Science and Engineering Foundation and the Korea Research Foundation are the major funding agencies for university research in basic science. The Academy of Korean Studies was founded in to encourage in-depth social science and humanities studies of the heritage of the Korean nation.

Since , it has offered graduate courses in Korean studies. Echoes of the Past, Epics of Dissent: A South Korean Social Movement , Between Farm and Sea , The Zen Monastic Experience: Buddhist Practice in Contemporary Korea , The Dynamics of Korean Economic Development , Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History , The Korean Political Tradition and Law: Essays in Korean Law and Legal History , The Socialization of Shamans , Ancestor Worship and Korean Society , Home Was the Land of Morning Calm: A Saga of a Korean-American Family , Shamans, Housewives, and Other Restless Spirits: Women in Korean Ritual Life , Getting Married in Korea: Of Gender, Morality, and Modernity , An Ethnography of Korean Family Dispersal , The Culture of Korean Industry: An Ethnography of Poongsan Corporation , Art and Archaeology of Ancient Korea , A History from Ancient Times to , State and Society in Contemporary Korea , Korean Overseas Culture and Information Service.

A Handbook of Korea , The Politics of Korean Nationalisms , The Political Economy of South Korea , Introduction to Korean History and Culture , An Introduction to Shijo , Shima, Mutsuhiko, and Roger L.

The Anthropology of Korea: East Asian Perspectives , Asian Experiences Past and Present , The Rise of the Korean Economy , 2nd ed. Art through 5, Years , A Comparative Analysis , The Art of Korean Clothing , Culture Name South Korean.

History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space Traditionally, dwellings with thatched roofs and houses with clay-tile roofs symbolized rural—urban as well as lower-class—upper-class distinctions. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life.

Social Stratification Classes and Castes. Social Welfare and Change Programs Much progress has been made in the area of social welfare since the s, especially in the health care system.

Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations Until the late s, civil organizations generally developed in opposition to the government and contributed to democratization. Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. Etiquette Koreans are very status conscious, and their speech behavior reflects the hierarchical relationship between social actors. Medicine and Health Care The health care system includes both Western and traditional medicine.

Secular Celebrations The two most important national holidays are New Year's Day and Ch'usok which falls on the eighth full moon by the lunar calendar.

The Arts and Humanities Literature. The State of the Physical and Social Sciences The Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology was established by the government in as a model for research-oriented universities producing scientists and engineers. Christianity in Modern Korea , Kinship System in Korea , Women in Korean Politics , Your research is very sophisticated and detailed. But I'm afraid that some part of it is somewhat old-fashioned.

For example, in Socialization sector, you said that parents are more concern about their sons' education than daughter's. But now in , the apparent types of sexual discrimination is disappearing,and in educational sector, nearly all the discrimination is vanished when it is sexual, not the racial. In addition to this, I want to point out that the students who go to university is greatly increased than the reference that you used.

Very interesting information, the page is long, but it is immence in detail. You know I just want to say thank-you for your wonderful information that you have provided, it has helped me al ot with my assignment and yeh, awesomeee. You put a lot of details but you don't talk about the culture of South Korea today. You talk about the past about it. This website was very helpful for my project.

May I ask who created this site so i can use this as a source? I love the place of south Korea because they are open city and democaratic country which means they will allowed the foreigner to visit their place Thank you for the information that have been established in this site..

More Power to you.. WooW that's awesome, I found all topics that I want for my project here, those information are really helpful. You need to say more about the traditional practices. Unless i missed something, nothing about that was in there.

Thank you so much for all of the information! I had this project in Social Science for cultures and I was super duper stressed about it until I found this website. Thank you so much!! I like this page, because I really needed information for this term paper I have for my World Cultures class and this page really helped me a lot. I had to write a paper on Korea, with topics on culture history and geography, this helped a ton. Thank you so much for the detailed information.

I felt it is very much helpful. Thank you for all the valuable information. I would like to know, where can I get more informations about korean work ethics? You are very informational and helpful. I am amazed of all this information on South Korea! Thanks a lot for your help! We will attend his memorial service Thursday night 2 days away and do not know the Korean custom. Should we order flowers? Send a gift offering for the altar?

Any help youle be most appreciated. It helps me with my project work,and thank for giving so much infomation about korea i bet that the person lived in korean or knows alot about korea by the way thank you! I really love this but the thing is that u didn't write about Korean famous people, for Ex. BUT this hlep me a lot for my assighment. I really like how you showed the bibliography and information and stuff I used this for my research for South K. Thanks for your article: Very informative, it helps us filipinos to know more about Asian cultures and traditions Great people and thanks a lot.

Thaank you for this information about south korea. This site is help those person who want's to learn about korea. If any koreans see this,, they will flip shit Thank you giving many information. It has help me with my reports about South Korea.

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Outside the family, the patrilineal kin group tongjok is organized into tangnae and munjung. Each of them considers Korea to be of major importance to its own security, and since the United States has had a major security interest in the nation.

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