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After the coup , Muammar Gaddafi closed American and British bases and partly nationalized foreign oil and commercial interests in Libya. Lacking direction from the Ottoman government, Tripoli lapsed into a period of military anarchy during which coup followed coup and few deys survived in office more than a year. In the early s officials of the Jamahiriya era carried out economic reforms to reintegrate Libya into the global economy. After weakening control of Abbasids, Cyrenaica was under Egypt based states such as Tulunids , Ikhshidids , Ayyubids and Mamluks before Ottoman conquest in Ancient Libya and Libu.
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Lacking direction from the Ottoman government, Tripoli lapsed into a period of military anarchy during which coup followed coup and few deys survived in office more than a year. Retrieved 22 Feb Dialogue in the desert". Many Libyans frequent the country's beach and they also visit Libya's archaeological sites—especially Leptis Magna , which is widely considered to be one of the best preserved Roman archaeological sites in the world. On 11 September , Islamist militants mounted a surprise attack on the American consulate in Benghazi, killing the U.
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Where are all the good men at? How do I let a guy know I am not interested? There are a few scattered uninhabited small oases, usually linked to the major depressions, where water can be found by digging to a few feet in depth. In the west there is a widely dispersed group of oases in unconnected shallow depressions, the Kufra group, consisting of Tazerbo, Rebianae and Kufra.
Slightly further to the south are the massifs of Arkenu, Uweinat, and Kissu. These granite mountains are ancient, having formed long before the sandstones surrounding them. Eastern Uweinat the highest point in the Libyan Desert is a raised sandstone plateau adjacent to the granite part further west. The plain to the north of Uweinat is dotted with eroded volcanic features. With the discovery of oil in the s also came the discovery of a massive aquifer underneath much of Libya.
The water in this aquifer pre-dates the last ice ages and the Sahara Desert itself. The legislature of Libya is the unicameral Council of Deputies which meets in Tobruk. The former legislature was the General National Congress , which had seats. On 7 July , Libyans voted in parliamentary elections , the first free elections in almost 40 years.
As of January , there was mounting public pressure on the National Congress to set up a drafting body to create a new constitution.
Congress had not yet decided whether the members of the body would be elected or appointed. The new legislature allocates 30 seats for women, will have seats overall with individuals able to run as members of political parties and allows Libyans of foreign nationalities to run for office.
Following the elections, Freedom House improved Libya's rating from Not Free to Partly Free, and now considers the country to be an electoral democracy. Gaddafi merged civil and sharia courts in Civil courts now employ sharia judges who sit in regular courts of appeal and specialise in sharia appellate cases.
An agreement to form a unified interim government was signed on 17 December Libya's foreign policies have fluctuated since As a Kingdom, Libya maintained a definitively pro-Western stance, and was recognized as belonging to the conservative traditionalist bloc in the League of Arab States the present-day Arab League , of which it became a member in Although the government supported Arab causes, including the Moroccan and Algerian independence movements, it took little active part in the Arab-Israeli dispute or the tumultuous inter-Arab politics of the s and early s.
The Kingdom was noted for its close association with the West, while it steered a conservative course at home. After the coup , Muammar Gaddafi closed American and British bases and partly nationalized foreign oil and commercial interests in Libya. Relations with the West were strained by a series of incidents for most of Gaddafi's rule,    including the killing of London policewoman Yvonne Fletcher , the bombing of a West Berlin nightclub frequented by U.
Gaddafi's decision to abandon the pursuit of weapons of mass destruction after the Iraq War saw Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein overthrown and put on trial led to Libya being hailed as a success for Western soft power initiatives in the War on Terror.
The Libyan National Army comprises a ground army , an air force and a navy. It is currently being re-established by the Libyan government [ citation needed ] , as Libya's previous national army was defeated in the Libyan Civil War and disbanded. As of May , an estimated 35, personnel have joined its ranks. As of November , it was deemed to be still in the embryonic stage of development.
Militias have so far refused to be integrated into a central security force. Historically, the area of Libya was considered three provinces or states , Tripolitania in the northwest, Barka Cyrenaica in the east, and Fezzan in the southwest.
It was the conquest by Italy in the Italo-Turkish War that united them in a single political unit. Since , Libya has been divided into 22 districts baladiyat:.
Homosexuality is illegal in Libya. The organization added that Libya has very low rank in the press freedom index as it occupied out of countries. Libya faces many structural problems including a lack of institutions, weak governance, and chronic structural unemployment.
The country joined OPEC in In the early s, Libya was one of the wealthiest countries in the world; its GDP per capita was higher than some developed countries. In the early s officials of the Jamahiriya era carried out economic reforms to reintegrate Libya into the global economy. In Saif al-Islam Gaddafi , the second-eldest son of Muammar Gaddafi, was involved in a green development project called the Green Mountain Sustainable Development Area, which sought to bring tourism to Cyrene and to preserve Greek ruins in the area.
In August it was estimated that it would take at least 10 years to rebuild Libya's infrastructure. Even before the war, Libya's infrastructure was in a poor state due to "utter neglect" by Gaddafi's administration, according to the NTC.
By October , the average oil production has surpassed 1. Oil production has fallen from 1. Libya is a large country with a relatively small population, and the population is concentrated very narrowly along the coast. Libya has a population of about 6.
The majority of the Libyan population is today identified as Arab , that is, Arabic -speaking and Arab-cultured. There are about tribes and clans in Libya. Family life is important for Libyan families, the majority of which live in apartment blocks and other independent housing units, with precise modes of housing depending on their income and wealth.
Although the Arab Libyans traditionally lived nomadic lifestyles in tents, they have now settled in various towns and cities. An unknown small number of Libyans still live in the desert as their families have done for centuries. Most of the population has occupations in industry and services , and a small percentage is in agriculture.
According to the UNHCR, there were around 8, registered refugees, 5, unregistered refugees, and 7, asylum seekers of various origins in Libya in January Additionally, 47, Libyan nationals were internally displaced and 46, were internally displaced returnees.
Today, the majority of Libyans are Arabized Berbers, with many also tracing their ancestry to the Banu Sulaym tribe, beside Turkish and purely Berber ethnicities. The Turkish minority are often called " Kouloughlis " and are concentrated in and around villages and towns. Most Italian settlers , at their height numbering over half a million, left after Italian Libya's independence in More repatriated in after the accession of Muammar Gaddafi.
Historically, Libya has been a host state for millions of low- and high-skilled Egyptian migrants, in particular. It is difficult to estimate the total number of immigrants in Libya as there are often differences between census figures, official counts and usually more accurate unofficial estimates.
In the census, around , foreign nationals were resident in Libya out of a population of over 5. Almost half of these were Egyptians, followed by Sudanese and Palestinian immigrants. If consular records prior to the revolution are used to estimate the immigrant population, as many as 2 million Egyptian migrants were recorded by the Egyptian embassy in Tripoli in , followed by 87, Tunisians, and 68, Moroccans by their respective embassies.
The number of Asian migrants before the revolution were roughly , 60, Bangladeshis, 18, Indians, 10, Pakistanis, Filipinos as well as Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, Thai and other workers. This was a religious revival adapted to desert life.
Its zawaaya lodges were found in Tripolitania and Fezzan , but Senussi influence was strongest in Cyrenaica. Rescuing the region from unrest and anarchy, the Senussi movement gave the Cyrenaican tribal people a religious attachment and feelings of unity and purpose. Gaddafi asserted that he was a devout Muslim, and his government was taking a role in supporting Islamic institutions and in worldwide proselytising on behalf of Islam. Since the fall of Gaddafi , ultra-conservative strains of Islam have reasserted themselves in places.
Derna in eastern Libya, historically a hotbed of jihadist thought, came under the control of militants aligned with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in There are small foreign communities of Christians. Coptic Orthodox Christianity , which is the Christian Church of Egypt, is the largest and most historical Christian denomination in Libya.
There are about 60, Egyptian Copts in Libya. As all followers of Christianity in Libya are foreigners who came to the country under work permits. There are an estimated 40, Roman Catholics in Libya who are served by two Bishops, one in Tripoli serving the Italian community and one in Benghazi serving the Maltese community. There is also a small Anglican community, made up mostly of African immigrant workers in Tripoli; it is part of the Anglican Diocese of Egypt.
People have been arrested on suspicion of being Christian missionaries , as proselytising is illegal. Libya was once the home of one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world, dating back to at least BC. In Giado some Jews died of weakness, hunger, and disease. In , Jews who were not in the concentration camps were heavily restricted in their economic activity and all men between 18 and 45 years were drafted for forced labor.
In the three years after November , more than Jews were murdered, and hundreds more wounded, in a series of pogroms. Upon Libya's independence in , most of the Jewish community emigrated.
Many Arabic speaking Libyans consider themselves as part of a wider Arab community. This was strengthened by the spread of Pan-Arabism in the midth century, and their reach to power in Libya where they instituted Arabic as the only official language of the state. Under their dictatorship the teaching and even use of indigenous Tamazight language was strictly forbidden. Both the spoken Arabic dialects and Tamazight, still retain words from Italian, that were acquired before and during the Libia Italiana period.
Libyans have a heritage in the traditions of the previously nomadic Bedouin Arabic speakers and sedentary Amazigh tribes. Most Libyans associate themselves with a particular family name originating from tribal or conquest based, typically from Ottoman forefathers, heritage. Reflecting the "nature of giving" Arabic: There are few theaters or art galleries due to the decades of cultural repression under the Qaddafi regime and lack of infrastructure development under the regime of dictatorship.
The tradition of folk culture is still alive and well, with troupes performing music and dance at frequent festivals, both in Libya and abroad. A large number of Libyan television stations are devoted to political review, Islamic topics and cultural phenomena.
A number of TV stations air various styles of traditional Libyan music. Libyan television broadcasts air programs mostly in Arabic though usually have time slots for English and French programs. Many Libyans frequent the country's beach and they also visit Libya's archaeological sites—especially Leptis Magna , which is widely considered to be one of the best preserved Roman archaeological sites in the world.
Libya's capital, Tripoli , has many museums and archives. Libyan cuisine is a mixture of the different Italian , Bedouin and traditional Arab culinary influences. Bazeen , a dish made from barley flour and served with red tomato sauce, is customarily eaten communally, with several people sharing the same dish, usually by hand. This dish is commonly served at traditional weddings or festivities.
Asida is a sweet version of Bazeen, made from white flour and served with a mix of honey, ghee or butter. Another favorite way to serve Asida is with rub fresh date syrup and olive oil. Usban is animal tripe stitched and stuffed with rice and vegetables cooked in tomato based soup or steamed. Shurba is a red tomato sauce-based soup, usually served with small grains of pasta. A very common snack eaten by Libyans is known as khubs bi' tun , literally meaning "bread with tuna fish", usually served as a baked baguette or pita bread stuffed with tuna fish that has been mixed with harissa chili sauce and olive oil.
Many snack vendors prepare these sandwiches and they can be found all over Libya. Libyan restaurants may serve international cuisine, or may serve simpler fare such as lamb, chicken, vegetable stew, potatoes and macaroni. There are four main ingredients of traditional Libyan food: Dates are harvested, dried and can be eaten as they are, made into syrup or slightly fried and eaten with bsisa and milk.
After eating, Libyans often drink black tea. This is normally repeated a second time for the second glass of tea , and in the third round of tea, it is served with roasted peanuts or roasted almonds known as shay bi'l-luz mixed with the tea in the same glass. Libya's population includes 1. The adult literacy rate in was As of [update] , this number has increased to more than ,, with an extra 70, enrolled in the higher technical and vocational sector.
Since the number of universities has grown from two to nine and after their introduction in , the number of higher technical and vocational institutes currently stands at 84 with 12 public universities. Although before a small number of private institutions were given accreditation, the majority of Libya's higher education has always been financed by the public budget.
In the budget allocation for education represented In , spending on healthcare accounted for 3. In , there were From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Libya disambiguation. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
National emblem de facto. The official language is simply identified as " Arabic " Constitutional Declaration , article 1. Ancient Libya and Libu. History of Islamic Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. This section needs to be updated. Parts of this article those related to The first civil war against Gaddafi and the second Libyan Civil war — Present which needs to be added need to be updated. Libyan Civil War This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.
Foreign relations of Libya. Subdivisions of Libya and Districts of Libya. Human rights in Libya. Largest cities or towns in Libya   . Music of Libya and Libyan literature. Parts of this article those related to post October national tertiary level education in Libya need to be updated.
Geography portal Africa portal Libya portal Arab World portal. Retrieved 28 May Retrieved 10 September United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 December Retrieved 1 April United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved 5 February Retrieved 25 August Retrieved 7 August Retrieved 18 November Retrieved 23 December Retrieved 28 February Retrieved 1 November Retrieved 26 February Name change for Libya" PDF.
International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 13 December Retrieved 5 January Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire 2 ed. Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies. A History of the Arab Peoples. Davis 5 December Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: Retrieved 31 May Retrieved 24 March Hagos 20 November Archived from the original on 7 December Internet View of the Arabic World.
Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 14 August Archived from the original on 7 August Retrieved 24 July The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World. Retrieved 22 October Dialogue in the desert".
Archived from the original on 1 March Archived from the original on 25 October Reason Wafavarova — Reverence for Hatred of Democracy". Retrieved 23 October John, Ronald Bruce 1 December Retrieved 8 July Retrieved 23 February America and the transformation of the Middle East. Digital Media and the Arab Spring. National Transitional Council Libya. Archived from the original on 26 September France recognises rebels as government".
The New York Times. Retrieved 9 March Archived from the original on 27 February Retrieved 2 March Secret tapes undermine Hillary Clinton on Libyan war". Retrieved 30 March Retrieved 20 August The Guardian, London, 22 May ,. Retrieved 25 June Journal of the Air Force Association, Vol. At least 30, died in the war". Retrieved 25 November Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 19 August How the Benghazi attack unfolded". Retrieved 20 February Retrieved 7 October Retrieved 14 October Retrieved 31 October Retrieved 3 June Retrieved 17 March
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The National Transitional Council , established in , referred to the state as simply "Libya". In , Turgut Reis enslaved almost the entire population of the Maltese island of Gozo , some 6, people, sending them to Libya. The terrorist attack against the Bardo Museum on 18 March , was reportedly carried on by two Libyan-trained militants.
Civil courts now employ sharia judges who sit in regular courts of appeal and specialise in sharia appellate cases. After weakening control of Abbasids, Cyrenaica was under Egypt based states such as Tulunids , Ikhshidids , Ayyubids and Mamluks before Ottoman conquest in
The majority of the Libyan population is today identified as Arabthat is, Arabic -speaking and Arab-cultured. Retrieved libya free dating site February The resolution sanctioned the establishment of a no-fly zone and the use of "all means necessary" ljbya protect civilians within Libya. The Hafsids ruled Tripolitania for nearly years. Bureau Secretariat Gallagher Estate. Retrieved 4 December
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