Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
During and part of , an ISIL unit nicknamed the Beatles acquired and held 12 Western journalists hostage, along with aid workers and other foreign hostages, totalling 23 or 24 known hostages. Prohibited foods include pork products, blood, carrion , and alcohol. A Comparative Introduction to Monotheistic Religions. The Umayyad Caliphate AD — Islamic apocalyptic literature describing Armageddon is often known as fitna or malahim.
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The facility supplies electricity to government-held areas, and government-run power plants supply ISIL-held areas. The groom is required to pay a bridal gift mahr to the bride, as stipulated in the contract. Also in Lokoja is the Iron of Liberty, located in the compound of the first primary school in northern Nigeria. Ready to Sign In? Piety appears to be deepening worldwide. They will triumph, liberating Islam from cruelty, and this will be followed by a time of serenity with people living true to religious values.
That is not correct at all. This goes against the beliefs of religious scholars around the world. This is what [IS] did wrong. This is going to cause a lot of trouble. Anyone who opposes [IS] will be considered against Sharia and will be severely punished. Al-Qaeda and al-Nusra have been trying to take advantage of ISIL's rise, by attempting to present themselves as "moderate" compared to "extremist" ISIL, although it has the same aim of establishing sharia and a caliphate but doing so in a more gradual manner.
It supports the gradual, slower approach favoured by al-Qaeda, preparing society to accept sharia and indoctrinating people through education before implementing the hudud aspects of sharia, such as throwing gays from the top of buildings, chopping limbs off, and public stoning.
However, while al-Nusra has typically destroyed Druze shrines and pressured them to convert to Sunni Islam, ISIL regards the entire Druze community as a valid target for violence, as it does the Yazidis. Ayman al-Zawahiri , the leader of al-Qaeda, has called for consultation shura within the "prophetic method" to be used when establishing the caliphate, criticising al-Baghdadi for not following the required steps.
He called upon jihadists to establish Islamic entities in Egypt and the Levant, slowly implementing sharia before establishing a caliphate, and has called for violent assaults against America and the West. They use the verses talking about the disbelievers and implement it on the Muslims". The current Grand Imam of al-Azhar and former president of al-Azhar University , Ahmed el-Tayeb , has strongly condemned the Islamic State, stating that it is acting "under the guise of this holy religion and have given themselves the name 'Islamic State' in an attempt to export their false Islam".
This is the disgrace for them in this world and in the hereafter they will receive grievous torment. In late December , nearly 70, Indian Muslim clerics associated with the Indian Barelvi movement issued a fatwa condemning ISIL and similar organisations, saying they are "not Islamic organisations". Hassan Hassan, an analyst at the Delma Institute, wrote in The Guardian that because the Islamic State "bases its teachings on religious texts that mainstream Muslim clerics do not want to deal with head on, new recruits leave the camp feeling that they have stumbled on the true message of Islam".
The United Nations Security Council in its Resolution described Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda associates as operators of a network of terrorist training camps. On 2 June , the group was added to its listing under the name "Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant".
Many world leaders and government spokespeople have called ISIL a terrorist group or banned it, without their countries having formally designated it as such. The following are examples:. He added, "Today's ban is directed solely against terrorists who abuse religion for their criminal goals. In October , Switzerland banned ISIL's activities in the country, including propaganda and financial support of the fighters, with prison sentences as potential penalties.
Pakistan designated ISIL as a banned organisation in late August , under which all elements expressing sympathy for the group would be blacklisted and sanctioned. Media sources worldwide have described ISIL as a terrorist organisation. By , ISIL was increasingly being viewed as a militia rather than just a terrorist group. They have shadow governments in and around Baghdad , and they have an aspirational goal to govern.
I don't know whether they want to control Baghdad, or if they want to destroy the functions of the Iraqi state, but either way the outcome will be disastrous for Iraq.
They have incredible command and control and they have a sophisticated reporting mechanism from the field that can relay tactics and directives up and down the line.
They are well-financed, and they have big sources of manpower, not just the foreign fighters, but also prisoner escapees. Former US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel saw an "imminent threat to every interest we have", but former top counter-terrorism adviser Daniel Benjamin derided such talk as a "farce" that panics the public.
Writing for The Guardian , Pankaj Mishra rejects the idea that the group is a resurgence of medieval Islam, saying instead:. In actuality, Isis is the canniest of all traders in the flourishing international economy of disaffection: It promises, along with others who retail racial, national and religious supremacy, to release the anxiety and frustrations of the private life into the violence of the global. A certain change of attitude occurred following the inauguration of US President Trump.
The article stated that the group has 40, fighters and 60, supporters across its two primary strongholds in Iraq and Syria. According to a poll by Pew Research Center , Muslim populations of various countries have overwhelmingly negative views of ISIS with Lebanon having the most unfavorable views.
Richard Dearlove , former head of Britain's Secret Intelligence Service MI6 , said that the Saudis were "deeply attracted to any militancy that can effectively challenge Shia-dom [Shia version of Islam].
The facility supplies electricity to government-held areas, and government-run power plants supply ISIL-held areas. However, in an April report, IHS Markit, the leading UK security and defense information provider, stated that the Islamic State fought Syrian government forces more than any other opponent between 1 April and 31 March According to the report "43 percent of all Islamic State fighting in Syria was directed against President Assad's forces, 17 against the U.
According to a senior Western official, documents and flash drives seized during the Sayyaf raid revealed links "so clear" and "undeniable" between Turkey and ISIL "that they could end up having profound policy implications for the relationship between us and Ankara". Journalist Patrick Cockburn wrote in November of "strong evidence for a degree of collaboration" between the Turkish intelligence services and ISIL, although the "exact nature of the relationship Phillips of Columbia University 's Institute for the Study of Human Rights, who compiled a list of allegations and claims accusing Turkey of assisting ISIL, wrote that these allegations "range from military cooperation and weapons transfers to logistical support, financial assistance, and the provision of medical services".
Turkey has been further criticised for allowing individuals from outside the region to enter its territory and join ISIL in Syria. Qatar has long been accused of acting as a conduit for the flow of funds to ISIL.
While there is no proof that the Qatari government is behind the movement of funds from the gas-rich nation to ISIL, it has been criticised for not doing enough to stem the flow of financing.
Private donors within Qatar, sympathetic to the aims of radical groups such as al-Nusra Front and ISIL, are believed to be channeling their resources to support these organisations. He is also one of several of Qatar-based al-Qaeda financiers sanctioned by the US Treasury in recent years. The keyword there is Qatar. We are repelled by their views, their violent methods and their ambitions.
Rand Paul , junior U. Senator from Kentucky, has accused the U. On 12 September , several media outlets began reporting that the Free Syrian Army had signed a "non-aggression pact" with ISIS in order to focus their attentions elsewhere. According to Mohammed Alaa Ghanem, director of government relations for the Syrian American Council, "The only report we have received on anything resembling a ceasefire was that ISIS and Sons of Golan, an FSA brigade outside Damascus, halted fighting for 24 hours to collect bodies before hostilities resumed.
A United Nations report from May [update] showed that 25, "foreign terrorist fighters" from countries had joined "Islamist" groups, many of them working for ISIL or al-Qaeda. That many of these groups were previously affiliated with al-Qaeda suggests a shift in global jihadist leadership towards ISIL. ISIL's claims to territory have brought it into armed conflict with many governments, militias and other armed groups. International rejection of ISIL as a terrorist entity and rejection of its claim to even exist have placed it in conflict with countries around the world.
According to a joint statement issued by 59 national governments and the European Union on 3 December , participants in the Counter-ISIL Coalition are focused on multiple lines of effort: Iran  — military advisors, training, ground troops, and air power in Iraq and Syria, beside Iranian borders see Iranian intervention in Iraq.
Russia   — arms supplier to Iraqi and Syrian governments. Azerbaijan   — security operations within state borders. Pakistan — Military deployment over Saudi Arabia-Iraq border.
Al-Nusra Front is a branch of al-Qaeda operating in Syria. Al-Nusra has launched many attacks and bombings , mostly against targets affiliated with or supportive of the Syrian government. They subscribe to the same perverted interpretations of Islam.
Other common traits include a penchant for suicide attacks, and sophisticated exploitation of the internet and social media. On 10 September , an audio message was released by al-Qaeda's leader Ayman al-Zawahiri criticising ISIL's self-proclaimed caliphate and accusing it of "sedition". This was described by some media outlets as a "declaration of war". It also documented the beheading of three Derna residents and dozens of seemingly politically motivated assassinations of judges, public officials, members of the security forces and others.
Speaking of ISIL's methods, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights has stated that the group "seeks to subjugate civilians under its control and dominate every aspect of their lives through terror, indoctrination, and the provision of services to those who obey". ISIL compels people in the areas that it controls to live according to its interpretation of sharia law. Amnesty International has held ISIL responsible for the ethnic cleansing of ethnic and religious minority groups in northern Iraq on a "historic scale", putting entire communities "at risk of being wiped off the map of Iraq".
In a special report released on 2 September , the organization described how ISIL had "systematically targeted non-Arab and non-Sunni Muslim communities, killing or abducting hundreds, possibly thousands, of individuals and forcing more than , others to flee the areas it has captured since 10 June ". Among the known killings of religious and minority group civilians carried out by ISIL are those in the villages and towns of Quiniyeh 70—90 Yazidis killed , Hardan 60 Yazidis killed , Sinjar —2, Yazidis killed , Ramadi Jabal 60—70 Yazidis killed , Dhola 50 Yazidis killed , Khana Sor Yazidis killed , Hardan — Yazidis killed , al-Shimal dozens of Yazidis killed , Khocho Yazidis killed and 1, abducted , Jadala 14 Yazidis killed  and Beshir Shia Turkmen killed ,  and others committed near Mosul Shia inmates of the Badush prison killed ,  and in Tal Afar prison, Iraq Yazidis killed for refusing conversion.
Christians living in areas under ISIL control face four options: Islam; the dhimma contract — involving payment of jizya; if they refuse this they will have nothing but the sword", ISIL said. During the Iraqi conflict in , ISIL released dozens of videos showing its ill treatment of civilians, many of whom had apparently been targeted on the basis of their religion or ethnicity. In Mosul, ISIL has implemented a sharia school curriculum which bans the teaching of art, music, national history, literature and Christianity.
Although Charles Darwin's theory of evolution has never been taught in Iraqi schools, the subject has been banned from the school curriculum. Patriotic songs have been declared blasphemous, and orders have been given to remove certain pictures from school textbooks. ISIL warned women in the city of Mosul to wear full-face veils or face severe punishment.
ISIL ordered the faces of both male and female mannequins to be covered, in an order which also banned the use of naked mannequins. One rule stipulated that women should stay at home and not go outside unless necessary. Another rule said that stealing would be punished by amputation. It has also banned "music and songs in cars, at parties, in shops and in public, as well as photographs of people in shop windows".
According to The Economist , Saudi practices also followed by the group include the establishment of religious police to root out "vice" and enforce attendance at salat prayers, the widespread use of capital punishment , and the destruction of Christian churches and non-Sunni mosques or their conversion to other uses.
ISIL carried out executions on both men and women who were accused of various acts and found guilty of crimes against Islam such as sodomy ,  adultery , usage and possession of contraband , rape , blasphemy , witchcraft ,  renouncing Islam and murder. Before the accused are executed their charges are read to them and the spectators. Executions take various forms, including stoning to death, crucifixions , beheadings, burning people alive, and throwing people from tall buildings.
The Islamic State militants were accused of using civilian residents of towns as human shields. According to a report by the magazine Foreign Policy , children as young as six are recruited or kidnapped and sent to military and religious training camps, where they practice beheading with dolls and are indoctrinated with the religious views of ISIL. The second instalment of a Vice News documentary about ISIL focused on how the group is specifically grooming children for the future.
A spokesman told VICE News that those under the age of 15 go to sharia camp to learn about religion, while those older than 16 can go to military training camp. Sexual violence perpetrated by ISIL includes using rape as a weapon of war;  instituting forced marriages to its fighters;  and trading women and girls as sex slaves. There are many reports of sexual abuse and enslavement in ISIL-controlled areas of women and girls, predominantly from the minority Christian and Yazidi communities.
The capture of Iraqi cities by the group in June was accompanied by an upsurge in crimes against women , including kidnap and rape. As of August , the trade in sex slaves appeared to remain restricted to Yazidi women and girls.
They have been subjected to physical and sexual violence, including systematic rape and sex slavery. They've been exposed in markets in Mosul and in Raqqa, Syria, carrying price tags. The younger the slave the more expensive. Girls and boys between the age 1—9 are referred to as the most expensive, with the cheapest being women between 40 and 50 years old.
A United Nations report issued on 2 October , based on interviews with witnesses, said that ISIL took — women and girls to Iraq's Nineveh region in August, where " unmarried girls and women, predominantly from the Yazidi and Christian communities, were reportedly transported to Syria, either to be given to ISIL fighters as a reward or to be sold as sex slaves". Shortly after the death of US hostage Kayla Mueller was confirmed on 10 February ,  several media outlets reported that the US intelligence community believed she may have been given as a wife to an ISIL fighter.
Mueller, and that Ms. Mueller had also been tortured. In late , ISIL released a pamphlet that focused on the treatment of female slaves. The pamphlet's guidelines also allow fighters to trade slaves, including for sex, as long as they have not been impregnated by their owners.
The Independent reported in that the usage of Yazidi sex slaves had created ongoing friction among fighters within ISIL. Sajad Jiyad, a Research Fellow and Associate Member at the Iraqi Institute for Economic Reform , told the newspaper that many ISIL supporters and fighters had been in denial about the trafficking of kidnapped Yazidi women until a Dabiq article justifying the practice was published. One year-old victim said that, while she was being assaulted, her rapist "kept telling me this is ibadah "; a year-old victim related how her assailant claimed that, "by raping me, he is drawing closer to God";  and one adult prisoner told how, when she challenged her captor about repeatedly raping a 12 year old, she was met with the retort, "No, she's not a little girl, she's a slave and she knows exactly how to have sex and having sex with her pleases God.
The Committee to Protect Journalists states: ISIL fighters have reportedly been given written directions to kill or capture journalists. In December , two suicide bombers stormed the headquarters of TV station Salaheddin and killed five journalists, after accusing the station of "distorting the image of Iraq's Sunni community". During and part of , an ISIL unit nicknamed the Beatles acquired and held 12 Western journalists hostage, along with aid workers and other foreign hostages, totalling 23 or 24 known hostages.
A Polish journalist Marcin Suder was captured in July but escaped four months later. Eight of the other journalists were released for ransom: The unit continues to hold hostage British journalist John Cantlie and a female aid worker. Supporters of the media group received an emailed link to an image of supposed airstrikes, but clicking on the link introduced malware to the user's computer that sends details of the user's IP address and system each time it restarts.
ISIL uses beheadings to intimidate local populations and has released a series of propaganda videos aimed at Western countries.
They also engage in public and mass executions of Syrian and Iraqi soldiers and civilians,  sometimes forcing prisoners to dig their own graves before shooting lines of prisoners and pushing them in. Kurds in northern Iraq reported being attacked by ISIS with chemical weapons in August ,  which was later confirmed to be mustard gas.
These chemical weapons may be from a chemical weapons storage site at Al-Muthanna, which contained 2, chemical rockets. Although the rockets' chemical contents were deteriorated, ISIS may have used them in a concentrated manner.
Referring to the ancient cultures of Christians, Yazidis and other minorities, she said, "This is a way to destroy identity. You deprive them of their culture, you deprive them of their history, their heritage, and that is why it goes hand in hand with genocide. Along with the physical persecution they want to eliminate — to delete — the memory of these different cultures For the Yazidis, religion is oral, nothing is written. By destroying their places of worship It is the same with the Christians — it really is a threat beyond belief.
UNESCO is working with Interpol , national customs authorities, museums, and major auction houses in attempts to prevent looted items from being sold. ISIL considers worshipping at graves tantamount to idolatry , and seeks to purify the community of unbelievers.
It has used bulldozers to crush buildings and archaeological sites. He cited another case where "Daesh ISIL gathered over 1, manuscripts from convents and other holy places and burnt all of them in the middle of the city square". ISIL has burned or stolen collections of books and papers from the various locations including the Central Library of Mosul which they rigged with explosives and burned down ,  the library at the University of Mosul , a Sunni Muslim library, a year-old Latin Church and Monastery of the Dominican Fathers, and the Mosul Museum Library.
Some destroyed or stolen works date back to BCE and include "Iraq newspapers dating to the early 20th century, maps and books from the Ottoman Empire, and book collections contributed by about of Mosul's establishment families.
Islam and Economic Policy. Cockburn, Patrick 3 March London Review of Books. Pastukhov, Dmitry; Greenwold, Nathaniel. A Word Before Leaving: A Former Diplomat's Weltanschauung. Kerr, Michael; Larkin, Craig The Alawis of Syria: War, Faith and Politics in the Levant.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Islamic state or Islamic republic. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. The readable prose size is kilobytes.
Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding or removing subheadings. Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. List of combatant numbers. Names of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Name changes due to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Ideology of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Kirkpatrick, The New York Times . List of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant members.
Human rights in ISIL-controlled territory. Oil production and smuggling in ISIL. Part of a series on the. Timeline of ISIL related events. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in Libya. Under the control of ISIL. Abu Sayyaf and Battle of Marawi Sheikh Omar Hadid Brigade. List of designated terrorist organisations and Terrorism. This section appears to contradict itself. Please see the talk page for more information.
Terror's frenemies", Quartz . Military use of children. Many weddings take place through marriage bureaus. There are some online marriage bureaus that are free of cost. For online marriage bureaus you have to register for them online to make your profile. They tell you about different proposals online according to your requirement. Online marriage bureaus ask for your info which used for matchmaking and they have some privacy rules which prevent the site from online harassment.
Many marriage bureaus are located in different cities of Pakistan i. Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad etc who are busy in match making and have adopted this profession.
Marriage bureaus have proposals not only for singles but proposals for widowed or divorced are also searched through them. In Islam boy and girl have full freedom to marry according to their choice. The key to success in Islamic marriage is seen as the moral quality of the partner. The ideal Muslim bridegroom therefore goes into marriage with the responsible attitude of a person establishing a family on the best possible foundation of love and mutual compassion, and not of infatuation over beauty, ambition for wealth or social position.
Free Sign Up Search Users. Date of Birth Date 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Year Bride Girl Groom Boy. Featured Profiles view more featured profiles.
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Referring to the ancient cultures of Christians, Yazidis and other minorities, she said, "This is a way to destroy identity.
The unit continues to hold hostage British journalist John Cantlie and a female aid worker.
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