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This mutual influence has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian of the 3rd millennium BC as a Sprachbund. Retrieved 9 November In , the monarchy was overthrown and the Iraqi Republic created.
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Constitution of Iraq, Article 4 1st. Water supply and sanitation in Iraq is characterized by poor water and service quality. Ghazi was followed by his underage son, Faisal II. Rainfall during the summer is extremely rare, except in the far north of the country. How many people have you had sex with? This mutual influence has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian of the 3rd millennium BC as a Sprachbund. Retrieved 19 March
Throughout most of the period of Ottoman rule — , the territory of present-day Iraq was a battle zone between the rival regional empires and tribal alliances.
By the 17th century, the frequent conflicts with the Safavids had sapped the strength of the Ottoman Empire and had weakened its control over its provinces. The nomadic population swelled with the influx of bedouins from Najd , in the Arabian Peninsula.
Bedouin raids on settled areas became impossible to curb. During the years —, Iraq was ruled by a Mamluk dynasty of Georgian  origin who succeeded in obtaining autonomy from the Ottoman Porte , suppressed tribal revolts, curbed the power of the Janissaries, restored order and introduced a programme of modernisation of economy and military. In , the Ottomans managed to overthrow the Mamluk regime and imposed their direct control over Iraq. The population of Iraq, estimated at 30 million in AD, was only 5 million at the start of the 20th century.
In the Mesopotamian campaign against the Central Powers, British forces invaded the country and initially suffered a major defeat at the hands of the Turkish army during the Siege of Kut — However, subsequent to this the British began to gain the upper hand, and were further aided by the support of local Arabs and Assyrians.
An armistice was signed in The British lost 92, soldiers in the Mesopotamian campaign. Ottoman losses are unknown but the British captured a total of 45, prisoners of war. By the end of , the British had deployed , men in the area, of which , were combat troops. Likewise, British authorities selected Sunni Arab elites from the region for appointments to government and ministry offices.
Faced with spiraling costs and influenced by the public protestations of the war hero T. Britain granted independence to the Kingdom of Iraq in ,  on the urging of King Faisal , though the British retained military bases , local militia in the form of Assyrian Levies , and transit rights for their forces. King Ghazi ruled as a figurehead after King Faisal's death in , while undermined by attempted military coups , until his death in Ghazi was followed by his underage son, Faisal II.
During the subsequent Anglo-Iraqi War , the United Kingdom which still maintained air bases in Iraq invaded Iraq for fear that the Rashid Ali government might cut oil supplies to Western nations because of his links to the Axis powers. The war started on 2 May, and the British, together with loyal Assyrian Levies ,  defeated the forces of Al-Gaylani, forcing an armistice on 31 May.
A military occupation followed the restoration of the pre-coup government of the Hashemite monarchy. The occupation ended on 26 October , although Britain was to retain military bases in Iraq until , after which the Assyrian militias were disbanded. The rulers during the occupation and the remainder of the Hashemite monarchy were Nuri as-Said , the autocratic Prime Minister, who also ruled from to , and 'Abd al-Ilah, the former Regent who now served as an adviser to King Faisal II.
This revolt was strongly anti-imperial and anti-monarchical in nature and had strong socialist elements. After the latter's death in , he was succeeded by his brother, Abdul Rahman Arif , who was overthrown by the Ba'ath Party in Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr became the first Ba'ath President of Iraq but then the movement gradually came under the control of Saddam Hussein , who acceded to the presidency and control of the Revolutionary Command Council RCC , then Iraq's supreme executive body, in July In , the Iranian Revolution took place.
Taking advantage of the post-revolution chaos in Iran, Iraq captured some territories in southwest of Iran, but Iran recaptured all of the lost territories within two years, and for the next six years Iran was on the offensive.
In August , Iraq invaded and annexed Kuwait. The coalition forces proceeded with a bombing campaign targeting military targets    and then launched a hour-long ground assault against Iraqi forces in Southern Iraq and those occupying Kuwait.
Iraq's armed forces were devastated during the war. Shortly after it ended in , Shia and Kurdish Iraqis led several uprisings against Saddam Hussein's regime, but these were successfully repressed using the Iraqi security forces and chemical weapons. It is estimated that as many as , people, including many civilians were killed. Iraq was ordered to destroy its chemical and biological weapons and the UN attempted to compel Saddam's government to disarm and agree to a ceasefire by imposing additional sanctions on the country in addition to the initial sanctions imposed following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.
The Iraqi Government's failure to disarm and agree to a ceasefire resulted in sanctions which remained in place until The effects of the sanctions on the civilian population of Iraq have been disputed. On 20 March , a United States-organized coalition invaded Iraq , under the pretext that Iraq had failed to abandon its weapons of mass destruction program in violation of UN Resolution This claim was based on documents provided by the CIA and the British government  and were later found to be unreliable.
In May L. An insurgency against the US-led coalition -rule of Iraq began in summer within elements of the former Iraqi secret police and army, who formed guerilla units. In fall , self-entitled ' jihadist ' groups began targeting coalition forces. The insurgency included intense inter-ethnic violence between Sunnis and Shias. In January , the first elections since the invasion took place and in October a new Constitution was approved, which was followed by parliamentary elections in December.
However, insurgent attacks were common and increased to 34, in from 26, in During , fighting continued and reached its highest levels of violence, more war crimes scandals were made public, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi the leader of Al-Qaeda in Iraq was killed by US forces and Iraq's former dictator Saddam Hussein was sentenced to death for crimes against humanity and hanged. Bush announced a "Surge" in the number of US troops deployed to the country.
In May , Iraq's Parliament called on the United States to set a timetable for withdrawal  and US coalition partners such as the UK and Denmark began withdrawing their forces from the country.
In , fighting continued and Iraq's newly trained armed forces launched attacks against militants. US troops handed over security duties to Iraqi forces in June , though they continued to work with Iraqi forces after the pullout.
Following the withdrawal of US troops in , the insurgency continued and Iraq suffered from political instability. In February , the Arab Spring protests spread to Iraq ;  but the initial protests did not topple the government.
The Iraqi National Movement , reportedly representing the majority of Iraqi Sunnis, boycotted Parliament for several weeks in late and early , claiming that the Shiite-dominated government was striving to sideline Sunnis. In and , levels of violence increased and armed groups inside Iraq were increasingly galvanised by the Syrian Civil War. Both Sunnis and Shias crossed the border to fight in Syria. During , Sunni militant groups stepped up attacks targeting the Iraq's Shia population in an attempt to undermine confidence in the Nouri al-Maliki -led government.
The US government welcomed this as "another major step forward" in uniting Iraq. In response to rapid territorial gains made by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ISIL during the first half of , and its universally-condemned executions and reported human rights abuses , many states began to intervene against it in the Iraqi Civil War —present. In September , a referendum was held regarding Kurdish independence in Iraq. It is comparable in size to the US state of California , and somewhat larger than Paraguay.
Most of Iraq has a hot arid climate with subtropical influence. Rainfall during the summer is extremely rare, except in the far north of the country. The northern mountainous regions have cold winters with occasional heavy snows, sometimes causing extensive flooding. The federal government of Iraq is defined under the current Constitution as a democratic , federal parliamentary Islamic republic.
The federal government is composed of the executive , legislative , and judicial branches, as well as numerous independent commissions. Aside from the federal government, there are regions made of one or more governorates , governorates, and districts within Iraq with jurisdiction over various matters as defined by law.
The party has a more consistent anti-sectarian perspective than most of its rivals. Both parties are secular and enjoy close ties with the West. In , according to the Failed States Index , Iraq was the world's seventh most politically unstable country. He announced on 14 August that he would stand aside so that Haider Al-Abadi , who had been nominated just days earlier by newly installed President Fuad Masum , could take over. Until that point, al-Maliki had clung to power even asking the federal court to veto the president's nomination describing it as a violation of the constitution.
Transparency International ranks Iraq's government as the eighth-most-corrupt government in the world. Government payroll have increased from 1 million employees under Saddam Hussein to around 7 million employees in Since the establishment of the no—fly zones following the Gulf War of —, the Kurds established their own autonomous region. Under the terms of the constitution, the country conducted fresh nationwide parliamentary elections on 15 December All three major ethnic groups in Iraq voted along ethnic lines, as did Assyrian and Turcoman minorities.
In Iraq introduced Sharia punishment for certain types of criminal offences. In , the CPA chief executive L. Paul Bremer said he would veto any constitutional draft stating that sharia is the principal basis of law. The Iraqi Penal Code is the statutory law of Iraq. The Peshmerga are a separate armed force loyal to the Kurdistan Regional Government.
The regional government and the central government disagree as to whether they are under Baghdad's authority and to what extent. The Iraqi Army is an objective counter-insurgency force that as of November includes 14 divisions, each division consisting of 4 brigades. The Iraqi Air Force is designed to support ground forces with surveillance, reconnaissance and troop lift.
Two reconnaissance squadrons use light aircraft, three helicopter squadrons are used to move troops and one air transportation squadron uses C transport aircraft to move troops, equipment, and supplies. It currently has 3, personnel. It is planned to increase to 18, personnel, with aircraft by The Iraqi Navy is a small force with 1, sailors and officers, including Marines , designed to protect shoreline and inland waterways from insurgent infiltration.
The navy is also responsible for the security of offshore oil platforms. The navy will have coastal patrol squadrons, assault boat squadrons and a marine battalion. Under the provisions of this treaty , Iraq is considered a party with declared stockpiles of chemical weapons. Because of their late accession, Iraq is the only State Party exempt from the existing timeline for destruction of their chemical weapons.
Specific criteria is in development to address the unique nature of Iraqi accession. Iran—Iraq relations have flourished since by the exchange of high level visits: Iraqi PM Nouri al-Maliki made frequent visits to Iran, along with Jalal Talabani visiting numerous times, to help boost bilateral co-operation in all fields.
Relations between Iraq and its Kurdish population have been sour in recent history, especially with Saddam Hussein's genocidal campaign against them in the s. After uprisings during the early 90s , many Kurds fled their homeland and no-fly zones were established in northern Iraq to prevent more conflicts.
Despite historically poor relations, some progress has been made, and Iraq elected its first Kurdish president, Jalal Talabani , in Furthermore, Kurdish is now an official language of Iraq alongside Arabic according to Article 4 of the constitution. LGBT rights in Iraq remain limited. Although decriminalised , homosexuality remains stigmatised in Iraqi society. People who dress in emo style are mistakenly associated with homosexuality and may suffer the same fate. Iraq is composed of nineteen governorates or provinces Arabic: Iraqi Kurdistan Erbil , Dohuk , Sulaymaniyah and Halabja is the only legally defined region within Iraq, with its own government and quasi-official army Peshmerga.
Prior to US occupation, Iraq's centrally planned economy prohibited foreign ownership of Iraqi businesses, ran most large industries as state-owned enterprises, and imposed large tariffs to keep out foreign goods. The debt relief will be implemented in three stages: In February , Citigroup included Iraq in a group of countries which it described as 'Global Growth Generators' , that it argued will enjoy significant economic growth in the future.
The official currency in Iraq is the Iraqi dinar. The Coalition Provisional Authority issued new dinar coins and notes, with the notes printed by De La Rue using modern anti-forgery techniques. Five years after the invasion, an estimated 2. According to the Overseas Development Institute , international NGOs face challenges in carrying out their mission, leaving their assistance "piecemeal and largely conducted undercover, hindered by insecurity, a lack of coordinated funding, limited operational capacity and patchy information".
As of [update] , despite improved security and billions of dollars in oil revenue, Iraq still generates about half the electricity that customers demand, leading to protests during the hot summer months. The Iraq oil law , a proposed piece of legislation submitted to the Iraqi Council of Representatives in , has failed to gain approval due to disagreements among Iraq's various political blocs.
Several United States senators had also criticised the deal, arguing it was hindering efforts to pass the hydrocarbon law. On 30 June and 11 December , the Iraqi ministry of oil awarded service contracts to international oil companies for some of Iraq's many oil fields. On 14 March , the International Energy Agency said Iraq's oil output jumped by half a million barrels a day in February to average 3. The country hadn't pumped that much oil since , when Saddam Hussein rose to power.
Baghdad condemned the seizure and threatened "dire consequences" if the fields were not returned. Water supply and sanitation in Iraq is characterized by poor water and service quality. Three decades of war, combined with limited environmental awareness, have destroyed Iraq's water resources management system. Access to potable water differs significantly among governorates and between urban and rural areas.
Although many infrastructure projects are underway, Iraq remains in deep housing crisis, with the war-ravaged country likely to complete only 5 percent of the 2. The estimate of the total Iraqi population is 37,, Iraq has a community of 2, Chechens.
Prior to the invasion in , Arabic was the sole official language. According to the Iraqi constitution:. The Arabic language and the Kurdish language are the two official languages of Iraq. The right of Iraqis to educate their children in their mother tongue, such as Turkmen, Assyrian, and Armenian shall be guaranteed in government educational institutions in accordance with educational guidelines, or in any other language in private educational institutions.
The Sunni population complains of facing discrimination in almost all aspects of life by the government. However, former Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki denied that such discrimination occurs. More than half of Iraqi Christians have fled to neighbouring countries since the start of the war, and many have not returned, although a number are migrating back to the traditional Assyrian homeland in the Kurdish Autonomous region.
There are also small ethno-religious minority populations of Mandaeans , Shabaks , Yarsan and Yezidis remaining. Prior to their numbers together may have been 2 million, the majority Yarsan, a non-Islamic religion with roots in pre-Islamic and pre-Christian religion. There are reports of over The Iraqi Jewish community, numbering around , in , has almost entirely left the country.
Iraq is home to two of the world's holiest places among Shias: The dispersion of native Iraqis to other countries is known as the Iraqi diaspora. The UN High Commission for Refugees has estimated that nearly two million Iraqis have fled the country after the multinational invasion of Iraq in , mostly to Syria and Jordan.
As of [update] , nearly 3 million Iraqis have been displaced, with 1. To escape the civil war, over , Syrian refugees of varying ethnicities have fled to Iraq since In , spending on healthcare accounted for 6. In , there were 6. Iraq had developed a centralised free health care system in the s using a hospital based, capital-intensive model of curative care. Unlike other poorer countries, which focused on mass health care using primary care practitioners, Iraq developed a Westernized system of sophisticated hospitals with advanced medical procedures, provided by specialist physicians.
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The San Francisco Chronicle.
Two reconnaissance squadrons use light aircraft, three helicopter squadrons are used to move troops and one air transportation squadron uses C transport aircraft to move troops, equipment, and supplies. Lawrence as British liaison officer in the Arab Revolt, recounted in his work Seven Pillars of Wisdom, made him one of the most famous Englishmen of his generation.
More than half of Iraqi Christians have fled to sitte countries since the start of iraq dating site war, and many have not returned, although a number are migrating back to the traditional Iraq dating site homeland in the Kurdish Autonomous region. An insurgency against the US-led coalition -rule of Iraq began in summer iraq dating site elements of the former Iraqi secret police and army, who formed guerilla units. After the latter's death inhe was succeeded by his brother, Abdul Rahman Arifwho was overthrown by the Ba'ath Party in In FebruaryCitigroup included Iraq in a group datnig countries which it described as 'Global Growth Generators'that it argued will enjoy significant economic growth in the future. Middle East Voices Voice of America.
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