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An extensively documented case of coevolution is the relationship between Pseudomyrmex , a type of ant , and the acacia , a plant that the ant uses for food and shelter. Diagrammatic representation of the divergence of modern taxonomic groups from their common ancestor. While some of what happens on a date is guided by an understanding of basic, unspoken rules, there is considerable room to experiment, and there are numerous sources of advice available. OVC TTAC offers live interactive, facilitated training sessions and conferences, which are recorded and transcribed for unlimited access. These, though they all bear the same title, do not all contain the same subject-matter. Vancouver and Kelowna, BC: This last-mentioned manuscript further agrees with those of the first type in not having the usual chapter-division.
With this later text the second type of Ethiopic text has been brought into agreement. The wars with the Moslem Arabs and the savage Galla tribes, so long as they lasted, naturally put an end to all opportunity or wish for writing. From about a worldwide movement perhaps described as the "empowerment of the individual" took hold, leading towards greater emancipation of women and equality of individuals. One report suggests the Lebanese dating game is hampered by "the weight of family demands upon individual choice" and that there were difficulties, particularly for people seeking to marry across religious lines, such as a Christian seeking to marry a Muslim. It continued in use, in a more or less debased form, for several centuries longer as a literary language.
In Arabic numerals, the day looks like "", that is, "like four single people standing together", and there was speculation that it originated in the late s when college students celebrated being single with "a little self-mockery"  but a differing explanation dates it back to events in the Roman Empire. There is concern that young people's views of marriage have changed because of economic opportunities, with many choosing deliberately not to get married,  as well as young marrieds who have decided not to have children, or to postpone having them.
Jinguoyuan organized periodic matchmaking events often attended by parents. Chinese-style flirtatiousness is termed sajiao , best described as "to unleash coquettishness" with feminine voice, tender gestures, and girlish protestations. Romantic love is more difficult during times of financial stress, and economic forces can encourage singles, particularly women, to select a partner primarily on financial considerations.
Some men postpone marriage until their financial position is more secure and use wealth to help attract women. One trend is towards exclusive matchmaking events for the 'rich and powerful'; for example, an annual June event in Wuhan with expensive entry-ticket prices for men 99, RMB lets financially secure men choose so-called bikini brides based on their beauty and education ,  and the financial exclusivity of the event was criticized by the official news outlet China Daily.
A brave lover in Beijing must be prepared to accept a paradigm shift to enjoy the cross-cultural dating experience. There was a report that sexual relations among middle schoolers in Guangzhou sometimes resulted in abortions. Indian dating is heavily influenced by the custom of arranged marriages which require little dating, although there are strong indications that the institution is undergoing change, and that love marriages are becoming more accepted as India becomes more intertwined with the rest of the world.
In the cities at least, it is becoming more accepted for two people to meet and try to find if there is compatibility. The majority of Indian marriages are arranged by parents and relatives, and one estimate is that 7 of every 10 marriages are arranged.
Writer Lavina Melwani described a happy marriage which had been arranged by the bride's father, and noted that during the engagement, the woman was allowed to go out with him before they were married on only one occasion; the couple married and found happiness.
Until recently, Indian marriages had all the trappings of a business transaction involving two deal-making families, a hardboiled matchmaker and a vocal board of shareholders — concerned uncles and aunts. The couple was almost incidental to the deal. They just dressed and showed up for the wedding ceremony. And after that the onus was on them to adjust to the 1, relatives, get to know each other and make the marriage work. Relationships in which dating is undertaken by two people, who choose their dates without parental involvement and sometimes carry on clandestine get-togethers, has become increasingly common.
When this leads to a wedding, the resulting unions are sometimes called love marriages. There are increasing incidences when couples initiate contact on their own, particularly if they live in a foreign country; in one case, a couple met surreptitiously over a game of cards.
Dating websites are gaining ground in India. Writer Rupa Dev preferred websites which emphasized authenticity and screened people before entering their names into their databases, making it a safer environment overall, so that site users can have greater trust that it is safe to date others on the site.
During the interval before marriage, whether it is an arranged or a love marriage, private detectives have been hired to check up on a prospective bride or groom, or to verify claims about a potential spouse made in newspaper advertising, and there are reports that such snooping is increasing. Transsexuals and eunuchs have begun using Internet dating in some states in India. The practice of dating runs against some religious traditions, and the radical Hindu group Sri Ram Sena threatened to "force unwed couples" to marry, if they were discovered dating on Valentine's Day ; a fundamentalist leader said "drinking and dancing in bars and celebrating this day has nothing to do with Hindu traditions.
Another group, Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha , threatened to do the same, for which it was severely mocked online  and on the day after Valentine's Day , had protesters outside its Delhi headquarters, with people mockingly complaining that it did not fulfill its "promise",  with some having come with materials for the wedding rituals.
There is a type of courtship called Omiai in which parents hire a matchmaker to give resumes and pictures to potential mates for their approval, leading to a formal meeting with parents and matchmaker attending. The reasons for dating in Korea are various. Research conducted by Saegye Daily showed that teenagers choose to date for reasons such as "to become more mature," "to gain consultation on worries, or troubles," or "to learn the difference between boys and girls," etc.
Present Korean dating shows a changing attitude due to the influence of tradition and modernization. There are a lot of Confucian ideas and practices that still saturate South Korean culture and daily life as traditional values. It is one of the old teachings of Confucianism  and reveals its inclination toward conservatism. Most Koreans tend to regard dating as a precursor to marriage. There is no dating agency but the market for marriage agencies are growing continuously. Also, "Mat-sun", the blind date which is usually based on the premise of marriage, is held often among ages of late 20s to 30s.
However, the majority still takes getting into a relationship seriously. Dating in Korea is also considered a necessary activity supported by society. College students in their sophomore to junior year who have not been in a relationship feel anxious that they are falling behind amongst their peers. Most of them try "sogaeting", going out on a blind date, for the first time to get into a relationship.
Dating is a duty that most people feel they must take on to not seem incompetent. Where Are We Going? Dating has also been depicted to be an activity of fun and happiness. According to a survey by wedding consulting agency, men consider a physical relation as a catalyst of love, otherwise, women regard it as a confirmation of affection. Adding to it, both Marriages and courtship in Pakistan are influenced by traditional cultural practices similar to those elsewhere in the Indian subcontinent as well as Muslim norms and manners.
Illegitimate relationships before marriage are considered a social taboo and social interaction between unmarried men and women is encouraged at a modest and healthy level. Couples are usually wedded through either an arranged marriage or love marriage. Love marriages are those in which the individuals have chosen a partner whom they like by their own choice prior to marriage, and usually occur with the consent of parents and family.
Arranged marriages on the other hand are marriages which are set and agreed by the families or guardians of the two individuals where the couple may not have met before. In either cases and in consistency with traditional marital practices, individuals who marry are persuaded to meet and talk to each other for some time before considering marrying so that they can check their compatibility.
The original SDU, which controversially promoted marriages among university graduate singles, no longer exists today. On 28 January , it was merged with SDS [Social Development Services], which just as controversially promoted marriages among non-graduate singles. The merged unit, SDN Social Development Network seeks to promote meaningful relationships, with marriage touted as a top life goal, among all resident [Singapore] singles within a conducive network environment of singles, relevant commercial and public entities.
One report suggested that in southern Taiwan , "traditional rules of courtship" still apply despite the influence of popular culture ; for example, men continue to take the initiative in forming relationships.
What caused relationships to break up? In Britain, the term dating bears similarity to the American sense of the tentative exploratory part of a relationship. If two people are going out together , it may mean they're dating but that their relationship has advanced to a relatively long-standing and sexual boyfriend-girlfriend relationship although they're not cohabiting. Although Britons are familiar with the term dating, the rituals surrounding courtship are somewhat different from those commonly found in North America.
Writer Kira Cochrane advises daters to "get out there and meet people" while noting a trend of temporary suspension of marriage until an individual reaches his or her thirties. She felt "clueless and unwanted", she wrote, and found advice books such as The Rules helpful. Online dating safety in the UK is a concern for authorities and individuals. While analysts such as Harald Martenstein and others suggest that it is easier for persons to initiate contact in America, many Germans view the American dating habits as "unspontaneous", "ridiculous" and "rigid".
Membership in voluntary associations is relatively high in German-speaking countries and these provided further chances for possible partners to meet. Strolling on Esplanades and Promenade walkways such as the one in Hamburg called the Jungfernstieg maidens way , have been another venue for introductions as early as the 19th century.
Analyst Geoffrey Gorer described dating as an American idiosyncrasy focusing on youth of college age and expressed in activities such as American proms. In contrast German speaking countries and the longstanding musical tradition there provided ample opportunity of persons of varying ages enjoying social dances, such as the Vienna Opera Ball and other occasions.
The German term of Stelldichein as translated by Joachim Heinrich Campes is used to signify dating when the age of consent to marriage was relatively high. German traditions to signify lovers who met in hiding were described with terms like Fensterln windowing or Kiltgang dawn stroll used in Bavaria and Switzerland.
Today, most German couples in long-term relationships get to know each other through mutual friends, at work or while going out at night; the first few months of dating often involve sexual intercourse, but are still rather casual and do not imply a serious wish to get married.
Italians maintain a conservative approach to dating. Also, inviting friends or relatives during a date is not uncommon. More modern approaches such as blind dates, speed dating and dating websites are not as popular as abroad, and are not considered very effective by the majority of the population. However, social network members outnumber the European average,  and they may use Facebook for dating purposes too.
One report suggested Spanish women were the "greatest flirts", based on an unofficial study by a dating website which ranked countries based on initiations of contact. In North Africa like in many parts of the Middle East, sex without marriage is considered unacceptable. Dating in North Africa is predominantly done under family supervision, usually in a public place.
People of different sexes are not allowed to "mix freely" in public. Clerics run officially sanctioned internet dating agencies with strict rules. In Israel, in the secular community, dating is very common amongst both heterosexual and homosexual couples.
However, because of the religious community, there are some religious exceptions to the dating process. In the Haredi and Chasidic communities Ultra-Orthodox Judaism most couples are paired through a matchmaker. In this arranged marriage system, young adults meet a couple times under the supervision of their parents, and after they meet, the two are asked whether they will agree to be married. Furthermore, in terms of marriage , because the state religion is essentially Orthodox-Judaism, Conservative and Reform Liberal denominations of Judaism Jews cannot get married through a Conservative or Reform Rabbi without the approval of the State's Orthodox Head Rabbi.
There are similar problems in Israel for people of different denominations of other religions as well. Essentially, if you live in Israel, and the head of your religion doesn't want you to get married, you can't get religiously married.
Because people of two different religions or people of the same sex cannot get married in Israel, people in these situations oftentimes have to go overseas to get married since Israel does recognize overseas marriages.
One report suggests the Lebanese dating game is hampered by "the weight of family demands upon individual choice" and that there were difficulties, particularly for people seeking to marry across religious lines, such as a Christian seeking to marry a Muslim.
The Saudi Gazette quoted a Wikipedia article on domestic violence , suggesting it was an issue for Saudis, including abusive behavior while dating by one or both partners. In many cultures around the world, dating is a serious family matter, which is based on its culture and social values. Parents in said cultures believe in arranged marriage, or at least make sure that their children get married at a certain age. However, in the United States, independency plays an important role in how singles value and date others.
In America, dating is mostly a personal decision rather than based off the influence of parents. Middle class tend to prioritize other things that are more important to them, such as get a college degree, a job, and then date their future spouse to settle down. Before the internet era, some Americans would meet their prospective husband or wife in college, through friends, at work, etc. But now is very popular that singles are trying to meet people on websites and from cell phone applications.
Dating people online can create other social issues. For example, some individuals might get in the illusion that there are so many singles looking for your mate, therefore some can get into a bad habit of constantly meet new people, but do not want to get in a meaningful relationship and they may spend years dating looking for a perfect mate when in reality that does not exist. Meeting people from social sites might isolate us even more due to lack of communication face to face with friends and interact with new people on public places.
One report suggested the United States as well as other western-oriented countries were different from the rest of the world because "love is the reason for mating," as opposed to marriages being arranged to cement economic and class ties between families and promote political stability. British writer Kira Cochrane, after moving to the U. By waiting and waiting and waiting to commit to someone, our capacity for love shrinks and withers. This doesn't mean that women or men should marry the first reasonable person to come along, or someone with whom they are not in love.
But we should, at a much earlier age than we do now, take a serious attitude toward dating and begin preparing ourselves to settle down. For it's in the act of taking up the roles we've been taught to avoid or postpone——wife, husband, mother, father——that we build our identities, expand our lives, and achieve the fullness of character we desire.
Journalist Emily Witt in wrote that while "social mores had changed to accept a wider range of sexual practices", there was still much "loneliness and anxiety". There is evidence that couples differ in the pace and timing with which they initiate sex in their relationships.
Teenagers and college-aged students tend to avoid the more formal activity of dating, and prefer casual no-strings-attached experiments sometimes described as hookups. It permits young women to "go out and fit into the social scene, get attention from young men, and learn about sexuality", according to one report by sociologists. Muslims living in the United States can choose whether to use traditional Islamic methods, or date American-style; Muslims choosing to stick to Islamic tradition can "only marry another Muslim", according to one Malaysian account.
Mosques have been known to try to bring people together——one in California has a dating service for Muslims. In Australia, men typically ask out women for dates by text messaging. In Brazil there's a longer time interval before children move out of the house, which affects dating.
A report in Psychology Today found that homosexual men were attracted to men in their late teens and early twenties and didn't care much about the status of a prospective partner; rather, physical attractiveness was the key. In India , transgender individuals and eunuchs have used Internet dating to help them find partners, but there continue to be strong societal pressures which marginalize these groups.
People can meet other people on their own or the get-together can be arranged by someone else. Matchmaking is an art based entirely on hunches, since it is impossible to predict with certainty whether two people will like each other or not.
Friends remain an extremely common way for people to meet  However, the Internet promises to overtake friends in the future, if present trends continue. In The Guardian , British writer Hannah Pool was cynical about being set up on a blind date; she was told "basically he's you but in a male form" by the mutual friend.
Parents, via their contacts with associates or neighbors or friends, can introduce their children to each other. In India , parents often place matrimonial ads in newspapers or online, and may post the resumes of the prospective bride or groom. Dating systems can be systematic and organized ways to improve matchmaking by using rules or technology. The meeting can be in-person or live as well as separated by time or space such as by telephone or email or chat-based.
The purpose of the meeting is for the two persons to decide whether to go on a date in the future. Speed dating is a fast and comfortable way to meet people. It helps enlarge my social contacts.
I don't care if I can't find a girlfriend there. I just want to try my luck, and if she is there, then that will be a big bonus. Very attractive translates as big-headed Average build means a bit paunchy The picture is always taken from the best, most flattering angle Black and white photos mean I am pretentious or I've something to hide Anyone who writes in text speak or says I heart instead of I like should be avoided Ditto for people whose interests include feet.
The deception got worse. When he met his date who he had befriended online who he dubbed Facebook Guy for the first time, he wrote:. Facebook guy arrived on time. Facially, he looked the same as his picture. And his arms were as "worked out" as he promised. But he was lacking in the leg department. Facebook Guy had failed to mention that he had no legs. Computer dating systems of the later 20th century, especially popular in the s and s, before the rise of sophisticated phone and computer systems, gave customers forms that they filled out with important tolerances and preferences, which were "matched by computer" to determine "compatibility" of the two customers.
The history of dating systems is closely tied to the history of technologies that support them, although a statistics-based dating service that used data from forms filled out by customers opened in Newark, New Jersey in Patterson's business model was not fully legal, however. He was charged with fraud on several occasions for selling lists of the women who signed up for his service to men who were looking for prostitutes. Online dating services are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide.
Boyd, believes that this oldest manuscript does not, as is commonly supposed, belong to the thirteenth century, but to the fifteenth, or to the fourteenth at the earliest. The Apocryphal books in their Ethiopic form have fared somewhat better than the canonical with respect to publication.
Of those which are found in the Apocrypha of our Bibles by far the greater number were published by Dillmann in The extra parts of Esther are to be found in the edition of the Book of Esther above mentioned. As Daniel has not yet been published, the Apocryphal additions thereto are in similar case with the exception of the Song of the Three Children.
Of these the former is contained entire in the Ethiopic Didascalia as in the Greek Apostolic Constitutions. Its text is 46 therefore available in Platt's edition of the former chapter v.
The Books of Maccabees have already been mentioned. The early Ethiopic book which bears the name has no connexion with the history of the Maccabees. A version of the first and second books is extant, but it is a late seventeenth century translation from the Vulgate. The Book of Baruch above mentioned is the same as that which is found in our Apocrypha. Another book also connected with the name of Baruch is found in the manuscripts of the Ethiopic Bible after Jeremiah.
To the book of this prophet are appended 1 the Book of Baruch as in our Apocrypha, 2 Lamentations, 3 the Epistle of Jeremiah, 4 a short prophecy added with the intention of freeing the reference to Jeremiah in Matt, xxvii. The text of this last-named book has been published in Dillmann's Chrestomathy. It is a translation of a Greek original of the second century, which seems to depend in part on a Jewish work. The book is connected with the better-known Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch, but it is not identical with it.
Under the heading of the present chapter mention must also be made of certain books belonging to 47 that class usually designated pseudepigraphic.
These are well known by name, but it ought not to be forgotten, as it so often is, that the whole of Christendom, indeed, one might almost say the whole learned world, owes a debt of gratitude to the remote and often neglected Church of Abyssinia for the preservation of these documents.
Apart from mere fragments elsewhere preserved, it is that Church alone which has handed them down to us. Foremost amongst these is the Book of Enoch which throws so much light on Jewish thought on various points during the centuries immediately preceding the Christian era.
Archdeacon Charles in his edition of the book speaks 42 of it and similar works as 'being practically the only historical memorials of the religious development of Judaism during the two centuries which preceded the birth of Christianity, and particularly of that side of Judaism to which historically Christendom in large measure owes its existence.
The language was certainly Semitic, but whether Hebrew Halevy or Aramaic Schurer and others is undecided. Charles unites both views, affirming that the original of chapters vi-xxxiv was Aramaic and that of the rest Hebrew. He claims to have discovered also that much of the original text was in verse. Whatever the original may have been, the greater part of the book is now extant only in the Ethiopic version which was translated not from the original but from the Greek.
So much has been written in recent years about the Book of Enoch, that it seems unnecessary to speak here of its subject-matter and its various divisions. The editio princeps was the work of the English scholar Laurence who edited it at Oxford in from a single manuscript which the famous traveller Bruce had brought from Abyssinia in the previous century.
The Book was again edited by Dillmann from five manuscripts in , by Flemming in , and finally by Charles in in a monumental work based on twenty-five manuscripts. There is a convenient English translation, published by the S. Divisions otherwise known as the Little Genesis, has also been preserved entire only in the Ethiopic version. One-fourth of the whole book is extant also in a Latin version and numerous fragments of the Greek version have been handed down in the works of various authors.
Here again there is uncertainty as to the original language of the book. For several reasons Charles 44 decides in favour of Hebrew. Of this original the Greek version is a daughter, and from the Greek the Ethiopic is derived. The book is the work of a single author but 'based on earlier books and traditions. The name 'Jubilees' is given to the book because its author divides the history from the creation into jubilee-periods of forty-nine years each.
The Ethiopic text was first edited by Dillmann from two late manuscripts in A later edition, based on these manuscripts and two others the only ones so far known , was published by Charles in The same scholar has also published an English translation with full commentary and introduction This has been reprinted in a convenient form by the S. We owe to the Ethiopic Church the preservation of yet one more book in its entirety, namely, the Ascension of Isaiah.
It was first published by Laurence in from a single manuscript, afterwards in by Dillmann from three manuscripts, but both of these editions have been superseded by Charles' edition of The same work exists in part in Latin.
Of the Greek, which was the original language of the book, we have a considerable part preserved in a manuscript of the twelfth century, in which however the book has undergone recasting and rearrangement.
The book is also known in Sclavonic. It dates, or at least the various parts of which it is composed date, from the first Christian century. One of these parts gives some information of interest about the early organization of the Christian Church. The opening part of the complete book, which is the work of a Jew, is known as the Martyrdom of Isaiah, the concluding part is the Vision of Isaiah, and these are united by a brief apocalyptic passage which is of Christian authorship.
A convenient translation has been issued by S. The Ethiopic text has been edited by d'Abbadie. It seems somewhat strange that we should have none of the works of the other Apostolic Fathers, nor even the Didache, except so far as this tract is preserved in the latter part of the Ethiopic Didascalia see below, p.
Le Brun in his Explication de la Messe, 45 in writing of the Ethiopic Liturgies, ventures to conjecture that one of them was the first of all to be committed to writing. His argument is that while the other liturgies were not written out till the end of the fourth century, 'St. Athanasius making a layman a bishop at one step, and sending him into a country where was neither bishop nor priest to instruct him, must naturally have given him the Liturgy in writing, and that the first Bishop Frumentius would leave it to his Church in order that the bishop who should succeed him might make use of it.
Athanasius himself had seen. The former argument takes of course for granted that we can fully depend on the historical accuracy of the details as to the introduction of Christianity into Abyssinia.
Brightman, 46 on the other hand, when speaking of the date of the Liturgy found in the Ethiopic Church 52 Ordinances, says, 'the history of liturgical development in Abyssinia is too little known to justify even conjecture. We may, however, regard the words as true generally, and yet in spite of our want of knowledge of liturgical development in Abyssinia count it not unreasonable to argue on general grounds, as has been done in a former chapter, for the existence of a Liturgy, or Liturgies, in the Ethiopic Church in the first stage of its history.
Why should Abyssinia, so closely connected as it was with Alexandria have lacked what other churches had? The earliest form of Liturgy of the Church known to us is that already mentioned as found in the Ethiopic Church Ordinances. These are a part of the Ethiopic Statutes of the Apostles which themselves constitute a section of the larger Sinodos to which reference was made in the last chapter.
In the Ethiopic Church Ordinances this Liturgy, or rather Anaphora, is connected with the service for the; consecration of a bishop.
Historically it not only has connexion, as Brightman points out, with the Clementine Liturgy found in the eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions, but also borrows some features from the Canons of Hippolytus.
It is also the source from which the later Ethiopic Anaphora known as that of the Apostles was developed. This may easily 53 be seen by comparing the two in the translations given by Brightman. We have spoken above of various Liturgies of the Ethiopic Church. It would have been more precise to have spoken of various Anaphoras. It is the Anaphora, the central part of the service, which varies, while the common frame-work, the ordo communis, as it is generally called, remains invariable.
The Liturgy printed by Brightman, called by him the Liturgy of the Abyssinian Jacobites, consists of this ordo communis together with the Anaphora of the Apostles.
Dioscorus, for example, may mean either the variable part, the Anaphora which bears the name of that saint, or the ordo communis together with the same Anaphora.
These Anaphoras of the Ethiopic are sixteen in number. Besides that already mentioned these are according to the order in which they are named by Brightman:. It would be outside the purpose of the present work to describe from a liturgical point of view the details of the Ethiopic Liturgy. It is enough to say that it shows, as would have been expected, the characteristics of the Alexandrian family.
It is most closely connected with the Greek Liturgy of St. Mark and with the Coptic, St. Like them it assigns a prominent part to the Deacon, and in it, as in them, the Great Intercession occurs in the middle of the Preface. Hammond is incorrect in saying 49 that 'it is unique in not having the " Sursum Corda '" with the usual response. Four Lessons from the New Testament are read at each celebration of the Eucharist, the first from the Pauline Epistles, the second from the Catholic Epistles, the third from the Acts of the Apostles, and the fourth from the Gospels.
This is another point, of agreement with the Coptic Liturgy of St. The Ethiopic Liturgy was the first to be published of all the Oriental Liturgies. It was printed at Rome in along with the New Testament mentioned in the preceding chapter, a Latin version being given in the following year. What was then printed was the ordo communis along with three of the Anaphoras, viz.
As it was printed at Rome the editor made it conform to the Roman Missal in certain respects. The words 'and the Son' the filioque clause were added to the Creed, and the form of the Epiclesis or Invocation was also mutilated.
The Ethiopic text of the ordo communis is most easily accessible in the appendix to Dr. Swainson's work on the Greek Liturgies published in In the title of the work it is described as the Coptic ordinary Canon of the Mass!
An English translation is also added which bears obvious marks of its having been made by a foreigner. Swainson did not print the Anaphora, being mistaken in supposing that the manuscript from which the text was taken did not contain it. The same three Anaphoras already mentioned as published at Rome were translated into English and published by Rodwell in his Ethiopic Liturgies and Hymns vol. Only two of the other thirteen Anaphoras have so far been published, those, namely, numbered 3 and 4 in the above list, that of St.
Dioscorus with a Latin translation by Vansleb in from a Bodleian manuscript and that of St. John Chrysostom from the same manuscript by Dillmann in his Ethiopic 56 Chrestomaihy in The last named is not accessible in any translation. Besides the Liturgies in the strict sense of the term there are also naturally several other offices of the Church.
These are for the most part known only in manuscript form as few of them have been edited. The Baptismal Service M. There is also a Testament of the Evening. Mention has been made in a previous chapter of the Ritual for the Burial of the Dead M. Genzat and the Book of Hours M. The prayers in this collection are ascribed to various saints, those for Sunday to St. Cyril of Alexandria, those for Monday to St. Basil of Caesarea, those for Tuesday and Wednesday to St. Ephraim the Syrian, and so on.
There are also collections of lessons connected with different saints. The Nagara Maryam, or History of Mary, is a collection of stories about her Life arranged for the twelve months of the year. There are besides this collections of homilies to be read on the Festivals of the Virgin; on those days the twelfth day of each month dedicated to Michael the Archangel; and on the Festivals of Gabriel and Raphael.
A Lectionary is also used containing the lessons for evening and morning prayer; for the evening two, from the Psalter and the Gospels; for the morning eight, in the somewhat strange order, Psalter, Gospels, Pauline Epistles, Catholic Epistles, Acts, Psalter, Gospels.
Of the Church Song of the Ethiopic Church very little that is definite seems to be known. The story ran that he was caught up into Paradise and there received the precepts that were to guide him.
Possibly the word has both meanings. Both of these are collections of Hymns in honour of the Virgin arranged for the different days of the week. The Psalter of Christ is the name of another similar collection.
These collections are sometimes interwoven in a similar arrangement. It consists of anthems for special festivals throughout the year. Certain types of hymns or poems were particularly popular. These were short hymns, often extemporized, which were sung after certain verses of the Psalter. Lastly, the Malke'a or Likeness may be mentioned. This was a special favourite. In this type the poem consists of numerous stanzas.
In each stanza one member of the saint's body is so to speak greeted. Hail to the hairs of thy head which were not shorn for pleasure! Then the stanzas continue, greeting in succession the saint's head, face, eyebrows, eyes, ears, cheeks, nose, lips, mouth, teeth, etc. The final stanzas greet the feet, soles, heels, toes, toe-nails!
Not a very elevating type of Christian poem. Chief amongst these, and therefore first to be noticed here, are two, which however important from a doctrinal and ecclesiastical point of view, must be confessed to be extremely uninteresting from the point of view of literature. These are the Qerlos Cyril and the Sinodos. The first has already been mentioned as a product of the first period of the literature and the second has been named in chapter iv as a constituent part of the Ethiopic New Testament.
Both of these works, or rather compilations, are alike in nature. They are collections of documents of theological import bearing on the early history of the Catholic Church, selected no doubt for translation into Ethiopic as being supposed to favour the monophysitism which was orthodox in Abyssinia.
The first document is a short biography of that saint, 53 which is followed by 61 two treatises of his on the 'true faith of our Lord Jesus Christ. The fourth document is the dialogue between Cyril and Hermias, called Palladius in the Ethiopic version, on the theme that God is One.
The other documents in the collection are homilies and letters on points of doctrine, namely, the Epistle of the Council of Ephesus to John of Antioch, the Epistles of John of Antioch to Cyril and of Cyril to John, seven discourses two about Melchizedek of Cyril, two of Theodotus of Ancyra, two of St. Epiphanius, and eight other discourses by various authors, including one by St. The work ends with a disquisition of the Council of Nicaea on the Nicene Creed.
The only parts of the Ethiopic text of the Qerlos which have been published are two of the letters and seven of the homilies which Dillmann included in his Chrestomathy, doubtless because they are such 'a splendid monument of the ancient language. It is the Corpus Juris Ecclesiastici of the Church.
The various elements of which it is composed are all found as a rule in the manuscripts in which it is. Various discourses and treatises are also included. The Creed of Africa, that is, the Athanasian Creed, is also found amongst these in some manuscripts. Some of the earlier portions of the Sinodos have been published, viz.
This is another work, which is contained in various manuscripts, but is strangely left unnoticed by Littmann. It contains the 'Instructions of St. Peter to his disciple Clement. If the titles of these give any clue to their contents, the subject-matter of the book must be somewhat comprehensive. The first chapter contains an account of the creation and a summary of Scripture history up to 63 the time of Jehoram of Judah. The titles of the remaining chapters are: It seems to have been translated from Arabic inasmuch as it agrees very closely with the earlier of the two Arabic recensions of the same document.
The Didascalia in its various versions has been the subject of much discussion in recent years. It is a work which was originally composed in Greek, probably in the middle of the third century.
Its general character is well summed up by Bishop Wordsworth who speaks of it as 'a somewhat rambling discourse on Church life and society. The original Greek Didascalia has been lost, but the work is known to us now in various versions besides the Ethiopic.
These, though they all bear the same title, do not all contain the same subject-matter. The Syriac version has the substance of the first six books of the Apostolic Constitutions; the Latin, of which only fragments are extant, contains portions of Books I-VI and VIII; the Arabic version 64 found in most manuscripts also runs parallel with Apostolic Constitutions, Books I-VI, but has some extra chapters not found in the Constitutions at all. Unfortunately, a fairly long section is now lacking in the Ethiopic Didascalia in this concluding part, but this may be merely due to accident, for the title of one of the chapters seems to imply the former existence of matter now wanting.
The Didascalia, then, in its Ethiopic version probably represents a form intermediate between the shorter Didascalia, best represented by the Syriac version, and the complete work found in the Apostolic Constitutions.
It may, of course, be argued that the Ethiopic version is an abbreviation of the Apostolic Constitutions and not one of its component parts, but, if so, why was no part of Book VIII included? It seems more reasonable to suppose that we have in the Ethiopic Didascalia, and in the earlier Arabic recension already mentioned, representatives of an enlarged Didascalia which was compiled in Egypt.
The Ethiopic Didascalia with an English translation was edited in an incomplete form in by T. He had only one manuscript, which 65 contained only the first half of the work. An English translation of the whole by the present writer has been included by the S. It is known as the Senkesar or Seneksar Synaxar and has been alluded to in chapter iii as having been translated in its original form from Arabic in the third period of the literature.
In this form it was simply the Synaxar of the Coptic Church done into Ethiopic. It was, however, afterwards enlarged, chiefly by the addition of notices of saints and martyrs belonging to the Church of Abyssinia, as well as by short rhymed poems in honour of all those who are commemorated.
This latter feature is peculiar to the Ethiopic Senkesar. According to Guidi, who has edited several sections of the whole work in the Patrologia Orientalis, the manuscripts clearly show these two stages. One of these comes from the fifteenth century, being thus contemporary, or almost so, with the time of its translation from Arabic. The others, which contain the additions, are much later, coming from the eighteenth century.
The last three of these, two of which are commemorations of Abyssinian worthies, are found only in the later manuscripts. This saint his parents reared from the day of his birth in the fear of God; and when he grew up and reached the age of manhood, the king, his elder brother, feared that he should inherit the kingdom.
Thereupon envy seized on him, and he sat and called him. And after this he commanded him to be set before him, and when he stood before him, the king and all his officers were amazed when they saw that no hurt had befallen him.
It was that an angel had protected him. And then the king said unto him, 'Forgive me, my brother, for what I have done unto thee.
And God regarded his torments on that day, and made him to inherit, and gave him the kingdom. And when he became king, he bethought him how he might please God, and gave much alms to the poor and needy. And when God saw the strength of his love, the angel of God appeared unto him in a dream and carried him away unto God. And He showed him how to build the churches of varied shape; and he did as God had showed him. And when he had finished building these churches, 67 he delivered the kingdom to his brother's son and then rested in peace.
The following version of this, which does not attempt to preserve the rhythm of the original, will give some idea of the style of these. To show that his should be the kingly power, People and kings he charmed with honey sweet Bees round him swarmed the day that he was born. And on this day too is the feast of St. She was an Israelitess of the race of the glorious King Saifa Ar'ed. Her prayer and her blessing, and the gift of her aid be with us for ever. He found therein a power that mighty proved; Twice he prevailed therewith to raise the dead And twice therewith he parted Jordan's stream.
The Testament of our Lord. The Ethiopic version is probably derived from the Arabic. The original of this work was doubtless Greek, but the date of its composition is quite uncertain. Besides, the Ethiopic version there are versions in Syriac and Arabic, and fragments of a Latin and Coptic version are also extant. The first part of the work is Apocalyptic in form containing revelations supposed to have been given by our Lord after His resurrection, telling of the signs which shall usher in His second coming, the doom of various nations, and the advent of Antichrist.
This is followed by chapters which are akin in subject-matter to the numerous works, generally grouped together under the name of Church Orders. These chapters give, that is to say, diverse regulations about Church worship and discipline, and include certain forms of prayer to be used on specified occasions.
Its first part is similar to the opening, section of the Testament, but this is followed by other chapters treating of the Birth, Ministry, Resurrection, and second coming of our Lord this is to be in the th year between Pentecost and Passover , 69 prophecies as to the rise of heresy Cerinthus and Simon are specially mentioned , promises to the apostles, denunciation of sinners, etc.
The work concludes with our Lord's Ascension to heaven at the end of the discourse. This latter part has been published in the Patrologia Orientalis 9. It is not the whole Testament, but only the concluding part. No English translation of the Ethiopic version has been published, but there is a translation of the Syriac version into English by Dr. Cooper and Bishop Maclean, with full introduction and notes Book of the Mysteries of Heaven and Earth.
It seems to be an original Ethiopic work though modelled of course on the pattern of Enoch and similar Apocalypses. It belongs, according to Guidi, to the fifteenth century, and the single manuscript 57 in which it is known may possibly be the autograph of the author. This manuscript was acquired in the seventeenth century by a French bibliophile named Peiresc.
How it came into his possession is not certain. It may have been sent to him from Abyssinia by a French adventurer, Vermellius by name, who was for a time commander-in-chief of the Abyssinian army. Peiresc is known to have sent 70 him out books on mathematics and architecture and to have asked for Ethiopic books in exchange. He thought when he got it that he had found the Book of Enoch for which he had been searching.
It was the famous Ludolf who discovered the error, and he vented his disappointment by describing the book's contents as 'futiles et absurdissimas narrationes, crassae ac putidae fabulae, etc' Much that is in the book deserves indeed the stigma.
It begins, after a chapter on the mystery of the Trinity, with the creation of the six heavens, the orders of angels, the earth, the sea, the stars, birds, fish, beasts and man. In this section comes quite a Miltonic description of the struggle between Michael and Satan. Then follows an account of the temptation and fall. All the birds refused to show Satan the way to Eve. He then applied in succession to the elephant, the leopard, the hyaena, the bear, the boar, and the 'serg, a strange animal who now lives in the middle of the sea.
At last the young Camel agreed and mounted on its back the tempter came to Eve. The tree of which Adam and Eve ate at the third hour of the morning was called the 'sezen '. The second part contains an account of the Deluge and a list of Noah's descendants, together with some notices of the Pentateuchal story up to the time of the building of the Tabernacle.
Then a wide interval is passed over and the larger part of the book is taken up with a description of the vision of the restored Temple at the end of the Book of Ezekiel. The concluding section is Christian, referring to the Incarnation and the Resurrection of Christ. I have spoken of the description of the fight between Michael and Satan as Miltonic. Indeed, though prosaic, it reminds one of some of the descriptions in 'Paradise Lost. The numbers of the heavenly army are given in tedious detail.
There were , targeteers, , with fiery swords, , with slings of fire, etc. In the battle Satan first breaks the ranks of his enemies, and they take to flight. Once again they are defeated. The third attack, as in Milton, is the decisive one. God gives Michael the Cross of Light inscribed with the name of the Trinity. When Satan sees this, he is routed.
These other parts, left by Milton to the imagination, are fully detailed here. An anecdote that occurs in the first part may be noticed as it shows how the power of the Archangel Michael was regarded in the Church of Abyssinia:. A man never did any good thing in his life, but every month celebrated Michael's feast and had pity on the 72 poor. When he died, the demons rejoiced and came to claim him, but God said, Choose one of these two things. Either Michael shall hide him and you will seek, or you shall hide him and Michael seek.
They chose the former, and concealed him in a corner of Gehenna. Three times Michael plunged into Sheol, and the third time found and delivered the man, rescuing many others also at the same time.
Lives of saints were, according to Littmann, 58 first written in the fourteenth century. These were, even in the case of native saints, borrowed from outside sources. Later, Lives were written, which were in a sense more original as not having any foreign work as their basis. Even in these Lives the outside models were not entirely abandoned, but a stereotyped pattern was adhered to.
It would be useless to enumerate here all these Lives, Such as have been published are given in a list at the end of this chapter.
The word that is used for 'Life' is a somewhat peculiar one. It is gadl, which, according to its root meaning had the signification of 'conflict, struggle. It is unnecessary, and indeed misleading, to translate it literally, as Budge attempts to do in giving to the apocryphal Acts of the Apostles the title Contendings of the Apostles.
Littmann, 59 following the Russian scholar Turaiev, divides the Abyssinian Saints historically into those of five periods. The cause of this was partly moral, partly ecclesiastical. King 'Amda Seyon had married his step-sister an action which caused protests on the part of the clergy. This first, but there were also differences of opinion as to Sabbath observance and the date of Christmas.
Those who were the protagonists on the clerical side against the State were naturally honoured as saints afterwards. The foundress of an order of nuns, Walatta Petros, whose biography is of great importance for the light which it throws on the contemporary religious life, must also be noticed.
The list of saints comes down to as late as I have selected it, not only on account of the description of the remarkable Churches which are mentioned therein, but also because it is one of the earliest. Two manuscripts of this Life are found in the British Museum. Portions of one of these have been edited with a very paraphrastic and erroneous French translation by Perruchon Paris, The life is in the form of homilies or discourses.
When his mother bare him, many bees came and swarmed around him, even as they swarm around honey. And his mother saw that the bees swarmed and thronged around her son as the host surrounds the king. And when she saw this, there descended on her the spirit of prophecy, and she said, 'The bees know that the child is great.
God then sent an angel who carried the saint through all the heavens, till he was in the presence of God in the seventh. There he was shown ten wondrous churches made each of a single stone.
The Almighty then said unto him, 'Be not anxious for the kingdom, thinking that I have set thee for any transitory glory, but for the sake of the churches which thou hast seen that thou mayest build themfor this cause have I anointed thee with the oil of the kingdom and have made thee the Anointed of my people, until thou hast finished these my sanctuaries.
After three days he is brought back to earth. He meets with further persecution from his brother, and resolves to retire into the desert. While he was in 77 the desert, the angel who had taken him up to heaven appeared to him one day and said to him, 'To-morrow at this same hour a maiden shall come unto thee.
The beauty of her acts is not less than thine own. She is a servant of God, and from her thou shalt learn many good works. He then retired with his wife, Masqal Kebra, to the desert where they were miraculously fed like Elijah of old. There follows then a visit of the saint to Jerusalem in company with Gabriel but this part of the story has not been published.
On his return from the Holy Land he rejoins his wife, and both of them go to the royal court along with Gabriel and Michael.
Here the way had been prepared for their reception. The king obeyed, went to meet his brother and they were reconciled. When on the throne he by no means changed his former manner of life, but fasted and prayed and gave alms as before. The next section is chiefly concerned with miracles ascribed to the saint. One example will suffice. There was a certain rich woman and as she ate the flesh of beasts, she began to eat-the-flesh 61 of men also in her calumny.
And one day she was eating flesh, but the flesh choked her, and would not go down or come forth, but stayed in her throat suffocating her. And her eyes started from their sockets from the grievous pain of the choking. From henceforth I will not speak evil of thee, nor remember thy name for evil but for good.
As she said this, the piece of flesh came forth with a rush of blood from her throat, and fell to the ground. We now reach the concluding section, the real subject of the Life. The churches at least are a reality, for they still exist. They are cut from the solid rock, and so are 'of one stone.
No wonder the orator adds at the end of his account. The other details of the Life are obviously not such as to inspire much confidence in its author in historical matters. When we return to the Chronicles of the Kings we have more or less contemporary documents, particularly in the case of the later kings.
These works are chronicles, not history. They are far more concerned with relating of the different movements of the king than with giving a real idea of the history of the country and the people.
The details of these annals are entered by years and months, and, in the longer chronicles, by the days of the month. Much that is now quite without interest is recorded, but these chronicles may be regarded as giving reliable 80 information as to the civil and religious constitution of the kingdom, whenever these are touched on. For example, the rate at which evolution occurs is still under discussion. In addition, there are conflicting opinions as to which is the primary unit of evolutionary change—the organism or the gene.
Darwin and his contemporaries viewed evolution as a slow and gradual process. Evolutionary trees are based on the idea that profound differences in species are the result of many small changes that accumulate over long periods.
Gradualism had its basis in the works of the geologists James Hutton and Charles Lyell. Hutton's view suggests that profound geological change was the cumulative product of a relatively slow continuing operation of processes which can still be seen in operation today, as opposed to catastrophism which promoted the idea that sudden changes had causes which can no longer be seen at work.
A uniformitarian perspective was adopted for biological changes. Such a view can seem to contradict the fossil record, which often shows evidence of new species appearing suddenly, then persisting in that form for long periods. In the s paleontologists Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould developed a theoretical model that suggests that evolution, although a slow process in human terms, undergoes periods of relatively rapid change ranging between 50, and , years  alternating with long periods of relative stability.
Their theory is called punctuated equilibrium and explains the fossil record without contradicting Darwin's ideas. A common unit of selection in evolution is the organism. Natural selection occurs when the reproductive success of an individual is improved or reduced by an inherited characteristic, and reproductive success is measured by the number of an individual's surviving offspring. The organism view has been challenged by a variety of biologists as well as philosophers. Richard Dawkins proposes that much insight can be gained if we look at evolution from the gene's point of view; that is, that natural selection operates as an evolutionary mechanism on genes as well as organisms.
Others view selection working on many levels, not just at a single level of organism or gene; for example, Stephen Jay Gould called for a hierarchical perspective on selection. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is a non-technical introduction to the subject. For the main encyclopedia article, see Evolution.
Diagrammatic representation of the divergence of modern taxonomic groups from their common ancestor. Introduction to evolution Common descent Evidence of common descent. History of evolutionary theory. Applications of evolution Biosocial criminology Ecological genetics Evolutionary aesthetics Evolutionary anthropology Evolutionary computation Evolutionary ecology Evolutionary economics Evolutionary epistemology Evolutionary ethics Evolutionary game theory Evolutionary linguistics Evolutionary medicine Evolutionary neuroscience Evolutionary physiology Evolutionary psychology Experimental evolution Phylogenetics Paleontology Selective breeding Speciation experiments Sociobiology Systematics Universal Darwinism.
Evolution as fact and theory Social effects Creation—evolution controversy Objections to evolution Level of support. Modern synthesis 20th century. Evidence of common descent. Convergent evolution and Divergent evolution. Biology portal Evolutionary biology portal Science portal. Abiogenesis Creation—evolution controversy Evidence of common descent Evolution as fact and theory Human timeline Level of support for evolution Misconceptions about evolution Nature timeline.
United States Geological Survey. Speculations about the age of the earth and primitive mantle characteristics". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. William ; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B. William June 29, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.
Meet your microbial mom". Early edition, published online before print. Watching, from the Edge of Extinction. Retrieved 30 May The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 6 May University of California, Berkeley. Essential Concepts and Common Misconceptions". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Alberts, Bruce , ed. Archived from the original on National Geographic Online extra.
A Look at Bogus 'History' in Schoolbooks". Staging criteria and macroscopic skeletal morphogenesis of the head and limbs". Evolution Library Web resource. Implications for Plant Conservation". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. Rus; Fleischer, Robert C. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. The Virtual Fossil Museum.
A Note on Textbooks". Miller And Levine Biology. The TalkOrigins Foundation, Inc. University of Hawaii Botany Department. University of California, Santa Cruz.
American Association for the Advancement of Science. The Scientific Creative Quarterly. Vancouver and Kelowna, BC: University of British Columbia. National Plant Germplasm System. Life's Big Instruction Book. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany. The American Biology Teacher. National Association of Biology Teachers.
National Center for Science Education Blog. National Center for Science Education. Research Triangle Park, NC: Natural History Magazine, Inc. The Society for the Study of Evolution. How shall we name and generalise the unit of Darwinism? National Academy of Sciences.
The History of an Idea 3rd completely rev. University of California Press. From DNA to Diversity: Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design 2nd ed. Why Evolution is True. The Age of the Earth: Geological Society Special Publication.
Geological Society of London. The Evolution of an Idea. Edited, with foreword and commentary by James D. The Selfish Gene 1st ed. The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal 1st ed.
Theoretical Introduction 2nd ed. Farber, Paul Lawrence Finding Order in Nature: The Naturalist Tradition from Linnaeus to E. Johns Hopkins University Press. Evolutionary Biology 3rd ed. Evolutionary Science and Society: Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. More Reflections in Natural History 1st ed.
Gould, Stephen Jay Dinosaur in a Haystack: Reflections in Natural History. The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. The Remarkable History of a Scientific Theory. Populations, Species, and Evolution: An Abridgment of Animal Species and Evolution. In Kunin, William E. The Biology of Rarity: Causes and consequences of rare—common differences 1st ed. Tyler; Spoolman, Scott E. Environmental Science 14th ed. National Academy of Sciences Teaching About Evolution and the Nature of Science.
National Academy of Sciences; Institute of Medicine Science, Evolution, and Creationism. Bad Genes or Bad Luck? Introduction by Stephen Jay Gould.
Elements of Chordate Anatomy. This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Introduction to evolution " dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. Evolutionary history of life Index of evolutionary biology articles Introduction Outline of evolution Timeline of evolution.
Canalisation Evolutionary developmental biology Inversion Modularity Phenotypic plasticity. Cell DNA Flagella Eukaryotes symbiogenesis chromosome endomembrane system mitochondria nucleus plastids In animals eye hair auditory ossicle nervous system brain. Renaissance and Enlightenment Transmutation of species Charles Darwin On the Origin of Species History of paleontology Transitional fossil Blending inheritance Mendelian inheritance The eclipse of Darwinism Modern synthesis History of molecular evolution Extended evolutionary synthesis.
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With this later text the second type of Ethiopic text has been brought into agreement.
Renaudot held that the version was derived from the Coptic, and Lagarde maintained the extraordinary opinion, which Charles rightly describes as 'preposterous,' that the Ethiopic version was translated from Arabic or Coptic in the 40 fourteenth century. Detective Nicole Freutel City of Seattle, Elder Abuse Unit , who trains on financial exploitation both locally and nationally, will describe what law enforcement officers need to know to investigate these complicated cases.
We 24 have, it is true, no liturgical manuscript from this period, but neither have we any manuscript of the Bible or any other work. Exsmple, inviting friends or relatives during a date is not uncommon. Indeed, as we shall see later, in one department of literaturethe Royal Chronicles a kind of compromise was effected, and a hybrid dialect, a mixture of Geez and Amharic, was employed. The first has already been mentioned as a product of the first period of the literature and the second has been free dating sites for rich singles in chapter iv as a constituent part of the Ethiopic New Testament. When we went on dates, I would always be the one to leave. It is introduction title example dating known at what date these settlements were made, but it must have been introduction title example dating the Christian era. That is their business.
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