Dating Methods | Answers in Genesis

Dating Methods

how to calculate the age of fossils due to carbon dating

Males averaged about 1m 75 cm; females 1m 60 cm, Neanderthals were considerably stronger and tougher. Read Online Buy Book. In this follow-up to the best-selling Evolution Exposed: You all sound Intoxicated by your own vanity and intellect. Ref vs 7 "Stating: Ref vs 6 "And Jehovah felt regrets that he had made man in the earth, and he felt hurt at his heart".

What You Will Learn

Regardless of what method we use, we must start with assumptions and interpret the facts accordingly. Of course, those with brighter minds will be fighting to the end or will have left this poisoned cinder. Calibrations given to the C14 clock. Neanderthals were exterminated suddenly, humans continued on. Everything in their paths would have been destroyed. These clues come in the form of tree rings and even individual cells preserved in the fossils. Neanderthals possessed advanced skills Neanderthals used fire for heating, cooking and manufacturing.

Normal climate on Earth is much hotter than present. Donald Westington, I had to laugh at your closed minded thought pattern and laughed even harder with your remark that you do not read replies.

What a perfect way to protect your fragile, closed mindedness. I suspect some Alaskan and Russian trees could survive it. Who financed that trip? Antarctica has been off-limits to private entities since the treaty signed in the 50s. You all sound Intoxicated by your own vanity and intellect. I wish you were right, but you aren;t. Satellite technology has located an impact crater in Antarctica that is three times the size of the one that killed the dinosaurs. It has been dated to the Permian extinction, and may have caused it.

Shock waves from the impact would have travelled through the Earth and converged directly opposite the impact site, in Siberia. The last polar shift about 13, years ago involved the effects of a comet strike in the sea outside of the Carolinas that cracked open the deep sea trenches, allowing lava to escape from the reservoir under the supposed ill-fated Atlantis. The resulting balance shift caused the North Pole to move from the Hudson Bay to its present vicinity. The megafauna in what had been a favorable temperate climate location suddenly found themselves in arctic conditions and subject to extinction.

Ice-bound wooly mammoths have been accessed and found with tell-tale grasses in their mouths and stomachs. Explorers reported cooking and eating palatable meat from one of these animals. Thus the shift can be alarmingly rapid. It seems likely that the surprising condition of the Permian trees is a result of a similar rapid shift. The speculated adaptation period may not have been available.

My apology for perhaps raining on the parade of all who anticipate having a cellular mystery to unravel. By Nathaniel Scharping November 17, 3: Environment , Living World. Antarctica has coal deposits across the Transantarctic Mountains. Examine the macerals therein. Hottest Thanksgiving in Los Angeles ever…. It was the entry into the major ice age that triggered the volcanic disturbances.

There are two systems that affect Earths climate. Whatever turns you on dearie! Discover's Newsletter Sign up to get the latest science news delivered weekly right to your inbox! D-brief Briefing you on the must-know news and trending topics in science and technology today. See More Recent Categories Archives. Select Tag Select Tag 3-D printing 3. More great sites from Kalmbach Publishing Co.: Login to your Account X.

Click here to have it e-mailed to you. Register now for FREE. Registration only takes a few minutes to complete. If the dating methods are all objective and reliable, then they should give similar dates. The rocks were tested as whole-rock samples using K-Ar dating and also separated into individual minerals.

The whole-rock and separated mineral samples allow a method known as isochron dating to be done. This method is supposed to eliminate the assumption that the initial concentration of the daughter element is zero.

The facts from the rock layers do not speak for themselves—they must be interpreted. The assumptions used to interpret the data influence the conclusion. Starting with the Bible produces different conclusions than starting with evolutionary reasoning. Despite removing this assumption, the RATE team has shown that this method is not reliable.

Dating the Cardenas Basalt, a layer near the bottom of Grand Canyon, and a volcanic layer from near the top of Grand Canyon produced an amazing result. Based on the law of superposition, the lower layers in the canyon should be older than the upper layers unless there was an intrusion or other event that changed the order. Using isochron dating from a respected lab, the lower rocks were dated at 1. There is an obvious discordance disagreement in the data. Because these dates are based on methods with multiple assumptions, and are contrary to the Bible, we must reject that they are accurate.

There are many other methods that can be used to establish ages for parts of the earth and the solar system. These methods will be discussed in the following chapter. Regardless of what method we use, we must start with assumptions and interpret the facts accordingly. Understanding what those assumptions are is important.

If we are not aware of the assumptions that are being used, we can easily be deceived. We should always start with the Bible, the ultimate source of truth. Proponents of evolution suggest that radiometric dating has proven that the earth is between 4. But what is this age based on? A straightforward reading of the Bible shows that the earth was created in six days about 6, years ago.

Radiometric dating uses ratios of isotopes in rocks to infer the age of the rock. Scientists use a mix of observational data and assumptions about the past to determine the radiometric age of a rock. Comparing the amount of a parent isotope to the amount of its daughter isotope and knowing the rate of change from parent into daughter known as the half-life , the age of the rock can be determined. However, there are several assumptions that must be made in this process.

An hourglass can be used as an analogy to explain the assumptions. An hourglass can be used to tell time only if we know how much sand was in each chamber at the beginning, that there was no sand added or removed from either chamber, and that the sand falls at a constant rate.

If any of these factors is not known, the time given may not be accurate. The same goes for the dating of rocks using radioisotopes. Assumption 1 was proven false when scientists from the RATE group had rocks of known age dated. These rocks were dated at up to 3. How can we trust this method to tell us the age of rocks when the data do not match with observations? Isochron dating is supposed to remove the assumption of initial conditions, but some different assumptions are necessary.

If radiometric dating techniques are objective and accurate, then comparing the single—sample dates to the isochron dates should give similar results. In the RATE report there were dates that differed by up to a billion years. One volcanic rock layer from the top of Grand Canyon was dated million years older than the oldest rocks below it near the bottom of the canyon. Other case studies by the RATE group show dates that vary greatly depending on the sample and dating technique used.

The most reasonable explanation seems to be that the rates of decay have been different at some point in the past. This is supported by the presence of large amounts of helium in some minerals. If there had been more than a billion years since the rocks had formed, the helium should have leaked out of the rocks by now.

The presence of helium seems to support the recent accelerated decay of the isotopes, leaving a large amount of helium trapped in the rocks. The Bible presents a very different picture of the age of the earth when compared to radiometric dating using evolutionary assumptions.

Radiometric dating is a technique that uses the change of one isotope, the parent, to another, the daughter, to determine the amount of time since the decay began. Carbon is supposed to allow dating of objects up to 60, years.

If these dates were true, they would seem to discredit the biblical account of a young earth of about 6, years. Since the Bible is the inspired Word of God, we should examine the validity of the standard interpretation of carbon dating by asking several questions:. Carbon dating is used to date things that were once living. The unstable carbon decays to stable nitrogen as one of its neutrons is converted to a proton through beta decay.

Carbon is constantly supplied as high energy neutrons collide with nitrogen in the upper atmosphere. This carbon combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and is taken in by plants and then animals. Each living thing should have roughly the same ratio of radioactive carbon to normal carbon When an organism dies, it no longer takes in carbon, and the decay process begins.

Assuming that the rate of decay and the starting amount of carbon is known, this decay process can be used as a clock. The plants and animals buried in the recent Flood could account for a large change in the ratios and demonstrate the false assumption of carbon equilibrium.

The RATE group has also documented carbon in coal and diamonds that are supposed to be millions to billions of years old. If these items were truly more than , years old, there should be no detectable carbon present in them.

An Atmospheric protection layer: In fact Saturn today, has suspended around it atmospheric rings, although very different in composition to that which would have surrounded the earth.

This mechanism would have had the effect of dissipating the thermal heat rays of the sun more evenly over the entire surface of the earth. This would explain the evidence found on the earth of temperate vegetation and animals found living so close to the polar regions and why warm climate animals living in these arctic areas were suddenly destroyed and preserved in ice.

Also why the desert areas of the earth today show evidence that during the earlier chapters of mans history there were abundant water supplies and lush vegetation throughout the year, the very same temperate climate that the Neanderthal lived in. Could this also explain the dilemma some archaeologists have when they find evidence that the Great Sphinx of Egypt shows signs of exposure to rainfall weathering over a long period.

Just as the panes of glass block the suns harmful radiation rays entering the green house i. Without the canopy we are unprotected today from the constant bombardment of these rays and so we are subject to the effects of premature ageing. Science is now linking the bombardment of these radiation rays to cell and DNA breakdown as causing part of human ageing process see further related material at the end of this paper "chapter 8" on Telomeres.

This water vapour screen would have protected life from the harmful exposure to direct cosmic radiation rays from the sun, preventing the infiltration of harmful radio carbon C As already discussed this would account for the atmosphere still building up its levels of C14 not yet having reached its saturation point, estimated by some scientists to take approximately 30, years.

If this figure is correct then from a starting point for the build up of C14 some 5, years ago there is yet a further 25, years to go before saturation is reached. This would have the effect of causing all carbon dating done so far to be thrown out of the window as the clock on which all these dates have been calculated has been set at a wrong starting time through assuming that saturation in the atmosphere was reached millions of years ago, whereas this evidence dictates that it still has not been accomplished.

What caused the removal of this benign protective layer? As already discussed, according to the manuscripts, because of the situation of interbreeding between humans and extra terrestrial races the earth had acquired a fearsome, hybrid half-breed race of Neanderthals Nephilim.

This situation of interbreeding caused violence and bloodshed between the two races to fill the inhabited earth and had to be dealt with.

This intolerable situation had to be removed, wiped out completely or otherwise civilization as we know it today would not have been able to evolve. The falling of the deluge waters came from the breaking-up of this suspended water canopy.

Possibly the balancing centrifugal, magnetic and gravitational forces holding it in position were adjusted in some way. Did a reversing of the magnetic field provide the trigger mechanism setting off a controlled reaction that lead to pulling down of the water vapour layer? The build up of great pressures of water and ice falling onto the polar regions would have forced it in glacier form to spread rapidly out over the surfaces of the globe toward the equators, gouging out valleys under the rapid movement of mountains of ice being bulldozed out under massive back pressure.

Everything in their paths would have been destroyed. These great continental land mass plates, crushed against one another forcing up mountain ranges while the weight of the massive ice glaciers along with billions of tons of additional water forcing down great surface depressions allowing the water to settle into these new ocean basins that we have today.

The evidence fits the theory: How does the evidence fit with this? Did the deluvian mechanism provide the criteria that resulted in the formation of the worlds continental plates?

Professor Melvin Cook took this theory and modeled it. By creating a build up of ice at the poles he finally cracked the crust, the fracture lines determined by the pressures being exerted from the opposing polar forces. Professor Cook believes the ancient Arctic ice cap a mass of some million tons disappeared suddenly about 10, years ago.

To explain this he says it would be necessary for the ice to have dissipated catastrophically. Much evidence supports the above; that the earth not so long ago contained much less water on its surface and had far more dry land: Vast masses of terrestrial animal remains have been found thousands of meters deep in the oceans, evidence that the land was once above sea level. Marine animal remains including whale skeletons bear evidence of sudden extinction having been found hundreds of meters above sea level, evidence of some phenomena causing the water to suddenly and dramatically raise above the original sea level.

Thousands of flat top islands over 1, meters high have been charted at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. They are encrusted with coral revealing that they at one time must have been at or near the surface. The island of Great Britain was once linked to Europe by a connecting plateau now 20 meters below sea level, it was once all dry land, remains of forests, animal and human bones have all been found on this plateau, evidence of a previously lower sea level.

Does the evidence support linking the Neanderthals to the Nephilim? The criteria associated with Neanderthals can equally be applied to the Neph i lim situation. Neanderthals had brains as large if not larger than humans. Nephilim were Hybrid of two intelligent races; a large brain size could be anticipated. Neanderthals were well muscled with highly developed physiques. Nephilim would have inherited these common hybrid vigour characteristics.

Neanderthals had distinctive characteristics flattened cranium, heavy ridge above large eye sockets. Nephilim were only half-caste with human, characteristics being acquired from both parents. Neanderthals appeared after humans had been around for a long time.

Nephilim started breeding some years after humans started populating the earth. Neanderthals and Humans coexisted, sharing living space for a period. Nephilim inhabited the earth alongside humans for years. Nephilim learnt physical skills and human culture from human mothers. Neanderthal were a battle scarred warrior race. Neanderthals were skilled in language, spoken and written. Nephilim communicated freely with the human populus.

Neanderthals were cultured in music and musical instrument making. Nephilim as an intelligent half-caste human hybrid had no problem mastering such skills. Neanderthals had general culture similar but not the same as humans.

Nephilim inherited part human culture from mothers and part from metamorphosed fathers. Neanderthal practiced burial of the dead and religious rituals. Nephilim had an intelligent awareness with which to learn theoretical concepts, some may have been unknown to humans at that point but revealed to the Nephilim by their fathers.

This cosmic knowledge awareness when handed down through later human generations may explain the seemingly high level of religious thought connected with intercommunications between the heavens and the earth as practiced by the early civilizations particularly the ancient Babylonians and Egyptians , many of which we still do not understand to this day, ie mechanisms of electric batteries found in ancient Babylon, the interiors of the Giza pyramids etc etc.

Neanderthal possibly possessed medical skills, practicing apothecary and, aromatherapy. Nephilim were intelligent, able to develop advanced skills, see 11b. Nephilim also lived in warm temperate climate before the deluge changed it.

Nephilim were a hybrid half-breed race with strength greater than humans. Neanderthal coexisting with humans 4, years ago according to corrected C14 dating. Nephilim according to the chronological manuscripts lived during this same time period. Neanderthals were exterminated suddenly, humans continued on. Nephilim because of degenerating the earth and the human race, were exterminated by a cataclysmic world deluge caused by bringing down of the protective water vapour layer while the human race was preserved.

The contradicting and mysterious circumstances surrounding the Neanderthals can be explained by the manuscript accounts referring to an ancient hybrid race, the Nephilim. These manuscripts are among some of the oldest ever found in the world, now collected together as part of the scriptures.

The Neanderthal remains are very likely the remains of Nephilim. The writer does not claim this paper to be free of errors but a stimulus to others with greater skills to examine further the information on the early activities of the human race that has been under our noses for thousands of years generally ignored and forgotten. Some scientists under the weight of built up evidence are beginning to do this, others are entrenching themselves ever deeper in their old theories.

The cry from them of heresy seems to be getting louder in proportion to the evidence. Some sciences unfortunately have taken their received knowledge and molded it into a pseudo scientific philosophy not unlike the religions have done with theirs.

Truth should lead science and not the other way around. All disciplines of science particularly the ones built on the year old theory of evolution should re-examine the current evidence for what it tells us and not what they would have it say by discarding the evidence that does not fit with their pre conceived theories. A mystery remains so until it gets a rational fact fitting explanation, it then ceases to be a mystery unless of course the explanation is rejected because it contradicts some previously accepted theory, then the mystery continues as a self created one.

True facts form a concrete foundation on which to advance onto further revelations. Truth should always be the target no matter what the circumstances. Exposure is never met with welcoming arms and is often a bitter pill to swallow, but once swallowed the health of the science improves considerably.

The population on the earth 4, years ago may be calculated to 35 million. The chronology of the human race places the first breeding couple c 6, years ago. Using conservative population increase demographics of doubling every 60 years then over a period of 1, years the population would have increased from two to 35 million. By 4, years ago it would have increased to million.

Ref Gen 6 vs 1 "men started to increase in numbers on the surface of the ground and daughters were born to them". Ref vs 2 "then the sons translated " Angels " codex Alexandrinus Gr 5th cent C. E British museum of the true God began to notice the daughters of men, that they were good looking: Ref vs 3 "After that Jehovah said: Accordingly his days shall amount to a hundred and twenty years.

Ref vs 6 "And Jehovah felt regrets that he had made man in the earth, and he felt hurt at his heart". Ref vs 7 "Stating: Ref vs 12 "So God saw the earth and look!

It was ruined, because all flesh had ruined its way on the earth". Ref vs 13 "After that God said to do Noah: Everything that is in the earth will expire". Codex Sanaticus Greek th Century British museum: Ref 1 Pet vs 18 ".. Christ died once for all time concerning sin Ref Gen 1 vs 6 "God commanded "Let an expanse atmosphere come to be between the waters, and let a dividing occur between the two waters.

Imsges: how to calculate the age of fossils due to carbon dating

how to calculate the age of fossils due to carbon dating

Looks like you are using an old version of Internet Explorer - Please update your browser. It has been determined that the Siberian Traps were formed by massive continuous volcanic activity, that lasted ten of thousands of years. Could this also explain the dilemma some archaeologists have when they find evidence that the Great Sphinx of Egypt shows signs of exposure to rainfall weathering over a long period.

how to calculate the age of fossils due to carbon dating

Yet today study books continue to be full of illustrations of Neanderthals as subhuman ape-men. It was ruined, because all flesh had ruined its way on the earth". They took pleasure in exercising control over the natural human population, cohabiting with the women, selecting the best for themselves without restriction.

how to calculate the age of fossils due to carbon dating

Does the evidence support linking the Neanderthals to the Nephilim? C14 absorbed into any living thing during its life time starts to decay once it dies. During the periods between major ice ages, average global temperature is more than double present, and the Earth has no ice caps, so it would be quite feasible for trees to grow in the Antarctic at that time. It seems likely that the surprising condition of the Permian trees is a result of a similar rapid shift. Evidence that humans lived before the Neanderthals arrived. They had possible hybrid characteristics.