Carbon, Chemical Element - structure, reaction, water, uses, elements, proteins, metal, gas

Q: How does a Tesla coil work?

how does carbon dating work simple

Since the calendar age of the tree rings is known, this gives the age of the sample. At higher levels, a person can lose consciousness. However, some Christians suggest that the geologic dating techniques are unreliable, that they are wrongly interpreted, or that they are confusing at best. The lutetium-hafnium method uses the 38 billion year half-life of lutetium decaying to hafnium Occurrence in nature Carbon is the sixth most common element in the universe and the fourth most common element in the solar system. Measuring the amount of radiation remaining indicates the approximate age.

A Close Look at Dr. Hovind's List of Young-Earth Arguments and Other Claims

For a rock of the same age, the slope on the neodymium-samarium plots will be less than on a rubidium-strontium plot because the half-life is longer. Observed through 60, years ago. Measured by laser light scattering; most dust is deposited during spring and summer. It's a great argument except for one, little thing. However, by now we have had over fifty years to measure and re-measure the half-lives for many of the dating techniques. This type of plot gives the age independent of the original amounts of the isotopes.

When the spark gap sparks pluck! With the spark gap active the charge can flow out of the capacitor and swing back and forth many times, very fast thousands to millions of times per second. The current through the primary coil then drives current up and down the secondary, causing electrons to "overflow" from the top of the Tesla coil.

The "overflow" is a delight to children of all ages. It generally takes at least several hundred thousand volts to make that happen. The loop in the picture above forms an RLC circuit with a high resonant frequency that matches the frequency dictated by the secondary. As the energy in this system runs out the voltage needed to maintain the spark gap which is much less than the voltage needed to start it is lost, and the whole thing returns to the slow, charging phase.

How is the tesla coil useless? The original design was to power the world wirelessly and for free. At his lab in Colorado Springs he used a tesla coil to power lamps 25 miles away! The energy you transmit still has to come from somewhere. It a big, loud, dangerous toy.

Tesla coils can accumulate very high voltages, from much lower ones. In exchange, however, they must slow the current down to a crawl. Power is the voltage how much energy each electron packs multiplied by the current the number of electrons passing through a point each second. Your losses in current will more or less exactly cancel out your gains in voltage, for no net change in power.

I built one of these with my son last year. The input Is a 30 ma 15kv neon transformer. There are about 12 Winds in the primary, and in the secondary, Making the ratio We have A fan right at the spark gap to quench it, and it needs to be Cleaned from time to time. If its in the back yard, it will Light a fluorescent bulb from up to 15 feet away, and is quite Loud.

Tesla is by far the most under estimated, under compensated, and Misunderstood inventor of all time, and my favorite by a long margine. Too bad He wasnt alive to receive it. The Physicist is obviously NOT a physicist but instead a frod. To imply the tesla coil does not transmits power is like saying a light bulb does not emit light.

Admittedly a Tesla coil transmits power in very much the same way that a light bulb emits light energy, or a stereo or even a ticking clock emits sound energy. You can even harvest that energy from a distance. However, the amount of energy you can collect is tiny compared to the amount of energy that went into powering the coil. In very much the same way that the amount of energy you can collect from a light bulb using solar panels is tiny compared to the energy that goes into lighting the bulb.

So, sure, a Tesla coil transmits power in the same sense that effectively every functioning machine transmits power. The Tesla Coil was one part of an array of devices which would have had world-changing implications.

Tesla himself states that his World System was tested, proven, and all it lacked was to be implemented. When we look at the Tesla Coil as an independent unit of invention, we perhaps only see its independent operation. But make no mistake, Tesla knew how to use it along with his other inventions to harness the very power of the Earth and the Sun, and perform feats which many today cannot even begin to fathom.

We need some great minds like Tesla to arise in our day, to wake up to the awe in Nature as he did, and resolve to lift her veil, understand her mysteries, and through art, harness her powers towards the evolution and union of Man. Perpetual-motion— hypothetical a device of self-sustaining power and never-ending motion not possessing a necessity to create any power beyond sustaining its own motion; over-unity— hypothetical a device to produce more energy than it consumes.

Free-energy wind, water, solar, etc… , excepting its intermittency, it can be replenishable or a non-exhaustive source of energy used for the development of power. Build a dam on a river and you will have a resultant lake; the captured water is at a static potential until intentionally flowed into a turbine by means of gravitational force.

Free-energy is the force of nature the universe ; capable of providing to us power in ways beyond our wildest dreams. He understood that within the universe and this earth, there is non-exhaustive supplys of untapped esources. His objective was to discover methods to inexpensively obtain it, convert it into electricity, and transmit it wirelssly; so anyone within the world might receive it. Also pure logic DICTATES that his solar antennae which can capture as much as volt of potential — maybe more would be implemented as the source voltage supply in the Tesla Coil how you could not fathom this is beyond even me.

One more thing I might point out is that it IS possible to pull energy from the ionosphere as one inventor has recently discovered http: If I had to guess at your function in this article I would surmise your are one of two possible actors in the field of scientific suppression 1. A super under educated victim of the scientific establishment or 2.

A scientific Suppression shill. Shill — noun 1. The short answer is, yes. While it would be a lot easier to buy a radio, there are lots of places online where you can find out how to build one on your own, or buy a kit. I have a question that is probably very silly — please explain why the capacitor continues to charge through the negative cycle of the AC. Im stuck with the parallel inductor-capacitor thing. When the capacitor discharges, does its voltage goes all way down to 0-volt?

Hi I red most of the comments here. The telsa coils we all build were teslas demonstration propose. Telsa realisation of radiant energy and theroies of plasma energy. Simply we all know a magnetic field a coil and a moving conduct within that field will induce flux in turn energy.

Ok now telsa in my conclusion was not trying tobfind perpetual motion or free energy from the massive towers he built. One he had plates that where. Simply consider this yhe earth rotation right lol the earth has two magnetic poles So therefore 1 you have your magnetic poles 2 rotation now you need a conductor right.

Ok the hard part that everyone tried to find out how telsa got the energy. One he had plates that where positively charged to ground to earth from the primary the antenna was negatively charged and the secoundary was connected to a generator to prime a charge into the secoundary coil.

Thus causing and inducance and resonance frequency. Then the generator would shut down and the earths magnetic field and resonance would induce energy. Also most likely he would built these tower along key fault lines where the magnet field are the greastest along with possibly underground water flow as water pertian minerials flow along a high magnetic field would induce a small voltage into the primary.

Another thoery I had was telsa was possibly using the earth as a capacitor as well. Telsa was not trying to get free energy or perpetual motion otr energy he was using the energy potential that was already there Earths rotation earths magnetic field the antenna conductor virtually he reversed the operation of the telsa coil as shown here matched the resonate frequency unknown transmission of energy telsa actually conducted is a story for another time.

Just consider telsa coil a reverse of system of a radio transmission tower. Would this make a small spark about a cm long? In a Tesla coil, the spark gap is necessary to sustain the discharge frequency of the capacitor bank and the gap setting is critical to the overall Tesla coil performance. Why not just experiment with what you want to do and tell us your results. However, from what you have described, it seems you are not wanting to build a Tesla coil at all, but something else that will produce a on-demand single-high-voltage discharge… hmm!

Ok now for the serious stuff, I have to build from scrap, I have 2 capacitors 50 uF to 45o volts, can I use those for a small horizontal coil?? I am working on a small self build coil trying to get parts together. I am still looking for a high voltage transformer, maybe one from a microwave oven, or T. I read this article. Your metaphors are bizarre. Please refer to the writings of Gerry Vassilato. Secrets of Cold War Technology chapter 1 for example. I am researching building my own Tesla coil.

Still going through the safety info before I attempt to electrocute myself or others….. Anyone help me with a couple questions? I am reading the varying safe distances.

Is staying back twice the arc length acceptable? I have limited space and need to carefully find where to run this. Now with the safety questions, Electronics: A faraday cage could be an option most new electronics are not shielded, they have no metal housing with ground. Someone with a pace maker is NOT a good idea, you might see protocol for distance from a microwave oven to get some idea. Not very many people will want to touch on this subject for obvious reasons.

FInally get back to this…. IMy parts supply does not have a HV rectifier. When you mention a faraday cage, are you suggesting a cage around the coil? To allow maximum arcs to feet and the cage will capture anything that attempts to arc past? Sounds like you got a nice transformer had one like that years ago. I hope all works out well,. I recently attempted to make a tesla coil for my school project and am stuck. I get a spark at the spark gap but not at the top why is this?

Tesla was the greatest genius ever to live on this planet. Of course, this is my opinion, but it is a well founded one. You know what is useless? The answer the physicist gave. I highly recommend that you leave this page at once, and quit listening to Mr. High and Mighty ramble about a topic he or she knows nothing about. Do not vilify Tesla! I demand that this obloquy stop. That form of carbon became known as lampblack. Lampblack was also often mixed with olive oil or balsam gum to make ink.

And ancient Egyptians sometimes used lampblack as eyeliner. One of the most common forms of carbon is charcoal. Charcoal is made by heating wood in the absence of air so it does not catch fire. Instead, it gives off water vapor, leaving pure carbon. This method for producing charcoal was known as early as the Roman civilization B. He studied the differences between wrought iron, cast iron, and steel.

The main difference among these materials, he said, was the presence of a "black combustible material" that he knew was present in charcoal. Carbon was officially classified as an element near the end of the eighteenth century. In , four French chemists wrote a book outlining a method for naming chemical substances.

The name they used, carbone, is based on the earlier Latin term for charcoal, charbon. Coal, soot nearly pure carbon , and diamonds are all nearly pure forms of carbon. Carbon exists in a number of allotropic forms. Allotropes are forms of an element with different physical and chemical properties.

Two allotropes of carbon have crystalline structures: In a crystalline material, atoms are arranged in a neat orderly pattern. Graphite is found in pencil "lead" and ball-bearing lubricants. Among the non-crystalline allotropes of carbon are coal, lampblack, charcoal, carbon black, and coke. Carbon black is similar to soot. Coke is nearly pure carbon formed when coal is heated in the absence of air. Carbon allotropes that lack crystalline structure are amorphous, or without crystalline shape.

The allotropes of carbon have very different chemical and physical properties. For example, diamond is the hardest natural substance known. It has a rating of 10 on the Mohs scale.

The Mohs scale is a way of expressing the hardness of a material. It runs from 0 for talc to 10 for diamond. Its density is 3. On the other hand, graphite is a very soft material.

It is often used as the "lead" in lead pencils. It has a hardness of 2. Sublimination is the process by which a solid changes directly to a gas when heated, without first changing to a liquid. Its density is about 1.

The numerical value for these properties varies depending on where the graphite originates. The amorphous forms of carbon, like other non-crystalline materials, do not have clear-cut melting and boiling points. Their densities vary depending on where they originate. Carbon does not dissolve in or react with water, acids, or most other materials.

It does, however, react with oxygen. It burns in air to produce carbon dioxide CO 2 and carbon monoxide CO. The combustion burning of coal gave rise to the Industrial Revolution Another highly important and very unusual property of carbon is its ability to form long chains.

It is not unusual for two atoms of an element to combine with each other. Oxygen O 2 , nitrogen N 2 , hydrogen H 2 , chlorine Cl 2 , and bromine Br 2 are a few of the elements that can do this. Some elements can make even longer strings of atoms. Rings of six and eight sulfur atoms S 6 and S 8 , for example, are not unusual.

Carbon has the ability to make virtually endless strings of atoms. If one could look at a molecule of almost any plastic, for example, a long chain of carbon atoms attached to each other and to other atoms as well would be evident. Carbon chains can be even more complicated. Some chains have side chains hanging off them. Arrangement of carbon atoms in a diamond. There is almost no limit to the size and shape of molecules that can be made with carbon atoms.

Buckyballs are a recently discovered form of pure carbon. These spheres are made up of exactly 60 linked carbon atoms. Carbon is the sixth most common element in the universe and the fourth most common element in the solar system. It is the second most common element in the human body after oxygen. About 18 percent of a person's body weight is due to carbon.

Carbon is the 17th most common element in the Earth's crust. Its abundance has been estimated to be between and parts per million. It rarely occurs as a diamond or graphite. Carbon reacts with oxygen by burning in air. Both allotropes are formed in the earth over millions of years, when dead plant materials are squeezed together at very high temperatures.

Diamonds are usually found hundreds or thousands of feet beneath the earth's surface. Africa has many diamond mines. Carbon also occurs in a number of minerals. Carbon also occurs in the form of carbon dioxide CO 2 in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide makes up only a small part of the atmosphere about parts per million , but it is a crucial gas. Plants use carbon dioxide in the atmosphere in the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert carbon dioxide and water to carbohydrates starches and sugars.

This process is the source of life on Earth. Carbon also occurs in coal, oil, and natural gas. These materials are often known as fossil fuels. They get that name because of the way they were formed. They are the remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago. When they died, they fell into water or were trapped in mud. Over millions of years, they slowly decayed.

The products of that decay process were coal, oil, and natural gas. Some forms of coal are nearly pure carbon. Oil and natural gas are made primarily of hydrocarbons, which are compounds made of carbon and hydrogen. Three isotopes of carbon occur in nature, carbon, carbon, and carbon One of these isotopes, carbon, is radioactive.

Isotopes are two or more forms of an element. Isotopes differ from each other according to their mass number. The number written to the right of the element's name is the mass number.

The mass number represents the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom of the element. The number of protons determines the element, but the number of neutrons in the atom of any one element can vary. Each variation is an isotope. Five artificial radioactive isotopes of carbon are known also.

A radioactive isotope is one that breaks apart and gives off some form of radiation. Artificial radioactive isotopes can be made by firing very small particles such as protons at atoms. These particles stick in the atoms and make them radioactive.

Carbon has some limited applications in industry. For example, it can be used to measure the thickness of objects, such as sheets of steel. The steel must always be the same thickness. In this process, a small sample of carbon is placed above the conveyor belt carrying the steel sheet. A detection device is placed below the sheet.

The detection device counts the amount of radiation passing through the sheet. If the sheet gets thicker, Less radiation gets through. If the sheet gets thinner, more radiation gets through. The detector records how much radiation passes through the sheet. If the amount becomes too high or too low, the conveyor belt is turned off.

The machine making the sheet is adjusted to produce steel of the correct thickness. The most important use of carbon is in finding the age of old objects see accompanying sidebar for more information.

Diamond, graphite, and other forms of carbon are taken directly from mines in the earth. Diamond and graphite can also be made in laboratories. The carbon is heated and squeezed in the same way organic material is heated and squeezed in the earth.

Today, about a third of all diamonds used are synthetically produced. W hen an organism is alive, it takes in carbon dioxide from the air around it.

Most of that carbon dioxide is made of carbon, but a tiny portion consists of carbon So the living organism always contains a very small amount of radioactive carbon, carbon A detector next to the living organism would record radiation given off by the carbon in the organism.

When the organism dies, it no longer takes in carbon dioxide. No new carbon is added, and the old carbon slowly decays into nitrogen. The amount of carbon slowly decreases as time goes on. Over time, less and less radiation from carbon is produced. The amount of carbon radiation detected for an organism is a measure, therefore, of how long the organism has been dead.

This method of determining the age of an organism is called carbon dating. The decay of carbon allows archaeologists people who study old civilizations to find the age of once-living materials. Measuring the amount of radiation remaining indicates the approximate age.

There are many uses for carbon's two key allotropes, diamond and graphite. Diamonds are one of the most beautiful and expensive gemstones in the world.

But they also have many industrial uses. Because they are so hard they are used to polish, grind, and cut glass, metals, and other materials. The bit on an oil-drilling machine may be made of diamonds. The tool used to make thin tungsten wires is also made of diamonds. Synthetic diamonds are more commonly used in industry than in jewelry. Industrial diamonds do not have to be free of flaws, as do jewelry diamonds. Graphite works well as pencil lead because it rubs off easily.

It is also used as a lubricant.

Imsges: how does carbon dating work simple

how does carbon dating work simple

Carbonates in recent cave deposits are useful because of their high carbon content, which can be used to calibrate radiocarbon with uranium-series ages. Often there are cross-checks. This privately-owned fragment of the Qur'an is unpublished and remains in the private collection of Professor Dr.

how does carbon dating work simple

Small amounts of carbon monoxide are not very dangerous. Technique Age Range billion years uranium-lead 3. Methyl alcohol is used to make other organic compounds and as a solvent a substance that dissolves other substances.

how does carbon dating work simple

In some cases a batch of the pure parent material is weighed and then set aside for a long time and then the resulting daughter material is weighed. Plants obtain all their carbon wor, from the atmosphere. When cave people made a fire, they saw free dating site for singles in india form. This instability makes it how does carbon dating work simple. One could make a mark on the outside of the glass where the sand level started from and then repeat the interval with a stopwatch in the other hand to calibrate it. Earlier we have noted that this is not quite the case except that it is a rough indication of siple age.