William Bradford (Plymouth Colony governor) - Wikipedia

William Bradford (Plymouth Colony governor)

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This loom was claimed by its makers to be one of the most widely used power looms in the woollen and worsted industries. The Holden comb was suited for the combing of short staple wools. There is a saddler -at-work display, plus horse brasses , horseshoes and other harness. Our signature Freedom Dining program is our most talked-about amenity among our residents. Red House Museum Huddersfield: For example, the 28 shaft negative square dobby is similar in construction to Hattersley's Keighley dobby. Some familiar Mayflower names of families living in the area included Allerton , Tilley , Sampson , and Hopkins.

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He bought his own house, set up a workshop as a fustian weaver, and earned a reputable standing. Worsted spinner and spinning mule. When the exploring party made their way back on board, he learned of the death of his wife Dorothy. Archived from the original on February 15, This machine is hand doffed. This removes any short fibres or noil and some long fibres termed robbings which are deposited in a box at the back of the square motion.

Combing straightens the fibres, isolates the long ones tops for spinning and discards the short ones noil. There are various types of combing machines here, including the French comb, the Lister comb and the Holden comb. The Noble comb was the most popular as it would comb long, medium and fairly short staple wool, but the slivers needed special preparation in a punching machine beforehand.

In the French comb the slivers of wool are fed forward by ratchet -operated rollers and a pinned feed grid, the leading end of the fibres being pushed beyond the nipper jaws which open and shut to receive and hold them, leaving a fringe of fibres protruding through which the pins of the revolving cylinder comb pass, removing the short fibres or noil and any impurities. These are carried round to the underside and deposited in a box for removal. Whilst the above initial combing is taking place the drawing-off rollers, mounted on a carriage, move towards the nipper jaws and grip the fringe of fibres as soon as the last row of pins on the comb cylinder has passed through the fringe projecting from the nipper jaws.

As the drawing-off rollers grip the projecting fringe, the intersector comb descends, piercing the fringe of fibres, the nipper jaws open and the fibres are given their second combing by the rotation and recession of the drawing-off rollers pulling the fibres through the pins of the intersector comb and the pins of the feed grid.

The combed fibres are then conveyed by the leather apron of the drawing-off rollers to the front rollers of the carriage, down a funnel and through the calender rollers, into a can placed directly underneath. This was used when the best results were wanted from long fibred wools and hairs such as mohair, alpaca, long English and crossbred wools.

In the Lister comb, the slivers of wool or hair are fed into the machine over the back plate, through the fluted feed rollers, under the spreader roller and onto the pins of the fallers which disentangle and transport the fibres to the nip jaw.

The nip jaw, with its swinging motion, closes in upon the fringe of fibres, grasping them and pulling them out from the faller pins; thus partially combing the fibres which are then received by the carrier comb and conveyed to the pins of the large combing circle into which they are pressed by the dabbing brush. As the large circle rotates, the unique feature of the machine, the side circle comb gives the fibres a secondary combing, removing not the short fibres, but any excessively long ones.

The large comb circle carries the remaining fibres to the drawing-off rollers which give the fibres their final combing by removing the long fibres from the circle pins, with the short ones being left behind. The long fibres or top pass through a revolving funnel to the crimping box and into a can directly underneath.

The short fibres or noils are removed from the pins of the large comb circle by lifting knives, and deposited into a can ready for removal. The Holden comb was suited for the combing of short staple wools. The slivers of wool are fed into the machine through the feed guides to the filing head rollers and transferred to the pins of the comb circle by the lashing action of the filling heads. As the comb circle rotates, the fallers of the square motion rise, their pins piercing the fringe of fibres held in the comb circle by the keeper plate, and by drawing away give the fibres their initial combing.

This removes any short fibres or noil and some long fibres termed robbings which are deposited in a box at the back of the square motion. As the comb circle carries the remaining fibres to the drawing-off head the fringe is penetrated by the pins of the intersecting or nacteur combs, the drawing-off rollers giving the fibres their final combing by removing the long fibres from the pins of the nacteur comb and the comb circle; the short ones being left behind.

The long fibres or top pass through a revolving funnel to the coiler mechanism and into a can directly underneath. The short fibres or noils remaining in the nacteur combs are transferred to the comb circle by a small comb and removed with the noil in the comb circle pins by brushes and lifting knives and deposited into a box ready for removal.

The machines, known as boxes, in the drawing section reduce the combed tops from thick slivers to thinner roving ready for spinning. This is done by drafting them between slow back rollers to faster front rollers, and controlling the fibres between these rollers.

The first boxes where the ends are thickest are the double head can gill box where the wool ends up in a can and the 2-spindle gill box where the wool ends up twisted and on spindles.

On these machines the rollers are heavily fluted to control the sliver, and the front rollers padded with leather to cushion the wool. Between the front and back rollers are fallers or bars which control the roving by holding it with fine pins. The roving is now called slubbing which needs twist for strength, and is dealt with by a second set of boxes: In these boxes the principle of two sets of rollers with controlled fibre in between is the same, but the yarn is now twisted onto a bobbin via a flyer.

The combed slivers produced on any type of combing machine are passed through a process known as finishing. This process takes place in a series of gill boxes in which the fibres are redistributed, the slivers made uniform in thickness and moisture added in order to give the wool its natural suppleness and condition.

Blending is done where necessary to keep the top up to a given standard of quality and, if dyed, consistency of colour. The top ball produced is suitable for packing for transport and unwinding. The top represents the wool comber's finished product, and it is in this form that the wool is bought and sold as the spinner's raw material.

Spinning is the final stage in converting wool to worsted yarns, the roving being drawn out to its final thickness and twist added for strength. There are three types of spinning machine or frame in common use in the United Kingdom , namely flyer, cap and ring. Another machine used for spinning worsted yarns is the worsted mule. All three types of machine or frame are similar in their method of drawing out or drafting the roving to make the required count or thickness, but differ in the way in which twist is imparted and the yarn wound onto the bobbin.

Drafting takes place between the back and front rollers. The front rollers revolve faster than the back ones, drawing out the roving to the fineness of yarn required. Between the rollers are carriers which support and help to control the fibres as they are being drafted. The flyer is the original type of mechanical spinning frame and is believed to be a direct development of the Saxony wheel used in hand spinning.

It is suitable for producing thick smooth yarns from coarse quality wools and hairs, but is falling into disuse because of the low speed at which the spindles have to run. As the yarn leaves the front rollers it is guided through a porcelain ring to the top of a revolving spindle, around and down one of the arms of the flyer and onto the bobbin.

The bobbin is carried on a lifter plate and moves up and down the spindle. As the flyer revolves, imparting twist to the yarn, the bobbin which is free to rotate on the spindle is pulled round by the spun yarn.

A felt or cloth washer is placed between the lifter plate and bobbin to retard the revolving bobbin and create adequate yarn tension for the flyer to wind the yarn evenly on the bobbin. When the bobbins are full they are removed and replaced by empty ones.

This action is termed doffing and is done manually on this machine. Twisting is the process in which two or more single-spun yarns are united to produce a yarn of greater strength for use as warp threads in the weaving process and for normal knitting purposes. This is done by rollers delivering the yarns to a revolving spindle which twists or folds the single yarns around one another.

The machines used are similar to spinning frames in their method of applying twist, but differ in that they have only one set of delivery rollers instead of the usual complement of drafting rollers. This machine is an early example of a flyer twisting frame. On the flyer twister, twist imparted to the yarn in a similar manner as on the flyer spinner.

A weighted band, running in a groove at the base of the bobbin, retards the revolving bobbin creating enough tension for the flyer to wind the yarn evenly onto the bobbin.

The machine is hand doffed. The introduction of the cap frame ca. It is suitable for producing yarns made from botany and fine crossbred quality wools. Unlike the flyer frame where the spindle and flyer rotate, on the cap frame the spindle is stationary and carries a steel cap. Moving up and down the spindle is a lifter plate which carries the spinning tube on which the bobbin fits.

The revolving tube and bobbin impart twist to the yarn until it becomes strong enough to wind onto the bobbin. The speed of the bobbin causes the thread to balloon, and the air resistance to this balloon, combined with friction on the cap edge, is sufficient to give enough tension for winding on at the line of the cap edge as the bobbin moves up and down inside the cap.

This machine is hand doffed. This is a later development of the ring spinning frame. The passage of the yarn from the front rollers to the paper tube - used in place of a bobbin - is different from other types of spinning frames. When the yarn leaves the rollers it passes direct to the top of an elongated spindle and coils round it two or three times before forming a balloon to the ring traveller.

This enables the twist to be imparted between the spindle top and roller nip, thus helping to produce a smoother yarn. The era of Industrial Revolution weaving machinery gave rise to technological jargon in places such as Yorkshire with a strong local dialect. The resultant inscrutability of linguistic terms has given rise to such jokes as the one from Monty Python 's Trouble at Mill sketch: One on't cross beams gone owt askew on treadle. The treadle [16] was a rocking pedal, powered by the worker's foot.

The treadle in turn powered a reciprocating beam , and the power from that was transferred to the machinery. On a loom, these reciprocating beams were called lams , and were connected with the treadles by strings which were also connected with jacks to work the yelds.

Whether a foot-driven treadle could power a mighty crossbeam is a moot point, and may be a joke in itself, but the explanation of the above phrase and its humour is tightly connected with the mechanism of the weaving machinery described below. The hand loom with the witch is typical of many that were used in the mills by cloth designers to develop new fabric designs and patterns. They are still used in the textile departments of universities and colleges for training students in weaving and the designing of fabrics.

The shafts are lifted by a witch, an early form of dobby , with weights underneath to pull the shafts down, and can work up to 50 shafts to produce very complicated patterns. The weft is put in by hand using the flying shuttle method invented in by John Kay , and up to four colours can be woven in the weft using Robert Kay's son of John Kay invention of the multiple shuttle box.

On this simple-to-operate loom the designer is able to explore the application of new design ideas before beginning production trials on a wider loom. Many of the designs for woven fabrics made today were developed and created long ago on similar narrow-width pattern looms.

The hand loom with jacquard is a wooden hand loom typical of the many thousands of looms that were used in the domestic cottage industry throughout the British Isles. They were gradually replaced by all-metal looms see the Hattersley domestic loom and new methods of working practice, such as the factory system , during the Industrial Revolution. The loom has a four-shuttle drop box to weave up to four colours of weft, and has John Kay's flying shuttle method of inserting the weft.

Most of the handlooms used in the home were ordinary shaft looms. These do not require roof space and would be weaving standard cloths, unlike this loom which is fitted with a hook de Vogue jacquard and can weave very complex fabrics. The plain Hattersley Domestic Loom was specially developed for cottage or home use and designed to replace the wooden handloom; the Domestic is similar in construction to a power loom.

It was introduced ca. Because foot pedals, or treadles , operate the loom it is still classed as a handloom, but it is much easier and faster to weave as all the motions of the loom are connected via crankshaft and gear wheels. Because the loom is designed to use only one shuttle when weaving , giving a solid colour in the weft , it is termed a plain loom. The cast metal chair, manufactured along with the loom, can be raised or lowered to suit, and the seat rocks forward and back as the weaver treadles the loom.

The Hattersley 6 x 1 revolving skip box: Known throughout the textile industry as the Keighley dobby, it has since been copied, modified and manufactured in a variety of different forms. Hattersley also invented, in , the skip box: This allowed the shuttle box to bypass or skip the next compartment along and pick out the shuttle of the following one. Ltd of Dobcross , Oldham.

This loom was claimed by its makers to be one of the most widely used power looms in the woollen and worsted industries. It was used, with minor adaptations, for weaving goods as varied as light tropical suiting, costume cloths, overcoatings, army and police uniform cloths and heavy blankets. The main feature of this loom is the dobby located top right of the loom with the hand wheel which is known as the Knowles, American or positive wheel dobby.

This device lifts and lowers the wooden shafts through which the warp ends are threaded, separating the warp threads to produce the shed. The loom has four rising or drop boxes at each side, which can be moved independently, and can weave up to seven shuttles , each with a different colour.

The Sowden worsted coating loom: For example, the 28 shaft negative square dobby is similar in construction to Hattersley's Keighley dobby. However, to allow the shuttle more time to pass through the shed the dobby has special curved slots that allow the shafts to dwell or remain open for longer. In addition, the pattern chain or lags controlling the shafts can be set to control all 28 shafts, or set to operate the first sixteen shafts to weave the cloth and the remaining twelve shafts to produce a name list or selvedge.

The word selvedge is derived from self-edge , the edge of the cloth where the weft is turned back as it returns through the shed. The selvedge would often have a brand name or the country of origin woven into it. On the left side of the loom is the patent four-shuttle drop box motion incorporating a foot pedal. This is part of an escape mechanism in case the shuttle becomes trapped.

The mill 's first owner, John Moore, lived at Moorside House with his family until , followed by the later owners of Moorside Mills. Happy hour, fitness classes, trips to the mall or trips abroad It means living life to the fullest. We're always hosting events! Get on our mailing list to be one of the first to know!

The value and luxury built into our long list of amenities are what sets us apart. No Fee For Pets. Cable TV and Wi-Fi. Room Service for Daily Meals. Banking Services fee based. Call today to schedule a tour: Our signature Freedom Dining program is our most talked-about amenity among our residents. Our apartment homes are thoughtfully designed with full open kitchens and spacious closets. Some have patios and some have balconies.

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This building was a motor car garage. The loom has a four-shuttle drop box to weave up to four colours of weft, and has John Kay's flying shuttle method of inserting the weft.

hook up bradford

The World War I memorial clock tower. Ltd of Dobcross , Oldham. A felt or cloth washer is placed between the lifter plate and bobbin to retard the revolving bobbin and create adequate yarn tension for the flyer to wind the yarn evenly on the bobbin.

hook up bradford

Therefore, they commenced hook up bradford years of difficult negotiations in England seeking permission to settle in the northern parts of the Colony of Virginia which then extended north to the Hudson River. Bradford Amateur Rowing Club Rugby: The is radiocarbon dating reliable has a four-shuttle drop box to weave up to four colours of weft, and has John Kay's flying bradfoed method of inserting the weft. The plain Hattersley Domestic Loom was specially developed for cottage or home use and designed to replace the wooden handloom; the Domestic is hook up bradford in construction to a power loom. When the exploring party made their way back on board, he learned of the death of his wife Dorothy.