Christmas Island Cocos Keeling Islands. For orders and information about the book, please contact info marymartin. Malay-speaking Singaporeans tend to lean toward Malay culture , which itself is closely linked to Islamic culture. National Environment Agency Singapore. Kitts and Nevis St.
1930s, 1940s, 1950s – SIT era
His second marriage produced two children: Archived from the original on 7 February General Household Survey , Statistical Release 1: A lot of crap is yet to be done. An international handbook of the science of language and society. Census of Population PDF. How much is a book worth after its contents have been read and absorbed?
It was subsequently re-occupied by British, Indian and Australian forces following the Japanese surrender in September.
He was convicted and hanged in the Philippines on 23 February After the Japanese surrender to the Allies on 15 August , Singapore fell into a brief state of violence and disorder; looting and revenge-killing were widespread. Much of the infrastructure had been destroyed during the war, including harbor facilities at the Port of Singapore.
There was also a shortage of food leading to malnutrition, disease, and rampant crime and violence. High food prices, unemployment, and workers' discontent culminated into a series of strikes in causing massive stoppages in public transport and other services. By late , the economy began to recover, facilitated by a growing demand for tin and rubber around the world, but it would take several more years before the economy returned to pre-war levels.
The failure of Britain to successfully defend Singapore had destroyed its credibility as infallible ruler in the eyes of Singaporeans. The decades after the war saw a political awakening amongst the local populace and the rise of anti-colonial and nationalist sentiments, epitomized by the slogan Merdeka , or "independence" in the Malay language. The British, on their part, were prepared to gradually increase self-governance for Singapore and Malaya. In July , separate Executive and Legislative Councils were established and the election of six members of the Legislative Council was scheduled in the following year.
During the s, Chinese communists with strong ties to the trade unions and Chinese schools waged a guerrilla war against the government, leading to the Malayan Emergency. He led a delegation to London, but Britain rejected his demand for complete self-rule.
He resigned and was replaced by Lim Yew Hock in , whose policies convinced Britain to grant Singapore full internal self-government for all matters except defence and foreign affairs. During the May elections , the People's Action Party won a landslide victory.
Singapore became an internally self-governing state within the Commonwealth, with Lee Kuan Yew as its first Prime Minister. Singapore was not yet fully independent, as the British still controlled external affairs such as the military and foreign relations.
However, Singapore was now a recognised state. Despite their successes in governing Singapore, the PAP leaders believed that Singapore's future lay with Malaya due to strong ties between the two nations. It was thought that the merger would benefit the economy by creating a common market which will support new industries, thus solving the ongoing unemployment woes in Singapore.
However, a sizable pro-communist wing of the PAP were strongly opposed to the merger, fearing a loss of influence [ citation needed ]. This is because the ruling party of Malaya, United Malays National Organisation , was staunchly anti-communist and would support the non-communist faction of PAP against them. UMNO, who were initially skeptical of the idea of a merger as they distrust the PAP government and were concerned that the large Chinese population in Singapore would alter the racial balance on which their political power base depended, changed their minds about the merger after being afraid of being taken over by pro-communists.
Given Singapore's limited size and lack of natural resources, it was felt integrating with Malaya would provide a route to stronger economic development. The merger would also give the PAP legitimacy, and remove the threat of communist government over Singapore. On 10 March , a bomb planted by Indonesian saboteurs on a mezzanine floor of MacDonald House exploded, killing three people and injuring 33 others. It was the deadliest of at least 42 bomb incidents which occurred during the Konfrontasi.
There were many heated ideological conflicts between the two governments , even on the economic front. Despite an earlier agreement to establish a common market, Singapore continued to face restrictions when trading with the rest of Malaysia. In retaliation, Singapore did not extend to Sabah and Sarawak the full extent of the loans agreed to for economic development of the two eastern states. The situation escalated to such an intensity that talks soon broke down and abusive speeches and writing became rife on both sides.
Because of this, on 7 August , the then Malaysian Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman , seeing no alternative to avoid further bloodshed, advised the Parliament of Malaysia that it should vote to expel Singapore from Malaysia. Singapore gained independence as the Republic of Singapore remaining within the Commonwealth of Nations on 9 August with Lee Kuan Yew as the prime minister and Yusof bin Ishak as the president.
Race riots broke out once more in Lee Kuan Yew's emphasis on rapid economic growth, support for business entrepreneurship, and limitations on internal democracy shaped Singapore's policies for the next half-century. During the s, Singapore began to upgrade to higher-technological industries, such as the wafer fabrication sector, in order to compete with its neighbours which now had cheaper labour.
Singapore Changi Airport was opened in and Singapore Airlines was formed. Singapore emerged as an important transportation hub and a major tourist destination. The PAP rule is termed authoritarian by some activists and opposition politicians who see the strict regulation of political and media activities by the government as an infringement on political rights. Non-Constituency Members of Parliament were introduced in to allow up to three losing candidates from opposition parties to be appointed as MPs.
Group Representation Constituencies GRCs was introduced in to create multi-seat electoral divisions, intended to ensure minority representation in parliament. Subsequently, the PAP maintained its dominance in Parliament at the September general elections , receiving Singapore is a parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government representing constituencies.
The country's constitution establishes a representative democracy as the political system. The Parliament serves as the legislative branch of the government.
Elected MPs are voted into the Parliament on a " first-past-the-post " plurality basis and represent either single-member or group representation constituencies. Although the elections are clean, there is no independent electoral authority and the government has strong influence on the media. Freedom House ranks Singapore as "partly free" in its Freedom in the World report,  and The Economist ranks Singapore as a "flawed democracy", the second best rank of four, in its " Democracy Index ".
The legal system of Singapore is based on English common law , but with substantial local differences. Trial by jury was abolished in so that judicial decisions would rest entirely in the hands of appointed judges. Amnesty International has said that some legal provisions of the Singapore system conflict with the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty, and that Singapore has " Singapore has been consistently rated among the least corrupt countries in the world by Transparency International.
However, the country received a much lower ranking for " freedom of speech " and " freedom of assembly ". In , Halimah Yacob was named the first female president of Singapore. She won on nomination day since all other candidates were declared ineligible for the election. Singapore's foreign policy is aimed at maintaining security in Southeast Asia and surrounding territories.
An underlying principle is political and economic stability in the region. This was agreed to in for implementation by In general, bilateral relations with other ASEAN members are strong; however, disagreements have arisen,  and relations with neighbouring Malaysia and Indonesia have sometimes been strained. The first diplomatic contact with China was made in the s, with full diplomatic relations established in the s.
Since then the two countries have been major players in strengthening the ASEAN—China relationship, and has maintained a long-standing and greatly prioritized close relationship partly due to China's growing influence and essentiality in the Asia-Pacific region, specifying that "its common interest with China is far greater than any differences".
Furthermore, Singapore has positioned itself as a strong supporter for China's constructive engagement and peaceful development in the region. In addition, China has been Singapore's largest trading partner since , after surpassing Malaysia.
Singapore has also pushed regional counter-terrorism initiatives, with a strong resolve to deal with terrorists inside its borders. To this end the country has step up cooperation with ASEAN members and China to strengthen regional security and fight terrorism, as well as participating in the organisation's first joint maritime exercise with the latter.
The Singaporean military is arguably the most technologically advanced in Southeast Asia. It is seen as the guarantor of the country's independence. After its independence, Singapore had two infantry regiments commanded by British officers. This force was considered too small to provide effective security for the new country, so development of its military forces became a priority. The last British soldier left Singapore in March New Zealand troops were the last to leave, in A great deal of initial support came from Israel ,  a country that is not recognised by the neighbouring Muslim-majority nations of Malaysia, Indonesia, or Brunei.
Military courses were conducted according to the IDF's format, and Singapore adopted a system of conscription and reserve service based on the Israeli model. The SAF is being developed to respond to a wide range of issues, in both conventional and unconventional warfare.
The Defence Science and Technology Agency is responsible for procuring resources for the military. The small size of the population has also affected the way the SAF has been designed, with a small active force but a large number of reserves.
Singapore has conscription for all able-bodied males at age 18, except those with a criminal record or who can prove that their loss would bring hardship to their families. Males who have yet to complete pre-university education or are awarded the Public Service Commission scholarship can opt to defer their draft. Though not required to perform military service, the number of women in the SAF has been increasing: Before induction into a specific branch of the armed forces, recruits undergo at least 9 weeks of basic military training.
Because of the scarcity of open land on the main island, training involving activities such as live firing and amphibious warfare is often carried out on smaller islands, typically barred to civilian access. This also avoids risk to the main island and the city. However, large-scale drills are considered too dangerous to be performed in the area, and since have been performed in Taiwan. In general, military exercises are held with foreign forces once or twice per week.
The SAF has sent forces to assist in operations outside the country, in areas such as Iraq  and Afghanistan ,  in both military and civilian roles. In the region, it has helped stabilise East Timor and has provided aid to Aceh in Indonesia following the Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. Singapore consists of 63 islands , including the main island, Pulau Ujong. The highest natural point is Bukit Timah Hill at Ongoing land reclamation projects have increased Singapore's land area from Af with no distinctive seasons, uniform temperature and pressure, high humidity, and abundant rainfall.
While temperature does not vary greatly throughout the year, there is a wetter monsoon season from November to January. From July to October, there is often haze caused by bush fires in neighbouring Indonesia, usually from the island of Sumatra. Between and , growth rates averaged around 6 per cent per annum, transforming the living standards of the population.
For several years, Singapore has been one of the few  countries with an AAA credit rating from the "big three" , and the only Asian country to achieve this rating. There are also approximately 1, companies from China and a similar number from India. Foreign firms are found in almost all sectors of the country's economy. Singapore is the second-largest foreign investor in India. This is different from most central banks , which use interest rates to manage policy.
In recent years, the country has been identified as an increasingly popular tax haven for the wealthy due to the low tax rate on personal income and tax exemptions on foreign-based income and capital gains. Australian millionaire retailer Brett Blundy and multi-billionaire Facebook co-founder Eduardo Saverin are two examples of wealthy individuals who have settled in Singapore Blundy in and Saverin in Singapore has the world's highest percentage of millionaires, with one out of every six households having at least one million US dollars in disposable wealth.
This excludes property, businesses, and luxury goods, which if included would increase the number of millionaires, especially as property in Singapore is among the world's most expensive. It also has one of the highest income inequalities among developed countries. Singapore traditionally has one of the lowest unemployment rates among developed countries. The government provides numerous assistance programmes to the homeless and needy through the Ministry of Social and Family Development , so acute poverty is rare.
Some of the programmes include providing between SGD and SGD per month to needy households, providing free medical care at government hospitals, and paying for children's school fees. Globally, Singapore is a leader in several economic sectors, including being 3rd-largest foreign exchange centre, 3rd-leading financial centre ,   2nd-largest casino gambling market,  3rd-largest oil-refining and trading centre, world's largest oil-rig producer and major hub for ship repair services,    world's top logistics hub.
The economy is diversified, with its top contributors — financial services, manufacturing, oil-refining. The nation's best known global brands include Singapore Airlines , Changi Airport and Port of Singapore , all three are amongst the most-awarded in their respective industry sectors. Singapore Airlines is ranked as Asia's most-admired company, and world's 19th most-admired in , by Fortune 's annual "50 most admired companies in the world" industry surveys.
The strategic international air hub has more than "World's Best Airport" awards as of [update] , and is known as the most-awarded airport in the world. Tourism forms a large part of the economy, with over 15 million tourists visiting the city-state in Singapore is an education hub, with more than 80, international students in Information and communications technologies ICT is one of the pillars of Singapore's economic success.
However, Singapore's mass communications networks, including television and phone networks, have long been operated by the government. When Singapore first came online, Singaporeans could use Teleview to communicate with one another, but not with those outside of their sovereign city-state. Publications such as The Wall Street Journal were censored.
The 'Intelligent Island' is a term used to describe Singapore in the s, in reference to the island nation's early adaptive relationship with the internet. It is the most comprehensive survey of the pervasiveness and network-readiness of a country, in terms of market, political and regulatory infrastructure for connectivity. Singapore has also topped Waseda University 's International e-Government rankings from to , and Equinix participants and also it's smaller brother Singapore Internet Exchange 70 participants are Internet exchange points where Internet service providers and Content delivery networks exchange Internet traffic between their networks autonomous systems in various locations in Singapore.
As Singapore is a small island with a high population density, the number of private cars on the road is restricted to curb pollution and congestion. Car buyers must pay for duties one-and-a-half times the vehicle's market value, and bid for a Singaporean Certificate of Entitlement COE , which allows the car to run on the road for a decade. The cost of the Singaporean certificate of entitlement alone would buy a Porsche Boxster in the United States.
Car prices are generally significantly higher in Singapore than in other English-speaking countries. There are six taxi companies , who together put out over 28, taxis on the road. Singapore is a major international transport hub in Asia, serving some of the busiest sea and air trade routes.
Singapore Changi Airport hosts a network of over airlines connecting Singapore to some cities in about 70 countries and territories worldwide.
The Port of Singapore , managed by port operators PSA International and Jurong Port , was the world's second-busiest port in in terms of shipping tonnage handled, at 1. In addition, the port is the world's busiest for transshipment traffic and the world's biggest ship refuelling centre. Access to water is universal, affordable, efficient and of high quality.
Innovative integrated water management approaches such as the reuse of reclaimed water , the establishment of protected areas in urban rainwater catchments and the use of estuaries as freshwater reservoirs have been introduced along with seawater desalination to reduce the country's dependence on water imported from neighbouring Malaysia. Singapore's approach does not rely only on physical infrastructure, but it also emphasises proper legislation and enforcement, water pricing, public education as well as research and development.
As of mid, the estimated population of Singapore was 5,, people, 3,, The same census also reports that about From onward, people may register using a multi-racial classification, in which they may choose one primary race and one secondary race, but no more than two.
The median age of Singaporean residents was The large number of immigrants has kept Singapore's population from declining. The next-most practised religion is Christianity , followed by Islam , Taoism , and Hinduism. Other faiths remained largely stable in their share of the population. There are monasteries and Dharma centres from all three major traditions of Buddhism in Singapore: Theravada , Mahayana , and Vajrayana. Most Buddhists in Singapore are Chinese and are of the Mahayana tradition,  with missionaries having come into the country from Taiwan and China for several decades.
However, Thailand's Theravada Buddhism has seen growing popularity among the populace not only the Chinese during the past decade.
The religion of Soka Gakkai International , a Japanese Buddhist organisation, is practised by many people in Singapore, but mostly by those of Chinese descent. Tibetan Buddhism has also made slow inroads into the country in recent years. Singapore has four official languages: English, Malay, Mandarin Chinese, and Tamil. The Constitution of Singapore and all laws are written in English,  and interpreters are required if one wishes to address the Singaporean Courts in a language other than English.
Twenty percent of Singaporeans cannot read or write in English. Singaporeans are mostly bilingual , with English as their common language and usually the mother-tongue as a second language taught in schools, in order to preserve each individual's ethnic identity and values. Singlish is discouraged by the government. English is the language spoken by most Singaporeans at home, Malay was chosen as a national language by the Singaporean government after independence from Britain in the s to avoid friction with Singapore's Malay-speaking neighbours Malaysia and Indonesia.
Education for primary, secondary, and tertiary levels is mostly supported by the state. All institutions, private and public, must be registered with the Ministry of Education. Education takes place in three stages: Only the primary level is compulsory. Students begin with six years of primary school, which is made up of a four-year foundation course and a two-year orientation stage. The curriculum is focused on the development of English, the mother tongue, mathematics , and science.
National examinations are standardised across all schools, with a test taken after each stage. After the first six years of education, students take the Primary School Leaving Examination PSLE ,  which determines their placement at secondary school.
Post-secondary education institutions include 5 polytechnics, institutes of technical education ITEs , 6 public universities  of which the National University of Singapore and Nanyang Technological University are among the top 20 universities in the world. Singapore students excelled in most of the world education benchmarks in maths, science and reading.
In , both its primary and secondary students rank first in OECD's global school performance rankings across 76 countries — described as the most comprehensive map of education standards. Singapore has a generally efficient healthcare system, even though their health expenditures are relatively low for developed countries. Almost the whole population has access to improved water and sanitation facilities. There are fewer than 10 annual deaths from HIV per , people.
There is a high level of immunisation. The government's healthcare system is based upon the "3M" framework. This has three components: A subsidy scheme exists for those on low income. It accounts for approximately 3. Despite its small size, Singapore has a diversity of languages, religions, and cultures. From , it served as a trading port for British ships on their way to India. Being a major trading hub and its close proximity to its neighbor Malaysia, Singapore was prone to many foreign influences, both from Britain and from other Asian countries.
Chinese and Indian workers moved to Singapore to work at the harbor. The country remained a British colony until When Singapore became independent from the United Kingdom in , most Singaporean citizens were uneducated labourers from Malaysia, China and India.
With the exception of the Peranakans who pledged their loyalties to Singapore, most of the labourers' loyalties lay with their respective homelands of Malaysia, China and India. After independence, the government began a deliberate process of crafting a Singaporean identity and culture. Each Singaporean's behaviours and attitudes are influenced by, among other things, his or her home language and his religion.
Singaporeans who speak English as their native language tend to lean toward Western culture , while those who speak Chinese as their native language tend to lean toward Chinese culture and Confucianism. Malay-speaking Singaporeans tend to lean toward Malay culture , which itself is closely linked to Islamic culture. Racial and religious harmony is regarded by Singaporeans as a crucial part of Singapore's success, and played a part in building a Singaporean identity.
The national flower of Singapore is the hybrid orchid , Vanda 'Miss Joaquim' , named in memory of a Singapore-born Armenian woman, who crossbred the flower in her garden at Tanjong Pagar in Major religious festivals are public holidays.
Singapore has a reputation as a nanny state. The diversity of food is touted as a reason to visit the country,  and the variety of food representing different ethnicities is seen by the government as a symbol of its multiculturalism. In popular culture, food items belong to a particular ethnicity, with Chinese, Malay, and Indian food clearly defined. However, the diversity of cuisine has been increased further by the "hybridisation" of different styles e.
Since the s, the government has been promoting Singapore as a centre for arts and culture, in particular the performing arts, and to transform the country into a cosmopolitan "gateway between the East and West". Singapore sailors have had some success on the international stage, with their Optimist team being considered among the best in the world. Some notable sailors include Colin Cheng and Kelly Chan.
Singapore's football league, the S. League , launched in ,  currently comprises nine clubs, including two foreign teams. Kranji Racecourse is run by the Singapore Turf Club and hosts several meetings per week, including international races—notably the Singapore Airlines International Cup.
Singapore also hosted the inaugural Summer Youth Olympics. Companies linked to the government control much of the domestic media in Singapore. There are a total of seven free-to-air TV channels offered by Mediacorp. Singapore's media industry has sometimes been criticised for being overly regulated and lacking in freedom by human rights groups such as Freedom House.
Private ownership of TV satellite dishes is banned. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city-state. For other uses, see Singapore disambiguation. English Malay Mandarin Tamil. Roman Latin Simplified Chinese Tamil. Founding of modern Singapore and Singapore in the Straits Settlements.
Japanese occupation of Singapore. Operation Tiderace and Post-war Singapore. Independence of Singapore Agreement Goh Chok Tong 2nd Prime Minister — Since self-government in , Singapore has only three Prime Ministers. Foreign relations of Singapore. Water supply and sanitation in Singapore. Demographics of Singapore and Singaporeans. Religion in Singapore,  Religion Percent Buddhism.
Language used most frequently at home   Language Percent English. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Thaipusam procession in Singapore. This section needs expansion.
You can help by adding to it. Singaporean literature and Dance in Singapore. Singapore portal Asia portal. Total Australian casualties included 1, killed and 1, wounded. Archived from the original XLS on 30 January Retrieved 7 January Retrieved 25 September Retrieved 30 September United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 23 March Archived from the original on 11 April Retrieved 14 April Turnbull 30 October A History of Modern Singapore, — Miksic 15 November Retrieved 29 May The mighty red dot".
Archaeological Research on the 'Forbidden Hill' of Singapore: Excavations at Fort Canning, National Institute of Education, Singapore. Archived from the original on 26 April Retrieved 4 August Asian Studies University of Texas at Austin. Archived from the original on 23 March Retrieved 7 July A Study of Toponymics. Singapore and the Silk Road of the Sea, — University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved December 23, Archived from the original PDF on 23 September Retrieved 5 July The Singapore and Melaka Straits.
Violence, Security and Diplomacy in the 17th century. Retrieved 1 May Ministry of Defence Singapore. Retrieved 18 July Archived from the original on 27 September Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts. Archived from the original on 8 May Retrieved 13 April Retrieved 31 July National Heritage Board Archived from the original on 23 February Retrieved 28 July Wright, Arnold and Cartwright, H. Twentieth century impressions of British Malaya: National Library Board Singapore.
Singapore forced to surrender". Retrieved 8 May The History of Singapore. Did Singapore Have to Fall?: Churchill and the Impregnable Fortress. Light of the South". Library of Congress Country Studies.
Retrieved 29 January Retrieved 18 June Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts, Singapore. Archived from the original on 7 February Retrieved 2 July The New York Times.
Retrieved 27 December Singapore Academy of Law. Archived from the original on 3 June Retrieved 26 June Retrieved 6 February Archived from the original on 15 December Headlines, Lifelines, by AsiaOne. Archived from the original on 13 October Archived from the original on 29 May Retrieved 12 May Negotiations were, however, done in complete secrecy Razak was also waiting for the fully signed separation agreement from Singapore to allay possible suggestions that Singapore was expelled from Malaysia.
The Moulding of Modern Singapore. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Our chief diplomat to the world". Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore.
Archived from the original on 29 June The Politics of Policy-Making in Singapore. Admission is free, but as seats are limited, please register at the following URL: The Belitung Shipwreck and Bukit Brown.
One purpose of the forum was to raise public awareness of recent heritage issues concerning Singapore, and another was to try to deepen understanding of such issues beyond conventional perceptions.
She shared some thoughts on the theme of the forum, and encouraged more conversations about aspects of our past that are important to us — at all levels, from the family dinner table to national-level discussions. These private and public conversations form the starting point from which we can all play a role in determining the direction Singapore wants to adopt in identifying and conserving its heritage.
The forum was then divided into two portions: Michael Flecker spoke first, sharing his experiences and insights gleaned from more than two decades of archaeological excavations of ancient shipwrecks, in particular the Belitung Shipwreck.
The shipwreck is a ninth century Arabian dhow found near Belitung, an island off the east coast of Sumatra. It was carrying a near intact cargo of Tang Dynasty artefacts, all of which was bought by the Singapore government in Commenting on the controversy which engulfed the Smithsonian Institution last year, Flecker thought it was a pity the artefacts from the Belitung Shipwreck were not exhibited as they held significant educational value.
As the primary researcher in the on-going documentation of graves affected by the proposed eight-lane expressway through the historic cemeteries and a veteran too of other grave-documentation exercises , Hui introduced, with quiet authority, the audience to the Bukit Brown area and the cemeteries situated within, and the intrinsic heritage value they hold for Singapore.
While acknowledging the merits of the on-going documentation process, he cautioned that documentation is only a mere representation of the heritage value, and cannot act as a substitute for what stands to be lost. Jack Tsen-Ta Lee was next and his presentation on the legalities posed by the Belitung Shipwreck and Bukit Brown were thought-provoking. Regarding the former, Lee noted — as Flecker did before — that the excavation and recovery of the Tang-era artefacts were in fact legal, i.
The debate and controversy were over ethical issues, i. Regarding Bukit Brown, Lee deliberated over the possibility of bringing a judicial review to the Government, in other words to sue the Government to prevent the construction of the eight-lane expressway.
Although Lee concluded mostly in the negative — as it would be difficult in this case to prove the Government has acted unreasonably, his presentation provided much insight into workings of the law and the responsibilities of the High Court and Government.
Kwa Chong Guan wrapped up the first part of the forum with a more scholarly but no less significant and insightful take on both the Belitung Shipwreck and Bukit Brown issues. The question perhaps is how the value would be interpreted and whether it would be accepted by most if not all.
The Belitung Shipwreck for instance was an Arabian dhow in Indonesian waters. Similarly, the current debates over the status of the Bukit Brown area and the cemeteries within arguably bring to light the value of cultural and natural heritage to Singaporeans, and perhaps also how they wish for Singapore to be remembered now and in the future.
Given its recentness, it was no surprise that Bukit Brown dominated the comments and opinions posed by the audience. All in all, it was an educational and enjoyable afternoon. The insightful presentations, the ensuing panel discussion and the incisive and passionate comments and questions from the audience left no one in doubt that heritage issues in Singapore will be well-tended to in the near and distant future. See also the reflections of a member of the audience on the forum: Minimyna on History or Heritage.
Assistant Professor Jack Lee has also blogged his presentation: Justin Corfield will be present to sign copies. As seats are limited, please register early at: For each of the 90 days, all the major developments — military and political — are detailed along with information on every Allied soldier who died on that day.
You can find more information on the book here: Justin Corfield was born in England, and has been interested in the Malayan Campaign and the fall of Singapore for most of his life. They co-authored the Encyclopedia of Singapore , the first encyclopedia on the country, before starting work on The Fall of Singapore. Robin Corfield died on 9 October A Seminar by Educators and Students. Heritage may refer to something that is or may be inherited. It may be valued objects or qualities such as cultural traditions, historical sites and unspoiled natural environment.
We are looking for educators and students doing social studies, history and geography at primary, secondary and tertiary levels. The form of presentation is flexible: Besides the presentations, educators and students can also send notes of their views and experiences by email to the conveners.
Some of the themes this seminar will be exploring are: All applications should be submitted to the conveners as indicated in the form by 27 July The book tells the tale of the SMS Emden, the notorious German cruiser, its exploits in the waters of Penang and Southeast Asia, and its regional and international impact.
The book was then officially launched by the French H. Mr Olivier Caron and Russian H. Mr Leonid Moiseev Ambassadors to Singapore, both of whom also went on to share their thoughts with the audience.
Given the consequences of the Emden on the Russian Navy, the Russian Ambassador also suggested a Russian edition of The Battle of Penang will be well-received in his homeland. This launch event also included a panel discussion with two well-known scholars of Singapore as well as Southeast Asian history: Both scholars considered the actions and consequences of the SMS Emden within the broader frameworks of imperial, military and diplomatic history, and agreed that the book makes a valuable contribution to scholarship in those fields.
The event ended with a reception, sponsored by the publisher — Trafalgar Publishing House. For orders and information about the book, please contact info marymartin. You will also be treated to a short performance by the talented musicians of Siong Leng. Event is free and open to all members of the public.
Today, Siong Leng continues to thrive, training generations of young musicians who perform at temple occasions, cultural events, charity events and private functions, most notably at the annual Kusu Island Pilgrimage, the historical Thian Hock Keng Temple and concerts at the Esplanade. It is a traditional opera form sung in the Minnan south Fujian, or Hokkien dialect and is central to the Minnan culture in southern China, as well as to Hokkien populations overseas.
The slow, simple and elegant melodies are performed on distinctive instruments such as a bamboo flute called the dongxiao and a crooked-neck lute played horizontally called the pipa, as well as more common wind, string and percussion instruments.
The rich repertoire of songs and scores preserves ancient folk music and poems and has influenced opera, puppet theatre and other performing art traditions. Chan works in the creative industry with a Swiss company in Singapore. He has published the book, Light on the Lotus Hill , and produced a video documentary based on the book in Founded in , the Singapore Heritage Society is a non-profit, non-government organisation and registered charity.
To celebrate the opening of a new permanent exhibition at the Siong Leng Musical Association, join Chinatown expert guide, Chan Chow Wah, as he introduces you to the fascinating history of Siong Leng, Nanyin music and the streets around Bukit Pasoh and Telok Ayer where the Chinese community gathered. Sunday, February 26, , from 5: There is no charge for this event but donations to support Siong Leng Musical Association and the Singapore Heritage Society would be much appreciated.
Find out more about Siong Leng Musical Association http: A video clip of a Siong Leng performance: Read on for more information… Venue: Saturday, 25 February, 3. Free and open to the public but limited to 30 participants. Free flow of coffee and tea, courtesy of Betel Box. Please register at http: In this session, our guest speaker, Dr Lai Ah Eng, will kick off the discussion with a topic on the landmarks that are characteristic of our heartlands.
Kopitiams , provision shops, food stalls and markets in our local housing communities are arguably some of the little living heritage sites that make and mark the local community. For more information, see flyer. Heritage, it seems, is no longer a thing of the past. Recently, there has been a clamour to save our heritage so as to preserve it for posterity as well as provide those of us in the present with a sense of rootedness to this place we call home.
From old mosaic-tiled playgrounds to a centuries-old cemetery — what is heritage to you? What is your heritage? Why is it precious to you? Come share your thoughts with us about your heritage and why it resonates so deeply with you. This is a good opportunity for heritage enthusiasts to mingle with one another to talk about the topic that is dear to their hearts — heritage.
Cloves and nutmeg are indigenous to the Spice Islands of Eastern Indonesia, this book tells of the many uses of these exotic spices and the history of their trade over a period of more than years.
Much of the story is told through the lives of these historical characters, as well as Sir Francis Drake, Jan Pieterzoom Coen, Pierre Poivre, and others that are lesser known but equally important. The story also revolves around the intense rivalry between the Sultans of Ternate and Tidore and their relationship with the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and English, who at different times occupied the Spice Islands. The book follows the growth of the Dutch and English East India Companies which were founded to profit from the spice trade and their efforts to monopolise that trade.
It finishes as the Dutch East Indies Company goes into bankruptcy and the once splendid Sultanates sink into obscurity. Spice Islands is the result.
With support from the Lee Foundation. Recent decades have witnessed a remarkable expansion of debates over the content of history textbooks and the ways in which contentious historical issues and topics are being taught in schools.
In Asia, attempts to whitewash the crimes of Imperial Japan in school textbooks were met with strong protests by civil society organizations and state politicians across the continent. Young people especially need to learn how to adjudicate competing accounts and deal with the range of controversies they are likely to encounter in public life.
The teaching of historical controversies can help foster active citizenry and widen our understanding of the past; it can help open up new possibilities for the creation of a knowledge-driven, cosmopolitan and mature society. Indeed, controversy, debate, and argumentation are central to disciplinary work and participating in academic controversy involves contestation, challenge, and rigorous debate as part of progressive knowledge building and the advancement of fields of study.
History writing and teaching, being one of many forms of disciplinary work, involves a continual evaluation of the strength of claims and accounts and consideration of rival as well as competing perspectives. This work is central to citizenship as well. Bringing together students, teachers and scholars of history, History as Controversy aims to shed light on philosophical, methodological and practical questions concerning the teaching and writing of historical controversies in Asia.
The conference takes on a comparative country perspective, seeking to interrogate controversial events, ideologies and personalities that defined the contours of the past and the present in countries across Asia and seeks to mark out differences and commonalities, connections as well as disjunctures between them.
Another reason why comparative and global perspectives are pertinent for this workshop is to encourage the audience and presenters to view controversy as something that is addressed differently in different contexts. Programme and Abstracts More information can be found here. Saturday, 3 December, 3. Free and open to the public enquiries: Singapore prides itself as a Mecca for shopping, and tourists from all over Southeast Asia fly in for the weekend to indulge in retail therapy.
As a port settlement, Singapore is not primarily a production centre but rather a centre of procurement — importing and exporting produce and goods from the region and beyond. Over the years, the island has expanded its ability to effectively procure, if not monopolize, merchandize,redistribute, and retail these produce and goods. So how was shopping like in the past? What did people buy?
What was considered trendy and at the height of fashion? The Singapore Heritage Society recently partnered with archaeologists from the National University of Singapore to conduct a salvage excavation project at the Victoria Concert Hall and Victoria Theatre, where significant varieties of artifacts were recovered from the dig. What can archaeology tell us about the material culture of the past? For more information, click here. Level 16, National Library.
Saturday, 9 Jul 3. The native plants of any country are indigenous species that naturally occur there and have evolved in that country over thousands or millions of years. Although Singapore has about 2, native species of vascular plants consisting of the fern allies, ferns, gymnosperms, and flowering plants, the landscaping in the urban area, such as streets, parks, gardens, and even rooftop gardens, is done mostly using non-native or exotic species, usually from Central or South America, Africa or other parts of Asia.
This is a great shame since many Singaporean species are equally, if not more, attractive and suitable for planting in urban conditions. The native plants of Singapore are part of our natural heritage, so we should do our best to propagate, protect and preserve them for posterity. His current areas of research include conservation biology, the horticultural use of native plants of Singapore, and urban agriculture.
Auspicious and Inauspicious Plants from around the World, etc. Such traditions, running through chains of transmission that linked anecdotes back to original storytellers, operate as of self-histories of cults that failed to inherit autobiographical records of their saints or keramats. His research interests include Muslim saints and brotherhoods in nineteenth century Southeast Asia. He is the co-editor of a forthcoming volume entitled Sufism since the Eighteenth Century: Learning, Debate and Reform in Islam.
He has also published articles on Muslim reformist connections between South and Southeast Asia. The Armenian Church, Hill Street date time: Saturday, 28 May , 3. Tea and book signing 4. Seen primarily as final resting places, cemeteries are increasingly under threat from urban redevelopment in land-scarce Singapore. Today, there are about less than a dozen cemeteries left in Singapore. With the recent exhumation of major cemeteries like Bidadari Cemetery and Kong How Shua Cemetery, concerns have been raised about the status of cemeteries in Singapore.
Spaces of the Dead: A Case from the Living brings together various authors concerned with the need for conservation of cemeteries in Singapore. This book showcases cemeteries as spaces of historical, architectural and social merit through the writings and photo-journals of the authors. Cluny Road date time: Sunday, 24 Apr 8.
This tour is limited to 30 persons. Hurry to avoid disappointment. A botanical garden was established not long after Raffles arrived in Singapore.
However, this first botanical garden, at the base of Canning Hill near the National Museum, was not long-lived. The Singapore Botanic Gardens that we know at Tanglin recently celebrated its th anniversary.
It has been an experimental garden, a centre for botanical research, a focal point for horticultural science, and a beloved public park throughout its storied history. It has also been home to many pioneering — and often, rather eccentric — botanists. Shawn YK Lum is a tropical rainforest ecologist.
Shawn is the current President of the Nature Society of Singapore. Saturday, 23 Apr 2. Free and open to the public registration: Lim Chong Keat will present a talk about the concepts and the total design and building process and that led to the realisation of the building — and also the historical circumstances for architecture at that time. Lim, who was princpal of the firm at the time, was also the key designer and architect-in-charge of the project.
He will discuss aspects of the total design including the site planning, the structure, climate considerations and detailing, and will also mention his special interest in the acoustics of the hall, and its use not only for conferences but also for concert performances.
Lim Chong Keat was born to a distinguished family in Penang in He now researches on Botanical species and conservation, and publishes the journal Folia Malaysiana, and resides in Penang.
Read Lim Chong Keat Talk Saturday, 2 Apr 3. During the first decade of the 20th century, the Chinese community in Singapore began to set up schools that offered a modern form of education using Chinese as medium of instruction. By , before the outbreak of the Pacific War, these schools had numbered more than And by the s, a complete Chinese school system comprised of elementary schools to tertiary institution had come into existence. How did the Chinese schools develop in Singapore and how were they being managed and maintained with minimal or virtually no support from the colonial government?
This talk will attempt to answer these questions and present a historical review of the role of Chinese education in Singapore. Neo Peng Fu is a historian by training. He received his undergraduate and post graduate education at the National University of Singapore and University of California at Santa Barbara respectively. He publishes in the fields of Chinese intellectual history and Chinese education in Singapore.
Chinese Schools In 20th Century Singapore. This 3 days 2 nights tour 11 to 13 March is organised by the Singapore Heritage Society and led by local anthropologist and scholar, Dr Vivienne Wee. Today, most Singaporeans know Bintan for its sandy beaches, seafood and high-end resorts. Few visitors to the island know of its close historical connections with Singapore. Its capital Tanjung Pinang, located on the southwestern part of the island, is the the largest town in the Riau Islands and has been an important centre of the Johor Riau Empire since the 17th century.
In particular, the island of Penyengat, located off the coast of Tanjung Pinang, was the spiritual and political seat of the Johor Sultanate at the time Raffles claimed Singapore for the British in Not far from Tanjung Pinang is the old settlement of Senggarang where you can find one of the oldest Chinese temples in the region.
Dr Vivienne Wee is an independent anthropologist and researcher. Since , Vivienne has been actively researching the ethnography of the Riau archipelago and is an acknowledged expert of the region and its peoples. Her doctoral thesis was on the Malays of Riau. Cost includes all meals, hotel, entrance fee, transportation, guides and all local transportation. The following are not included: This tour is limited to 30 persons only.
Friday 11 March 8. Saturday 12 March 8. Sunday 13 March 8. Postlunch time at leisure for shopping. The Hotel is designed in resort style and the grounds are lusciously landscaped. This tour is limited to 40 persons. The history of railways in Singapore may be understood as three periods of development: The second phase saw the transfer of its management to the Federal Malay States Railway when the Causeway was built in and the Tanjong Pagar Railway Station constructed a decade later.
This inter-war phase connected the island to the social and economic milieus of British Malaya and the peninsula, but also heightened the importance of the Keppel area with its docks and harbour development. In May , the two governments in Singapore and Malaysia announced plans to redevelop the hectares of railway land, while conserving the two stations in Bukit Timah and Tanjong Pagar. This tour will attempt to revisit some of the stations and locations of interest in Singapore, including treks along certain stretches of the railways.
We hope to capture some of the aspects of this everyday heritage before it winds down and cease operations come July He graduated with an M. He is a registered architect in Singapore. He researches on the histories of art, architecture, landscapes and urban environments in Southeast Asia. Independence Architecture in Kuala Lumpur, and Singapore: Towards Another Botanical Age Saturday, 8 Jan 3 — 5pm Admission: Free and open to public.
It is reasonable to believe that if Venerable Pu Liang had survived the war, he would have restored the Shuang Lin Monastery. This history was largely unknown until the author, Chan Chow Wah, began research about 5 years ago and put together the history of Venerable Pu Liang.
In the research process, 4 of the 5 known photos of Venerable Pu Liang were found. Level 5, National Library.
Saturday, 4 Dec 3. Towkay families in Singapore intermarried with their allies in business and politics. From until disrupted by WW2, arranged marriages were the basis of trust underlying joint business ventures, partnerships, and mergers.
This was when private agreements were not inked out. And long before labour unions, good relations with heads of clans, who controlled the coolies, were linked matrimonially. Family cliques aided foreign warlords for lucrative markets, utilizing their banks investment funds , newspapers propaganda editorials and quasi-political institutions leadership usurped to spearhead PR and donations.
Unlike Asian genealogies, women are included: This lineage chart spans years of strategic unions, reflecting the economic and political ambitions of towkay families. Andrew Tan is a freelance researcher for the National Library.
He is currently recreating his childhood through his dwelling, a 3-dimensional Singapore Memory project. But it was those decades when the family evolved from merchant-bankers to politicians. So the artefacts of this period were personal effects of some pre-PAP political figures. Read Towkay Blood Ties poster. Level 16, National Library, Victoria Street date time: Saturday, 30 Oct 3. Why did this extraordinary Bengali polymath — the first Asian to win the Nobel Prize for Literature — decide to embark on a journey through Singapore and Malaya for an entire month?
Where were the places he went to, and what did he do when he was here? How was he received by the various local communities and how did he in turn present himself to different audiences?
More than simply nugget trivia about Tagore, however, his visit also provides important insights into the social and political milieu of interwar colonial Singapore and Malaya. The talk will explore the different reactions his visit engendered among the Indian, Chinese and European communities, all illuminating the nascent notions of nationalism of the period. In particular, it will investigate an important controversy that Tagore unexpectedly found himself mired in during his trip, arising out of anti-colonial comments that he supposedly made to a Shanghainese newspaper earlier.
The incident aroused the ire of many editors of the English press in Singapore, but was covered quite differently in the pages of Chinese-language newspapers. Tagore Talk 30 Oct Ground Floor, The Post Museum. Saturday, 25 Sept 3. Established in September , by brother Michael and Philip Cheah, the Singapore-based magazine has championed the creation and promotion of made-in-Singapore music and has released many CDs of local music.
The magazine began as a monochrome photocopied publication and moved to full colour in It is now an online publication with a huge worldwide audience. The demo tapes from the late s have crumbled to dust. But the sound and images remain in our heads and now, they will be brought back to light by Koh in this sharing.
A Jump Back In Time. Together with the U. Saturday, 28 Aug , 2. The topics of their talks are:. Syed Muhd Khairudin Aljunied: Memory, Identity and Trans- Regionalism Her main publications address issues concerning the Chinese and Chineseness in Southeast Asia, in particular, Indonesia and Singapore.
Saturday, 6 Feb , 2. The first half of the 17th century brought heightened political, commercial and diplomatic activity to the Straits of Singapore and Melaka. Key elements included rivalry between Johor and Aceh, the rapid expansion of the Acehnese Empire, the arrival of the Dutch East India Company, and the waning of Portuguese power and prestige across the region.
Archives in Portugal, Spain and the Netherlands contain detailed information on these developments in the forms of maps, rare printed works, and unpublished manuscripts, many of them unfamiliar to modern researchers.
The Singapore and Melaka Straits draws on these materials to examine early modern European cartography as a projection of Western power, treaty and alliance making, trade relations, and the struggle for naval hegemony in the Singapore and Melaka Straits.
The book provides an unprecedented look at the diplomatic activities of Asian powers in the region, and also shows how the Spanish and the Portuguese attempted to restore their political fortunes by containing the rapid rise of Dutch power. The appendices provide copies of key documents, transcribed and translated into English for the first time.
His research interests covers that of Southeast Asia in the early modern period as well as legal history. His main publications include: Remapping the Straits of Singapore? Violence, Security and Diplomacy in the Seventeenth Century. Saturday, 30 Oct 5. This exhibition depicts Singapore as seen through cartographers, geologists, mariners, military generals and town planners.
First, this is the largest exhibition of Singapore maps ever. Never before has such a large body of Japanese materials relating to Singapore been contextually exhibited.
These were only recently discovered by Australian researcher Marcus Langdon. His interest in cartography of Singapore stems from his work in studying and identifying historical archaeology sites. His research interests includes the archaeology of colonial period Singapore and identifying the potential archaeologies in Singapore. Saturday, 5 Sep 3. Often viewed as a quintessential feature of Singapore everyday life and public culture, the kopitiam is one among several institutions and spaces in Singapore within which are embedded dynamic aspects and processes of migration and socialcultural diversity, set within the larger context of Singapore as a rapidly changing and globalizing city.
Originally a small-scale set-up serving drinks, nibbles and sometimes meal foods, the kopitiam has undergone a major transformation over the years. In doing so, it explicates the historical, social and cultural evolution of the kopitiam as a site of Singaporean multi-culturalism. Her research areas include multiculturalism, migration, family and heritage. Her recent major publications include Meanings of Multiethnicity: Ethnic Pluralism and Social Cohesion in Singapore ed.
She has also written articles on ethnicity, religion, gender and family issues. Saturday, 15 Aug ; 2. Studies of the historical cartography of Singapore and Malaya have commonly been based on British and Japanese maps and charts even though the area has been a vital international maritime crossroads centuries prior to the founding of the island by Raffles in In his research on the involvement of continental European nations in Southeast Asia between the 16th and 19th centuries, Peter Borschberg has encountered rich archives of maps and other navigational illustrations on what is now Singapore from libraries and archival centres across continental Europe.
Borschberg will discuss his findings and share his collection painstakingly accumulated over the past decade. Saturday, 1 Aug 2. Saturday, 18 Jul , 2. The history of medicine and healthcare has traditionally been defined according to the chronological milestones of hospitals, lives of doctors and discoveries of diseases and cures.
But, especially for the case of Singapore, less has been mentioned on how ordinary people have dealt with health and illnesses, both as patients as well as participants. In this respect, three scholars seek to bring light on this otherwise forgotten aspect of the experiences of people in healthcare in colonial Singapore. Ms Kelly Fu would discuss about the role of vernacular midwives in the area of childbirth in an era where home deliveries were the norm.
Dr Loh Kah Seng in contrast, will share his research on the struggles of leprosy patients in dealing with not just their own conditions, but the stigma and discrimination surrounding the disease.
Finally Dr Liew Kai Khiun would discuss the roles of ordinary people in confronting the Spanish Influenza of which took about 60 million lives worldwide and thousands in British Malaya.
He has undertaken studies on the social and labour, and Medical Histories of both Singapore and Malaysia. Ms Kelly Fu is currently a doctoral candidate at Goldsmith College and her talk comes from part of her research into reproductive and maternal health in Singapore. Dr Loh Kah Seng who received his PhD from Murdoch University, has done significant research work on the lives of ordinary Singaporeans during the colonial era,ranging from leprosy patients, the experiences of common people during the Great Depression as well as the social history of Bukit Ho Swee.
Health in Colonial Singapore: Saturday, 6 June 2. In a dialogue with Philip Holden co-sponsored by the Singapore Heritage Society, Suchen will explore a variety of issues related to the presence of history in her literary works. There will also be ample time for questions from the audience. She read Literature at the University of Singapore, graduated with a post-graduate diploma in Applied Linguistics and joined the Ministry of Education as a curriculum specialist.
Lim retired in August , to devote her time to writing. Her latest books include: Stories of the Unsung, Unsaid and Uncelebrated in Singapore Saturday, 16 May 2. Haji Yusoff, patriarch of Gedung Kuning was a respected merchant who toiled at his business and was recognised as one of the great pioneers in the Malay community. Even to the very last day when the family moved out, Gedung Kuning stood proud befitting its royal colour and stature. She was born and grew up in Gedung Kuning. She is the creator of www.
Hidayah was a Fulbright Scholar who once volunteered in a medical mission in tsunami-stricken Aceh and taught film-making to Native American children in a Reservation. She hopes to publish her first book Gedung Kuning, Memories of a Malay childhood this year. Ah Kew the Digger. Saturday, 28 Feb ; 2.
William Farquhar — was born at Newhall, Aberdeenshire, in Scotland. At the age of 17, he joined the military service of the British East India Company and saw action in the Indian sub-continent in the early s. In , he was involved in the taking of Malacca from the Dutch and by was Commandant of the settlement.
He spent the next 15 years successfully running that colony despite considerable difficulties. With Stamford Raffles, he established British presence in Singapore and was left in charge of the new settlement after Raffles left for Bencoolen in Sumatra. He fell out with Raffles over the management of the settlement and Raffles arranged to replace him with John Crawfurd. Farquhar was most unhappy, initially refusing to leave and later sued Raffles for his autocratic behaviour.
He finally left in December and returned to Britain, where he settled in Perth in In , he was given the rank of Major-General and he died at his home, Early Bank, and was buried in Greyfriars churchyard. Despite his significant contributions to the early development of Singapore, Farquhar is today, a forgotten figure. Even the little street named in his memory is gone. Jean-Claude Fuchs shares his research on the life of this remarkable man and his times. Jean-Claude Fuchs was born in France and is currently a permanent resident in Singapore.
Since retiring from his post as an executive with a Swiss multi-national, Jean-Claude has dedicated his time to researching the life and times of Major-General William Farquhar and his family line. The family tree he has constructed now include some descendants of William Farquhar. Sunday, 12 Oct , 2. This talk is based on his new book Creating Greater Malaysia: Placed within the tumultuous context of the Cold War, he seeks to go within the mindsets of both the Singapore and Malaysian governments in coming together abetted by the British as part of the attempts to collectively strengthen themselves from what they perceived as the encroaching influence of Communism.
In revisiting a period that has been otherwise taken for granted, Professor Tan research demonstrates the need for our pasts to be constantly reviewed. He has published on the partition of South Asia, civil-military relations, the Sikh diaspora, colonial Punjab and, more recently, the history of Singapore.
Saturday, 11 Oct , 2. The SARS epidemic reminded Singaporeans of the fragility of life and the selfless devotion to life as healthcare workers braved the risks of deadly infection to stand by the stricken.
In this respect, three post Singaporean researchers seek to examine the historical contexts of health and illness in the country to explore places of suffering and healing. From the cradle, Ms Kelly Fu will examine the socio-cultural heritage of childbirth in colonial Singapore from village midwives to modern hospitals.
Determined that the sufferings of leprosy patients should not be forgotten, Mr Loh Kah Seng intends to bring us back to the segregated compounds in which they had endured both the pains of the disease as well as the stigmas of society. With the recent concerns of emerging and re-emerging diseases, Dr Liew Kai Khiun would demonstrate how diseases like the Spanish Influenza in had affected Singapore and how its populace had responded to the pandemic.
Her research entails the study of the historical dimensions of reproductive health, midwifery and childbirth in Singapore. He has also written about the social experiences of ordinary people in Singapore during the Great Depression in the late s as well as leprosy patients.
Saturday, 27 Sep , 2. Based on her book on Singapore Hawker Centres, Professor Kong seeks to share her study on how such eating places have become an iconic Singapore landscape and way of life. She intends to map out the development of this social institution, from the early days of street peddlers to the consolidated hawker centres initiated in the late s and early s, to the food courts of the s and s. She sits on several academic and editorial boards internationally, and serves on numerous boards and committees of various Ministries and statutory boards in Singapore.
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Retrieved 22 September Ian Burnet, Spice Islands , Rosenberg Publishing, Cloves and nutmeg are indigenous to the Spice Islands of Eastern Indonesia, this book tells of the many uses of these exotic spices and the history of their trade over a period of more than years.
Considered as one of the greatest defeats of the British Army, it had drastic impacts on the lives of the ordinary people of Singapore.
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