SWTOR Unassembled Component Changes in 5.4.
This week's Tyrian Chronicle is casting a Guild Wars 2 movie! Hurray im lvl 29 half way to 30! Yeah I believe so.
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I did this because the dialog box did not show up when I shutdown and reloaded the VM again. After the interview, Keppel reported that he had been shocked in speaking with Bundy, and that he was the kind of man who was born to kill. Both detectives later stated that these interviews were of little actual help in the investigation; they provided far greater insight into Bundy s own mind, and were primarily pursued in the hope of learning the details of unsolved murders that Bundy was suspected of committing but had never been charged with. No Celt left a record of his faith and practice, and the unwritten poems of the Druids died with them. Bundy had hoped that he could use the revelations and partial confessions to get another stay of execution or possibly commute his sentence to life imprisonment. Tell the missus you are an activated Division agent, your mission is to restore order, investigate the source of the virus, and take back New York. Take care of yourself, young man.
The Chi Omega killings, Tallahassee, Florida. Bludgeoned in her bed, eight blocks away from the Chi Omega house. While awaiting execution in Raiford Prison, Bundy was housed in the cell next to serial killer Ottis Toole, the suspected murderer of Adam Walsh. Their families sued King County, and they received a settlement of , per family. Thomas Harris was in court the day of the infamous bite mark testimony in Bundy s trial he had a press pass. Harris was then inspired to create the character Francis Dolarhyde for his novel Red Dragon.
His other inspirations were Gary M. Heidnik, Edmund Kemper, and Ed Gein. Like Bundy, Bill would put his arm in a sling, approach the women he intended to murder by asking them for help, and then incapacitate them. Michael Reilly Burke starred as Bundy. Carol Valenzuela is not a Ted Bundy murder victim.
Currently the FBI is conducting tests on the hair of the unidentified victim found alongside her. If DNA can be extracted from this unidentified victim, it will be compared to my murdered missing sister Jamie Grissim. Jamie went missing December 7, Although initially, Carol and the unidentified victim were though to be Ted Bundy s, they were later ruled out. Warren Forrest to prove this. Attached is a picture I took from a search conducted last October for my sister s remains. The white bucket marks the spot where Carol and the unidentified victim were found back in My sister s belongings were found within yards of these two victims.
Please search google or go to for more information. Jamie also has a Facebook page, and a page on my website at. It s important to correct this information, as it could bring my sister s and Carol s killer to justice finally.
The United States produces more serial killers than other country. Experts say the motives of serial killers are personal. What we know about serial killers. Juan Corona was born in Mexico in He migrated to Yuba City, California, years later for farm work. Warning - Item Vintage Russina serial killer Distrubing might contain content that is not suitable for all ages.
Many serial killers become so enamored of their own crimes that they take souvenirs and trophies from their victims. Sometimes these are as simple as an item of clothing, other times it s a body part or a piece of personal identification.
Occasionally, it s something completely bizarre and disgusting - even for a torturing, raping, monstrous serial killer. The killers on this list have taken everything when they ve taken lives.
Heads, eyes, organs, clothes, property - even pets. But what they rarely take is money. For serial killers, the point of the murder is the murder itself, not something as base and filthy as financial assets. And how do they commemorate the glory of their kill.
By taking something by which to remember it. What are the weirdest serial killer trophies and serial killer souvenirs kept by some of the most prolific serial killers in history. This list includes many famous murderers, and what they took from their victims. In many cases, these items were used as evidence when these horrible killers were eventually put away. But if you asked them and please don t, they d say it was all worth it.
Janome Software Updates Help. Janome Machine Update to Version 1. During installation of some embroidery software, the installer will ask you to plug in your dongle. Normally the installer sees the dongle and continues installation, but I ve seen many times when the dongle isn t verified, and installation cannot proceed.
There is an answer. I can t say that I can solve everyone s problem, but if you own Janome or Bernina embroidery software, I just might have the answer you are looking for. The answer to your installation woes is that your computer doesn t know what the dongle is. Especially if you are installing the embroidery software on a computer that is newer than that of the embroidery software s system requirements, the information the computer needs to use the dongle just isn t available.
That information, or hardware instruction, is called a driver. The dongle is known as a device. If your embroidery software installation stops at dongle verification, you will need a device driver that allows your computer to operate your dongle. So we just need to get the proper HASP key drivers from the SafeNet website, and we ll be good provided that we correctly install the driver and it s the right one. The HASP driver is extremely easy to install.
First you should close any embroidery software installer that you have running. Ideally you would have all programs closed, and some may even suggest disabling your anti-virus. This executable file can be run just by double clicking on it. Double click on it, and then follow the instructions. When you re done, you should have the appropriate HASP driver installed.
Your computer may not immediately be able to use the driver, so restart your computer, then try to install your embroidery software. If the red light comes on when you plug in your dongle, that s an indication that the driver is working. Final Media Player is a media player for Windows that supports more than 80 types of audio and video files. Everything needed is included in the setup program. Then, try adding the.
The fix below will probably only work on the bit edition though. For bit, the required registry entries are slightly. Free and safe download. Play your RMVB files. Rmvb codec windows media player 11 free download - Total Video Player 8. Play audio and video files of multiple video formats, and much more programs.
Articles play rmvb file codec media Apps to sell unwanted gifts. With the dust well and truly settled, the chances are you have now. Find your next opportunity on Simply Hired. New jobs are posted every day. I have also locomotive tanker driver him as a Twedge crack moisten locomotive tanker driver and my god he is. Pennsylvania Trucking Companies are waiting. Use the links on this page to download the latest version of Canon i drivers.
All drivers available for download have been scanned by antivirus program. Canon i Windows Driver Downloads Operating system s: If you select Run or Open instead of Save , the file will be automatically installed after it is saved.
The downloaded file will be saved in the specified place in the self-extracting form. Double-click the downloaded EXE file to decompress it, then installation will start automatically. All such programs, files, drivers and other materials are supplied as is. Canon disclaims all warranties, expressed or implied, including, without limitation, implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose and non-infringement.
You agree not to send or bring the Software or its documentation out of the country where you originally obtained it to other countries without any required authorization of the applicable governments. You agree to comply with all export laws and restrictions and regulations of the country ies involved, as well as with the U. Export Administration Regulations EAR, and not to export or re-export, directly or indirectly, the Software in violation of such laws, restrictions and regulations, or without all necessary approvals.
Here s where you can download Free. Please choose the relevant version according to your computer s operating system and click the download button. This is a driver software that allows your computer to interface with a Canon BJ printer Supported product s i Language s: Czech, Danish, Dutch, English. Bonus EventsBack to Top. Bonus Events happen on a rotating weekly schedule including seven different activities that range from revisiting favorite dungeons from.
Patch My PC Free edition is a portable utility for updating applications. The free edition is an easy way for home users to update their PC. All players will have their talent points reimbursed and will have access to new talents throughout their trees; this includes the point talents.
Several new spells and abilities have been added for all classes. Players will need to visit their class trainer to learn new spells. The Kirin Tor have made their move and so has Dalaran. Please watch your step around the crater that has been left behind.
The Barber Shop has been implemented and you can now visit one of the Barber Shops in the major cities to change your appearance. Be sure to get your Shave and a Haircut. The all new Achievement System has been implemented and the Achievement panel can be accessed via the interface. While many achievements are not retroactive, we have done our best to credit as many as possible. Gamemasters will not be able to grant achievements for past accomplishements. New towers have been added outside of Orgrimmar and in Tirisfal Glades.
Crews are currently at work to establish a new Zeppelin route to Northrend for your travel pleasure. All items and effects which grant bonuses to spell damage and spell healing are being consolidated into a single stat, Spell Power. This stat will appear with the same values found on items which grant increased spell damage and healing such as on typical Mage and Warlock itemization.
For classes which do not heal, they should see no change in the character sheet other than new tooltip wording. Healing characters will see their bonus healing numbers on the character sheet decrease, however, all healing spells have been modified to receive more benefit from Spell Power than they received from bonus healing, with a net effect of no change to the amount healed by their spells.
Some talents have had to be rebalanced to accommodate this change, but the amount healed will remain roughly the same. In addition, some talents will provide only healing spell power. The stun proc now works with Starfall. Improved Faerie Fire Balance: Moonkin Form Balance no longer increases your attack power or causes you to regenerate mana off melee attacks, but now has a chance to cause you to instantly regenerate 2 of your total mana every time you critically hit with a spell.
Nature s Focus Restoration: Now a 3 point talent, down from a 5-point talent. Also moved to Tier 1, up from Tier 2. Nature s Grace Balance: Now also reduces the global cooldown of your Wrath spell by 50 while in effect. Nature s Grasp Balance: Can now be used and can proc indoors. This is now a base ability at level 11 and has a chance to proc. New Talent- Protector of the Pack Feral: Revive - Returns the spirit to the body, restoring a dead target to life with health and mana.
Cannot be cast when in combat. New Talent - Genesis Balance: New Talent - Natural Reaction Feral: New Talent - Nature s Splendor Balance: Omen of Clarity Restoration: Now a passive spell. Now also works for spells healing and damage. Proc rate is roughly 6 with a 10 second internal cooldown. Now a 3-point talent, down from a 5-point talent. Also moved to Tier 2, up from Tier 3. Also now only reduced threat for Restoration spells, and reduces the chance that your healing over time spells Lifebloom, Regrowth and Rejuvenation will be dispelled, rather than all Druid spells.
Threat management for Balance can now be found in the Balance tree, within Nature s Reach. Tree of Life Restoration: You can now cast all Restoration spells Healing Touch in the form, but Tree of Life now only reduces the mana cost of your healing over time spells Rejuvenation, Lifebloom, Regrowth and Flourish by All pet families now have one unique ability.
New abilities have been added for families such as bears and sporebats. Aimed Shot mana cost has been reduced from 11 of base mana to 8, casting time reduced from 2. Cooldown increased from 6 seconds to 10 seconds and damage reduced. Animal Handler Beast Mastery: Aspect of the Beast: Now increases melee attack power by 10 for the hunter and the hunter s pet. The hunter can t be tracked while using this Aspect. Only one Aspect can be active at a time. Aspect of the Viper - The hunter takes on the aspect of the viper, causing ranged attacks to regenerate mana but reducing total damage done by Mana is gained based on ranged weapons speed.
Bestial Swiftness is now a pet talent tree talent, and has been removed from the Beast Mastery Hunter tree. Bite now has no cooldown, does the same damage and costs the same Focus as Claw, so works as a Focus dump. Cooldown reduced to 3 minutes, and now also increases your chance to resist spells by Now has a new spell effect.
This ability has been re-designed. Now leaps the Hunter backwards up to 13 yards. Disengage now also only has one rank rank 1. This shot now taunts the target onto the Hunter. The taunt effect will last 6 seconds. Distracting Shot now only has one rank rank 1. Focused Fire Beast Mastery: This effect can stack up to 3 times, but diminishes for each charge of Kill Command.
Hunter pets can now learn talents in one of three trees depending on family. Pets gain talent points starting at level 20 and earn an extra talent point every 4 levels. If a hunter tames a pet that is more than five levels beneath their own level, the pet will then have their level increased to five levels beneath the hunter s own level.
Improved Arcane Shot Marksmanship: Improved Hunter s Mark Marksmanship: This ability now increases the damage done by your pet s special abilities by Each attack will reduce the damage bonus by Loyalty, Training Points and the hunter Beast Training button no longer exist.
Hunter pets can now learn all skills at their level. They will get new ranks automatically as they gain levels. Marked for Death now increases damage done by ranged and by pets special abilities by 4 on marked targets down from 8.
New Talent - Hunter vs. New Talent - Improved Tracking Survival: New Talent - Lock and Load Survival: New Talent - Survival Tactics Survival: New Talent - T.
Point of No Escape reduced to a 2 point talent and now affects Freezing Arrow. This will now proc off Chimera Shot, but no longer works with auto-shot. Cooldown reduced to 3 minutes, down from 5 minutes, and has been moved to Tier 5 of the Marksmanship Tree from the Survival Tree. This spell will now interrupt the current spell being cast on the target and lock out that school for 3 sec if the target is immune to silence effects.
Steady Shot now uses ammo. In result, its bonus damage has been slightly reduced. Players can notice a damage increase based upon what ammo they use. Moved from tier 4 to tier 2 and no longer increases hit chance. Cooldown reduced to 15 seconds down from 20, and now dispels Enrage and Magic effects. Trap Mastery Survival is now an point talent and has been moved from tier 3 to tier 9 and increases the duration by 30 fo both Freezing Trap and Frost Trap.
Trueshot Aura - This aura is now raid-wide and now increases all ranged and melee attack power by In addition, this spell now only has one rank. All other ranks have been removed. Arcane Potency now applies when Presence of Mind is active, talent prerequisite changed to Presence of Mind.
Conjured mana gems no longer disappear from your backpack after being logged out for more than 15 minutes. Higher ranks of Conjure Mana Gem will recharge an existing mana gem to maximum charges. Empowered Arcane Missiles renamed Arcane Empowerment and no longer increases mana cost. It now also increases damage caused by Arcane Blast. Magic Absorption reduced to 2 ranks, increases resistances by. Missile Barrage will now affect Arcane Barrage and the R5 proc chance has been adjusted from 12 to Summoned Water Elemental s Waterbolt range increased, mana cost reduced, Freeze range increased, mana cost increased.
Avenging Wrath no longer causes Forbearance, damage increase reduced to 20, now increases healing done by Blessing of Freedom renamed Hand of Freedom. Only one Hand spell can be on the target per paladin at any one time. Now costs 6 of base mana. Blessing of Light and Greater Blessing of Light removed. Their effects have been folded into all relevant abilities. Blessing of Protection renamed Hand of Protection. All ranks now cost 6 of base mana. Blessing of Sacrifice renamed Hand of Sacrifice, is now only 1 rank and transfers 20 of the damage taken to the caster, duration reduced to 12 seconds, cooldown increased to 2 minutes.
Blessing of Salvation renamed Hand of Salvation, now reduces total threat on the target by 2 per second for 10 seconds while also reducing all damage and healing done by Hammer of Wrath is now considered a Retribution spell, moved from Holy, mana cost reduced, now instant cast, global cooldown increased to 1. Holy Wrath is now instant cast, causes a 3 second stun, cooldown reduced to 30 seconds, radius reduced to 10 yards. Improved Sanctity Aura Retribution renamed Sanctified Retribution, now causes all units affected by Retribution Aura to cause 2 more damage.
Improved Seal of the Crusader Retribution renamed Heart of the Crusader and the effects now apply to all Judgement spells. Infusion of Light now reduces the cast time of Holy Light by. All Judgement spells are considered ranged attacks for purposes of how they hit and how they critically hit. All cause damage based on attack power and spell power. Judgement of Light now heals based on the Paladin s attack power and spell power, the effect can not trigger more than once ever 4 seconds.
Judgement of Wisdom now restores mana based on the Paladin s attack power and spell power, the effect can not trigger more than once every 4 seconds.
Repentance Retribution mana cost changed to 9 of base, duration increased to 1 minute 10 second PvP duration, now usable against Demons, Dragonkin, Giants, Humanoids and Undead.
Righteous Defense no longer costs mana and the global cooldown has been removed, cooldown reduced to 10 seconds. All Seals have been reduced to 1 rank and now cost 14 of base mana. The duration has been increased to 2 minutes and are no longer consumed when a Judgement spell is cast.
The effects can be triggered from all weapon based special abilities. Seal of the Crusader has been removed. The effects of Judgement of the Crusader have been folded into all relevant abilities.
Seal of Righteousness deals damage based on weapon speed plus an amount based on attack power and spell power, increases Judgement damage by Seal of Vengeance now applies its effect on every swing, causes damage based on attack power and spell power, increases Judgement damage by 10 per stack of the damage over time effect. Turn Undead ranks 1 and 2 removed.
Turn Evil now granted at level 24, mana cost changed to 9 of base. Circle of Healing Holy: Now works on any targets in the caster s raid, and is now a smart heal and chooses the lowest health targets to heal first within its range.
Also no longer will heal summoned Snakes from Hunter s Snake Trap. Force of Will Discipline: This talent now increases your spell damage by a flat amount, rather than increasing your spells by a. In other words, your spell damage gained from this talent is now reflected on your character sheet, rather than the skill tool-tips. Cast time reduced to 2 seconds, down from 3. Damage increased roughly Duration for the damage over time effect reduced to 7 seconds, down from Holy Fire now has a 10 second cooldown.
Moved from tier 3 to tier 2. Pain Shadow - Now increases damage done by your Shadow Word: Cast time reduced to. Charges increased to 10, up from 5. Now breaks from any attack that hits you for 30 or more of your total health.
Cooldown reduced to 3 minutes, down from 5. Mind Flay can now periodically critically hit. The spell coefficient has been increased approximately For the duration, your mana will regenerate at a 25 rate while casting. Now a 3 point talent, down from 5. Spirit Tap Shadow - Talent reduced to 3 points, down from 5. Now also leads into Improved Spirit Tap. Twisted Faith will now work when the target is afflicted by Shadow Word: Pain instead of Mind Flay. Envenom now also increases your chance to apply poisons by 25 for 2—6 seconds based on combo points.
All finished poisons are available on vendors rather than created by the rogue. Riposte Combat now slows the target s melee attacks by 20 instead of disarming them, awards one combo point. Convection Elemental is now a 3-point talent, down from a 5-point talent. Now lowers the mana cost of Thunder and Lava Burst. Healing Way and Ancestral Fortitude are now affected by the dispel resistance portion of this talent. Now affects chain heal. This is in result of the new spell power system.
Players should notice little to no change in the power of the spell relevant to healing spells. New ranks have been added of Water Shield, starting at level Level 20, 27, 34, 41, 48, 55, 62, Earthliving Weapon - Imbue the Shaman s weapon with earthen life. Increases healing done by x and each heal has a 20 chance to proc Earthliving on the target, healing an additionally over 12 sec.
Cleanse Spirit Restoration - Cleanse the spirit of a friendly target, removing 1 poison effect, 1 disease effect, and 1 curse effect. Each critical heal reduces the chance by 20 and lasts 20 seconds. Rockbiter ranks 5 through 9 have been removed.
Windfury Weapon is intended to replace Rockbiter at level Tranquil Air Totem has been removed. All demon abilities and spells will automatically be learned as pets gain levels. Demon Master trainers will be removed. Now reduces damage taken from area of effect attacks by an additional 80 and is automatically learned for the Succubus, Imp, Voidwalker, and Felhunter at level Cataclysm Destruction - Now also increases your chance to hit with Destruction spells by 1 per point.
Duration reduced to 6 seconds, and effect increased Now also greatly increases all nearby allies stealth detection while channeled. Tooltip updated to be more consistent with other similar effects and now restores mana leeched from your summoned Demon, up from Demon Armor - Now increases healing done by spells and effects by 20, but no longer has in-combat health regeneration.
Succubus effect reduced to 10 increased shadow damage, down from Imp effect reduced to 10 increased fire damage, down from Felguard effect now increases Fire and Shadow damage, instead of just Shadow. Fel Armor - Now increases your spell damage equal to 30 of your total Spirit, but no longer increases healing done by spells and effects by Increases total Intellect and Spirit of party and raid members by 3.
Cooldown reduced to 15 minutes, down from 1 hour. Duration reduced to 1 minute, down from 5 minutes. Health increased by 30, damage increased by 60, and armor increased by Nether Protection has been reworked. This effect has a 10 second cooldown. Rain of Fire Doomguard: A bug has been fixed which caused each tick of Rain of Fire to consume its mana cost. Deals Shadow damage plus an additional 5 Shadow damage over time effect on the target. Shadowfury Destruction - Can now be cast while moving.
Stun duration increased to 3 seconds, up from 2. Soul Link Demonology is now an point talent used to be a point talent, but the 5 bonus damage from this talent has been removed.
In addition, the damage absorbed by Soul Link is now 15, down from Suppression Affliction is now a 3-point talent, down from 5. Health increased by 20, Damage increased by The amount of attack power the Voidwalker gains from its master s spell damage has been increased by It no longer increases the number of blocks.
Mocking Blow now only has one rank and causes weapon damage, cooldown reduced to 1 min and can now be used in Defensive Stance. Rampage now causes all party and raid members within 20 yards of the Warrior to go on a rampage, increasing melee critical hit chance by 5 for 10 seconds when the warrior scores a melee critical.
Recklessness now increases the critical hit chance of the next 3 special ability attacks by , lasts 12 seconds, cooldown reduced to 5 minutes. Retaliation duration reduced to 12 seconds, charges reduced to 12, cooldown reduced to 5 minutes.
Shield Block now increases chance to block and amount blocked by for 10 seconds. Cooldown increased to 60 seconds, rage cost reduced. Shield Slam is now available to all warriors, starting at level 40 and damage slightly increased. Buffs that have 30 seconds or less remaining will be removed once the game starts. However, the mage spell Invisibility is not affected by this change. The Surefooted enchantment now provides additional critical strike rating instead of root and snare resistance.
Players will be able to access the new Calendar feature by clicking on the new icon located in the top right corner of their mini map. The calendar will track in game events, allow raid scheduling, and more. New Vanity Pet and Mount changes: Players will now be able to access their non-combat pets and mounts by clicking on the pets tab in the Character Info panel. These pets and mounts will be now learnable much like spells or abilities. Once a vanity pet or mount is learned, the icon will disappear from within a player s inventory and reappear in the appropriate tab under the pet tab under Character Info.
Say goodbye to your vanity pets and mounts taking up bag and bank slots. Focus Frame is now available. Players will be able to right click on any unit frame and select Set Focus. The focus frame will only display when the focus is set. When holding the focus cast key and triggering an action, the action will be performed on your focus and not on your target. A 5 minute timer will appear over the player s unit frame showing the countdown until your PvP flag is cleared. Macros and key bindings are now saved server-side so there is no longer a need to reconfigure them when logging in using another computer.
Shift-clicking to loot mail: You can now hold Shift and click on mail in your inbox to automatically loot any items and gold without opening the mail. The combat log now differentiates between a spell failure due to resistance and spell failure due to missing the target.
Where once both events reported as a resist; a spell missing the target is now reported as a miss. When a source of damage is entirely prevented by a shield block, a full resist, or a damage shield like Power Word: Shield, the prevented amount will now be displayed. V-key color is now available.
Classes will now be identified with the appropriate color while the V-key option is engaged. The Abyss Shard has been changed to grant a passive 15 stamina bonus, but no longer removes the soul shard requirement from casting a voidwalker. As discussed above, Abaris was a legendary Hyperborean healer, seer, and priest of Apollo. It has been suggested by scholars that the doctrine of transmigration taught by Pythagoras may have actually been the Druidic philosophy that he learned from Abaris.
Pythagoras believed the soul was immortal and went through a series of reincarnations. He believed humans could reincarnate into either animals or plant forms. According to Caesar, the bravery of the Celts sprang from their lack of fear of death, the result of their belief that the soul does not die.
Certainly, the abundant evidence of grave goods is ample proof of faith in the existence of an afterlife. The Druids taught souls move between this world and the world of the dead—the Otherworld.
Death in the physical world results in a soul moving to the Otherworld, whereas death in the Otherworld brings a soul back to this world. There is a prevalence of images of the human head at cult sites in virtually all regions believed to have been inhabited by the Celts. Similar to the Greek world, the Celts viewed humans as consisting of a body, soul, and spirit; the world they inhabited as earth, sea, and area; the divisions of nature as animal, vegetable, and mineral; the cardinal colors as red, yellow and blue and so forth.
The Celts venerated the human head above all else because it was the temple of the soul—the center of emotions as well as of life itself and a symbol of divinity and the powers of the Otherworld, the world of the spirits. The head of the fallen enemy became an important prestige object for the warrior, as it revealed a deep bond between the victor and the vanquished. The importance and extent of the cult of the severed head among the Celts is demonstrated by their display in shrines, either mounted in stonework as at La Roquepertuse in southern Gaul France , or on wooden poles at the Bredon hill fort in western Britain.
In both instances the heads were set up at the entrances. Perhaps the souls of these unfortunate warriors were now being used to provide symbolic protection for these fortresses.
In Welsh and Irish myth, the severed head is believed to be imbued with supernatural power. When Bendigeitfran, one of the principal heroes in the cycle of Welsh legends called the Mabinogion is mortally wounded in battle, he commands his own men to cut off his head and bury it in London facing the east to guard Britain again foreign invasion. There are many other examples of talking heads of slain heroes found in Celtic mythology.
There are universal beliefs in the Ancient Celtic Religion which are similar to other religions, most notably the Greeks. Based on Greek accounts, some of their mythology and gods e. Apollo may have been adopted from the Celts in addition to other ancient civilizations such as Egypt. The next post will discuss the pantheon of Celtic gods and their association to Greek and Romans Gods.
Once having traversed the threshold, the hero moves in a dream landscape of curiously fluid, ambiguous forms, where he must survive a succession of trials…The hero is covertly aided by the advice, amulets, and secret agents of the supernatural helper whom he meets before his entrance into the region —Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Summoning the rituals from the Celtic past requires a wand to piece it together.
Accounts of rituals were recorded through the biased eyes of classical Greek and Roman writers. Although Irish Christian monks wrote about Celtic legends, their manuscripts were subject to redaction and filtration. Monastic scribes rejected any notion that the supernatural beings in these tales were worthy of worship, so they represented these gods as heroes whose magical powers were an echo of their one-time divinity. Thus, the Irish sources, while offering a wealth of myth, provides no direct evidence to the Celtic religion.
As the Celts were unwilling to write their rites and beliefs in writing, the historical accounts and Irish myths must be filled in with archaeology, which can provide evidence of cult centers, sacred images, and ritual offerings. What it cannot provide is the meaning a worshiper attached to a sacred image or the intention of a votive offering.
It was believed a ritual, properly conducted, led to the result which was sought—a successful harvest or outcome in battle, for example. Ceremonies were held before rather than after the desired event. Ritual was woven into all aspects of life, for there was an everyday need to appease the deities. Although there were ritual centers, every mountain, spring, marsh, tree and outcrop was endowed with divinity and thus ritual enactments could be performed any place.
Groves were held in high regard. Rivers, lakes, springs or wells were focal points for Celtic rituals. Coins, metalwork and animal remains were among the votive offerings frequently found at these sites.
Within the context of a pastoral, cattle-based culture that typified much of the pagan Celtic world, it makes sense that these water sites would acquire nurturing and maternal connotations. Significantly, rivers were often personified as female divinities in the Celtic world.
In one myth, a noble Dagda had a well where nine hazel trees overhung and dropped their crimson nuts in the water, causing bubbles of mystic inspiration. Only the Dagda or his three cup-bearers were allowed to draw water from the well. But a young woman, Boann, disobeyed the taboo and the waters rose up, pursued and drowned her. Wells or springs were also closely associated with goddesses in the Celtic world and were often symbolic totems of desire. During his quest, Owain comes to a magical well that is connected to thunder, rain and fertility of the surrounding land.
A mysterious Druidess helps Owain to overcome and slay the Black Warrior who is a defender of this well. C , writes that with the aid of certain ointments the Druids put on their feet, the Celts would walk over a bed of burning coals at some of their festivals.
Then he would take this offering to the Druid who waited in a white skin at the altar. If the nobleman escaped unharmed, it was reckoned a good omen, but if he was hurt, it was deemed unlucky for both the community and himself. Giraldus Cambrensis AD in Expurgatio Hibernica , gives an account of the ritual slaughter of a mare. The king-elect eats its flesh, and drinks and bathes in a broth made from the carcass.
This was considered a ritual union through which the king seeks fertility for himself and his kingdom. The most famous Druidic ritual, thanks to the writings of Pliny the Elder AD 23—79 is the cutting of mistletoe from a sacred oak with a sickle on the sixth day of the moon followed by the sacrifice of two white bulls. One divination ritual was connected with the election of the High King of Ireland.
A Druid would eat the flesh of a slain bull and drink its blood. If he lied about his dream then the gods would destroy him. Votive offerings included torcs, coins, jewelry, and weapons from defeated enemy. For the Celts, the reverence held for objects was an extension of their belief in the sacredness of places. Le Tene art was infused with a sense of the divine.
The possessions of a dead person were sacred to the departed, which explains why grave goods were often broken. The design of a torc gave magical powers to its wearer and the motifs on swords and shields gave potency to their users. Music must have played a role in ritual, and the extraordinary craftsmanship employed in the construction of musical instruments suggests they were sacred. Among the most highly venerated objects were cauldrons, symbols not only of abundance but also of regeneration and rebirth.
AD 24 , cauldrons held sacrificial blood of victims from Celtic raids. Stories and poem associated with Taliesin describes a tale where Caridwen boiled a cauldron of magic potion for almost one year so her grotesque son would acquire knowledge of the future world by tasting three drops. No Celt left a record of his faith and practice, and the unwritten poems of the Druids died with them. Yet the Celtic culture dominated Europe for over years and there is no doubt this culture had a profound, long-lasting impact through its mythology and lore.
The evidence for Celtic rituals provide both horrific and constructive images. On one hand, there is a spiritual kinship to nature and love for the Mother Goddess based on the Celtic predilection for sacred lake, rivers, springs, and wells. The Celtic belief in the immortal soul and the cult of the head will be discussed in the next article.
Historical and archaeological evidence provide both utopian and horrific images of ancient Celtic religion. The Ancient Celts demonstrated their spiritual kinship to nature and love for the Mother Goddess through their artwork and reverence for sacred groves. Yet there was also a darker side of Celtic religion in which humans were sacrificed in their rituals. Some of the accounts may have been exaggerated through the biased eyes of classical historians who used human sacrifice as a rationale for the Roman conquest of Celtic lands to get rid of these practices.
Ironically, Rome had also practiced human sacrifice in their beginnings and ceremoniously executed their conquered rulers in triumphs.
The great Celtic leader, Vercingetorix, was paraded through the streets of Rome before he was strangulated. As the Celts were unwilling to write their rites and beliefs in writing, historical accounts and myths recorded by the Irish monks must be partly filled with archaeologists who study cult centers, sacred images, and inscriptions which reveal the names of their deities.
What these artifacts cannot provide is the meaning a Celt may have attached to a sacred image, the intention of an offering, and the context in which ritual regalia was used. Human sacrifice held a particularly horrid fascination for the Greeks and the Romans.
Several classical authors wrote that offerings to the gods included captives taken in battle. The Galatae of Asia Minor were dreaded because of their reputation for sacrificing prisoners of war. Their enemies would prefer suicide rather than fall into their hands. The Greek poet, Sopater of Paphos — BC , wrote the Celts of Galatia sacrificed their prisoners to their gods by burning them after a victory.
He took those who were most handsome and in the strength and flower of their youth, and have crowned them, sacrificed them to the gods, if indeed any god could receive such offerings. Diodorus says that on great occasions the vates seers would nominate a person for sacrifice and, after a dagger was plunged into him, they read the future from the manner of the fall and the twitching of his limbs, and the flow of blood.
He added that it was not the custom to make the sacrifice without a Druid, for it was a saying that offerings acceptable to the gods had to be made through those acquainted with their nature. He concludes that in internal wars among the Celts, both sides would obey the Druids. Even when two armies were about to open battle, if a Druid stepped between them, they would be forced to desist.
AD 24 , described the human sacrificial ritual as follows: Julius Caesar wrote extensively about the Gauls in France and their rituals of human sacrifice. He indicated the Celts in Gaul immolated human victims, or vowed to do so, employing the Druids to conduct these sacrifices. Caesar added the twist that victims were preferably criminals, but if the supply failed, then innocents were used. It was not intended as butchery but rather served a specific purpose for the warrior.
The sacrifice represented a gift to the gods. If a warrior fulfilled his vow of offering his captive as a sacrifice in the presence of Druids, his status was enhanced in this world and the Otherworld.
It was customary for Gauls to cremate the body of a chief along with his prisoners and favorite animals. Tacitus speaks of human sacrifices in Mona Anglesey.
They [British Druids] deemed it a duty, indeed, to cover their altars with the blood of captives, and to consult their deities through human entrails.
Archaeological record confirms Celts probably performed human sacrifice. On the Gundestrup Cauldron there is a figure held upside-down over what appears to be a pail of water—the portrayal of perhaps a sacrifice to Teutates, God of War. Archaeological evidence suggests willing victims may have been killed to act as a messenger to the Otherworld. One example is of a young man whose preserved remains were recovered from Lindow Moss in Cheshire in The three-fold manner of his death head blow, neck garroted, throat cut followed by the deposition of the body in water suggest this was a human sacrifice possibly performed by Druids.
A bog victim in Gallagh in County Galway was killed with a garrote made of hazel rods, and the stomach of another victim at Lindow was full of hazel nuts, a strong symbol in Celtic mythology. Ingestion of the hazel nuts is proposed to induce visions, heightened awareness and lead to epiphanies. It is possible that human sacrifice took place only at times of tension and dangers. You can sense the mission designers straining to pretend otherwise, but no matter what the context your only interaction with the world is via the barrel of your gun.
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