Creation vs. Evolution

Why I Reject A Young Earth View: A Biblical Defense of an Old Earth

describe how radiocarbon dating is used to determine the age of a dead organism

Back to Articles and Comments Index. The presence of ammonium suggests that the Tunguska object was most likely a comet, rather than asteroids or meteoroids, Melott says. The shock to the atmosphere was enough to lower global temperatures for more than 1, years.

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All those tunnels you wrote about. We can look all around us and see evidence of just that. Secrets soon, but I shall let you in on it early. We know the climate was different then. While the system might have survived one, the second, or even third, proves fatal.

Previous radiocarbon dates suggested a wide span of occupation of within years. The new dates show a much narrower range of dates, corresponding precisely to climate warming, providing evidence that the archaeological material in the cave could have accumulated over perhaps as little as two to three human generations, centred on 14, years ago.

The new dating methods show instead that the butchery and consumption of both horses and humans occurred in a very short space of time, about 14, years ago. So as Europe rapidly defrosted, family groups probably followed herds of horses into Britain across grasslands where the North Sea is today.

New radiocarbon dates on bones from Gough's Cave show people were living there some 14, years ago. The results confirm the site's great antiquity and suggest human hunters re- colonised Britain at a time of rapid climate warming. From 24, years ago, an ice sheet extended over much of Britain.

Beyond that ice sheet, in southern Britain and much of northern France, the environment resembled a polar desert. Evidence suggests these inhospitable conditions kept people out of north-west Europe for more than 9, years. Over years, a discharge equivalent to five Amazon Rivers raised sea level by 20 meters?

Traditionally, paleoclimatologists have thought that the meltwater came from the Laurentide Ice Sheet, responding to an abrupt warming of the northern hemisphere called the Bolling-Allerod. The first evidence for a massive meltwater pulse came from Barbados in Dating of remnant corals in Barbados that had lived near the ocean surface prior to the meltwater deluge indicated that the pulse occurred 14, years ago, several hundred years after the onset of the Bolling-Allerod warming.

The Younger Dryas cold period began 12, b2k - years to compare to an impact from the last sub cluster that hit at b2k. By subtracting the b2k radio carbon BP date provides the nominal years resonate interval supposedly two Vulcan orbital revolutions. The error uncertainty in the BP date is to cal. Vulcan's period computed from the comet impacts that may have caused these two weather changes is half this interval, or years. Vulcan's theoretical period computed by this web site The impacts are thought to come from the B: Cl-1 comet cluster which contains five sub clusters over a year period.

The cosmic impact deposited anomalously high concentrations of platinum over much of the Northern Hemisphere, as recorded at 26 YDB sites at the YD onset, including the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core, in which platinum deposition spans? The hypothesis has been around for a while but has remained controversial. This recent study of sediment around the world gives substantial new support forit.

They pinpointed the 62 mile diameter comet, fragments of which struck Earth, and the remainder of which still circulate in our solar system. The resulting fires burned approximately 9- percent of the biomass on the planet, with smoke flooding the skies and preventing sunlight from reaching the surface. According to this idea, the impact not only caused a firestorm, killing many animals immediately, but also a disastrous climate change. The Younger Dryas was a 1, year-long 12,, cal.

Other evidence for the impact from a Greenland ice core suggests roughly the same time frame. The cataclysm ushered in a cold climate lasting 1, years and is likely to have resulted from the break-up of a giant comet in the inner solar system.

Mediterranean Archaeology And Archaeometry, Vol. How do we encompass in a single Theory: Now we have it. They were also responsible for the high cultures of Egypt, the Maya, Sumeria, and others that are only now being discovered such as the new findings of a pyramid building culture in Java that is dated to 20, years ago!

Ultimately The Seven Sages and their impact on human destiny was forgotten by history and survived only in myths that refer to ancient wise teachers interacting with early humanity and gifting culture to them. Giant Comet Even more shocking is the new evidence that has surfaced suggesting that this advanced civilization was destroyed by the lightning fast action of a devastating Giant Comet.

Graham surmises that many of their messages in time capsules such as the complex at Gobekli Tepe and the grandeur of the Great Pyramid of Giza and Sphinx may be a warning of the return of this destructive comet that can easily wipe out civilization.

He also opens up about his battles with the establishment protecters of the old paradigm and the dirty tricks they have employed to suppress his and his colleagues work from being accepted by mainstream science, archaeology and academia, including his recent presentations that were banned from the TED website!

In his view the old authoritarian, expert-worshipping paradigm defenders will never accept real evidence outside of their information comfort zone and are determined to keep humanity in a collective state of amnesia about our true past!

Each layer represented three months of sediment deposition, so variations between them could be used to measure changes in temperature over very short periods. He found that temperatures had plummeted, with the lake's plants and animals rapidly dying over just a few months.

The team's findings appear today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Bayesian statistical analyses of dates from 23 sedimentary sequences over four continents established a modeled YDB age range of 12, Cal B. This range overlaps that of a platinum peak recorded in the Greenland Ice Sheet and of the onset of the Younger Dryas climate episode in six key records, suggesting a causal connection between the impact event and the Younger Dryas.

Due to its rarity and distinctive characteristics, the YDB layer is proposed as a widespread correlation datum. Abstract The Younger Dryas impact hypothesis posits that a cosmic impact across much of the Northern Hemisphere deposited the Younger Dryas boundary YDB layer, containing peak abundances in a variable assemblage of proxies, including magnetic and glassy impact-related spherules, high-temperature minerals and melt glass, nanodiamonds, carbon spherules, aciniform carbon, platinum, and osmium.

This range overlaps that of a peak in extraterrestrial platinum in the Greenland Ice Sheet and of the earliest age of the Younger Dryas climate episode in six proxy records, suggesting a causal connection between the YDB impact event and the Younger Dryas. Two statistical tests indicate that both modeled and unmodeled ages in the 30 records are consistent with synchronous deposition of the YDB layer within the limits of dating uncertainty?

The widespread distribution of the YDB layer suggests that it may serve as a datum layer. If I wanted to get the feel of a cold spell, I figured this was my moment. At the time, I was writing about the Younger Dryas, a cold anomaly that hit the Northern Hemisphere 12, years ago and continued for a thousand years. The world at that point had been gradually warming, the Ice Age coming to an end. Suddenly, within the space of a decade, ocean currents reversed in the Atlantic, probably triggered by cold, meltwater flows coming off the shrinking Laurentide Ice Sheet.

This reversal sent the world back into the Ice Age, and brought the end of the Clovis tradition in North America, the climate upheaval speeding up megafauna extinctions. The Polar Vortex event in was a miniature version of the Younger Dryas, the best analog I could find. Rather than lasting a thousand years, it continued for the remainder of winter and into spring, the Great Lakes remaining partially frozen into April.

When the last candle finally sputtered out, the space became as dark as the inside of a clam shell buried in winter mud. I crawled into my bag where I fell into one of the deepest, soundest sleeps I will ever have, the cold settling hard outside. The findings demonstrate that the presence of siliceous scoria droplets are independent of age and thus are not specific to the beginning of the Younger Dryas.

Occurrences have not been reported from natural deposits, but are instead associated with buildings destroyed by fire and thus appear to be restricted to archaeological sites. We therefore conclude that melting of building earth in ancient settlements can occur during fires reaching modest temperatures. There is no evidence to suggest that siliceous scoria droplets result from very high temperature melting of soil and are the result of a cosmic event. Thy acknowledged his work will not go far enough to debunk the cosmic impact theory.

He insisted much of the evidence has been refuted but that there still remains questions including why nano-sized diamonds dating to 12, years have shown up in sites across the world. That is the main problem," Thy said. They are finding microdiamonds in many of these sites. Where are they coming from? Across this huge "fingerprint" spanning North America, Central America, parts of South America, most of Europe and parts of the Middle East as well, the tell-tale traces of multiple impacts by the fragments of a giant comet have been found.

This was near the end of the last Ice Age, from which our world had been emerging into a pleasant warming phase, but the impacts set in train a kind of "nuclear winter" and plunged the planet back into a period of deep cold and darkness that lasted until around 11, years ago.

Each layer represented three months of sediment deposition, so he could measure changes in temperature over very short periods. The scenario, which comes straight out of Hollywood blockbuster The Day After Tomorrow, was revealed by the most precise record of the climate from palaeohistory ever generated.

Around 12, years ago the northern hemisphere was hit by the Younger Dryas mini ice age, or "Big Freeze". It was triggered by the slowdown of the Gulf Stream, led to the decline of the Clovis culture in North America, and lasted around years.

There is no comet impact crater known to have been found in the vicinity of the Beaver River. Nanodiamonds were found in the region that corresponded to the time frame of the Younger Dryas about 10, years ago but the cubic form of the nanodiamonds argues against formation from the heat of a comet impact.

The cataclysmic event wiped out many of the planet's large mammals and may have prompted humans to start gathering and growing some of their food rather than solely hunting big game.

A layer of platinum from an ice core taken in Greenland has been dated back to the time of a known abrupt climate transition, known as the 'Big Freeze'. The freeze has been previously been linked to the demise of the Clovis people, the prehistoric hunter gatherers who were the first to occupy North America.

According to researchers at Harvard University, this provides evidence that a comet tipped the world into its colder phase, making dozens of species extinct. They believe a huge meteor smashing through the Earth's atmosphere broke up into ten million tonnes of fiery fragments, scattering over four continents. These fragments are thought to have released toxic gas which poisoned the air and blacked out the sun, causing temperatures to plummet, plants to die and landscapes to alter forever. But the space rock was wrongly accused, according to a group of 16 scientists in fields ranging from archaeology to crystallography to physics, who have offered counterevidence to the existence of such a collision.

But no explanation for the event is offered. This is an effort to off-ramp true researchers. They argue that other explanations must be found for the apparent disappearance. Disinformation from the US government again.

The paper in theProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences PNAS includes significant findings about the nature of so-called "microspherules" that were found at a number of prehistoric sites, based on research done at North Carolina State.

However, a new study published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences PNAS provides further evidence that it may not be such a far-fetched notion. The glass, similar to that observed following the Trinity nuclear test explosion in New Mexico, was formed at temperatures of 3, to 3, degrees Fahrenheit, the temperatures that would have been reached during an impact event.

Chemical studies showed that the material was not cosmic in origin, not man-made and no volcanic. The evidence of impact, the team said, now covers at least a third of the planet, ranging from California to Western Europe and the Middle East.

The fact that melted glass has been found at several locations, they added, indicates that the meteor or comet that struck the Earth broke up during its entry to the atmosphere and struck at multiple locations. The team has yet to identify a limit to the debris field. According to the researchers, the material -- which dates back nearly 13, years -- was formed at temperatures of 1, to 2, degrees Celsius 3, to 3, degrees Fahrenheit , and is the result of a cosmic body impacting Earth.

These new data are the latest to strongly support the controversial Younger Dryas Boundary YDB hypothesis, which proposes that a cosmic impact occurred 12, years ago at the onset of an unusual cold climatic period called the Younger Dryas.

Morphological and geochemical evidence of the melt-glass confirms that the material is not cosmic, volcanic, or of human-made origin. This would be right at the onset of a period called the Younger Dryas, known colloquially as the Big Freeze, and it's when species like mastodons, woolly mammoths, saber-tooth cats, and dire wolves went extinct.

Such impacts have occurred in the past on Earth, and will continue in the future. The team, headed by Isabel Israde Alcantara, of Mexico's Universidad Michoacana, said in the article that the layer of black lake sediment is rich in carbon and contains nanodiamonds and micro-spherules dating from the beginning of the so- called Younger Dryas period, an abrupt and very short cold interval that started about 12, years ago.

Essentially, the scenario painted by the scientists is this: About 13, years ago, a piece of a comet or asteroid hurtled into the atmosphere at a shallow angle, superheating the atmosphere around it as it plunged toward the surface. The air grew hot enough to ignite plant material and melt the rock below the object's flight path. Within a few microseconds, atmospheric oxygen was consumed and the freed carbon atoms condensed into nanodiamond crystals.

The shock wave from the meteorite blew these nanodiamonds and other carbon particles high into the atmosphere and spread them widely. Larger mammals in North America not killed by the blast starved, unable to forage on the scorched earth, and human populations there also dwindled.

The shock to the atmosphere was enough to lower global temperatures for more than 1, years. The sediment layer contains an exotic assemblage of materials, including nanodiamonds, impact spherules, and more, which, according to the researchers, are the result of a cosmic body impacting Earth. He expressed his doubts that so many craters could be all the same age. Paul LaViolette has found evidence that this mysterious die-off may have had a solar flare cause. This interval also matched the year de Vries solar cycle period which is believed to be one of the most prominent of the Sun's solar cycle periods.

This was the smoking gun that indicated that these spurts very likely had a solar cause. The Younger Dryas cold period began 12, BP. Thus there seemed to be three dates when members of the B Swarm's clusters appear to have impacted Earth. Cl-2 12, BP Swarm B: His computations show the debris from such a comet couldn't cover the proposed impact field. Yet, the scientists who described the alleged impact in a hallowed U. In Meerfelder Maar, a German crater lake, the wind strength changed abruptly and permanently during the winter of 12, cal BP, marking the local onset of the Younger Dryas Brauer et al.

This date is based on counted varves that are explicitly tied to the GRIP chronology, which has now been superseded by NGRIP; accordingly, it should be corrected to ca. Note change in varve data abrupt transition time from to BP.

The catastrophe was caused by a disintegrating comet and saw the planet sprayed by thousands of frozen boulders made of ice and dust. The collisions wiped out huge numbers of animal species all over the world, disrupted the lives of our stone age ancestors and triggered a freeze that lasted more than 1, years. Scientists have long been puzzled by what caused a sudden cooling of up to 8C 14F just as the Earth was warming up at the end of the last ice age.

Communicated by Steven M. In the April Geology, researchers describe finding chemical similarities in the cores between a layer corresponding to , when a 50,metric-ton extraterrestrial object exploded over Tunguska, Siberia, and a deeper stratum dating to 12, years ago. They argue that the similarity is evidence that an object weighing as much as 50 billion metric tons triggered the Younger Dryas, a millennium-long cold spell that began just as the ice age was loosing its grip SN: The presence of ammonium suggests that the Tunguska object was most likely a comet, rather than asteroids or meteoroids, Melott says.

Any object slung into the Earth's atmosphere from space typically moves fast enough to heat the surrounding air to about ,? Celsius, says Melott, so hot the nitrogen in the air splits and links up with oxygen to form nitrates. And indeed, nitrates are found in snow around the Tunguska blast. But ammonium, found along with the nitrates, contains hydrogen that most likely came from an incoming object rich in water?

More than a century after the impact, scientists are still debating what kind of object blew up over Tunguska in They also disagree about whether an impact or some other climate event caused the Younger Dryas at the end of the ice age. But the presence of ammonium in Greenland ice cores at both times is accepted. The new findings are a compelling argument that a major extraterrestrial impact occurred then," he notes. Whenever a comet strikes Earth's atmosphere, it leaves behind a fingerprint of ammonium, the researchers propose.

Immense heat and pressure in the shock wave spark the creation of ammonia, or NH3, from nitrogen in the air and hydrogen in the comet. The diamonds are so tiny that they can only be observed with special, highly magnifying microscopes. They number in the trillions. In , Kennett discovered similar nanodiamonds on Santa Rosa Island, off the coast of Santa Barbara that first suggested that a comet impact caused extinction. This sparked a debate from other scientists, who disputed that an impact could create shock waves powerful enough to turn rocks into diamonds and trigger the mini-Ice Age that killed the mammoths and other large mammals.

Some were also unconvinced that the researchers even found diamonds at all, although three separate labs confirmed their composition. Other research studies were published with results that contradicted Kennett's conclusions.

Temperatures dropped by 15? C, and giant ice sheets again advanced south from the Arctic. But things were much different in the Southern Hemisphere. New data reveal that the globe's bottom half continued to warm its way out of the ice age, even as the north temporarily plunged back into a another deep freeze.

And geomorphologist Martin Kirkbride of the University of Dundee in the United Kingdom says the study pinpoints "the timing of glacier advances as precisely as is technologically possible.

The cooling is global in scale and largest at high latitudes, as expected from polar amplification. In contrast, during the YD, there is much more spatial heterogeneity as the North became colder and drier increasing with latitude while the South became warmer and wetter in the opposite sense. The tropics cooled by 2. Thus, while the YD was a global scale climate change event with widespread signatures, it was not a widespread global cooling event.

The timing of the LGM and peak interglacial is synchronized between hemispheres on orbital timescales, which the authors attribute primarily to the global radiative forcing provided by CO2. As has been noted in the past, the CO2 lags the onset of deglaciation in most records, as this is paced by summer insolation changes. However the CO2 still acts as the dominant temperature- change influence throughout the deglacial period and provides an effective means to communicate temperature anomalies to the tropics.

On the other hand, the YD exhibits the well-known bipolar see-saw effect which involves a reduction in northward heat transport, which warms the South. The see-saw is best expressed in the mid to high latitudes, although the see-saw model is a poor descriptor for the tropical variability.

As a conclusion, over the last couple of years, there has now been growing evidence that an event similar to the YD is not "unique" but instead is a common theme across various deglacial events; this provides evidence against the necessity for a "catastrophic trigger," and while it may be the case that a comet or some other catastrophe occurs at each termination, that seems improbable.

That's a question my work in the Southern hemisphere has been associated with. The finding adds credence to the controversial hypothesis that fragments of a comet struck across North America and Europe approximately 12, years ago. There is also evidence of widespread wildfires at that time, said Kennett.

An associated sharp climatic cooling called the Younger Dryas cooling is also recorded widely over the northern hemisphere. A high proportion of the nanosize diamonds in the Greenland ice sheet exhibit hexagonal mineral structure, and these are only known to occur on Earth in association with known cosmic impact events, said Kennett.

This layer of diamonds corresponds with the sedimentary layer known as the Younger Dryas Boundary, dating to 12, years ago. But oddly, despite bitter cold winters in the north, Antarctica was heating up. For the two decades since ice core records revealed that Europe was cooling at the same time Antarctica was warming over this thousand-year period, scientists have looked for an explanation.

When the last ice age came to an end approximately 13, years ago and the glaciers covering a large portion of the North American continent began melting and retreating toward the north, a sudden cooling period known as the "Big Freeze" or, more scientifically, the Younger Dryas, reversed the warming process and caused glaciers to expand again.

Even though this cooling period lasted only for 1, years, a blink of an eye in geologic timeframes, it witnessed the disappearance of an entire fauna of large mammals. The big question, according to Haynes, is 'Why did those animals go extinct in a very short geological timeframe?

It contains the fossilized remains of a massive algae bloom, indicating a short period of water table rise and cool climate that kept the moisture in the soil. Some ascribe it to the rapid shift toward a cooler and dryer during the "Big Freeze," causing widespread droughts. Does this mean the results obtained by Haynes and his coworkers rule out the possibility of a cosmic event? Around 12, years ago, Earth was on a steadily warming trend after almost , years of harsh glaciation, during which ice sheets placed a swathe of the northern hemisphere under a dead hand, extending their thrall as far as south as New England and Wales.

Unexpected plunge in temperature But just as the glaciers were beginning to retreat, and an easier life at last beckoned for Earth's tiny population of humans, everything went into reverse. But what caused it? Earth collided with debris from a vast comet, measuring 50 to km across, that had wandered into the inner Solar System some 30, years ago before breaking up, says Bill Napier, a professor at Cardiff University's Astrobiology Centre.

The impact unleashed a firestorm that blanketed the atmosphere with ash and dust, reducing heat and light from the Sun, Napier suggests in Monthly Notices, a journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. What is worrying, adds Napier, is that our planet still crosses the path of the remaining orbiting cometary rubble, a well-observed, although still enigmatic, phenomenon called the Taurid Complex.

Many of these fragments are tiny and their burnup in the atmosphere, causing periodic showers of meteo Scepticism from astronomers Other astronomers, though, have railed at this theory. At the time, they note, the Solar System had been largely cleansed of the monster rocks of its infancy, and the chance of a collision with an object of this magnitude was a thousand to one against.

Unless there is a Vulcan in the outer solar system to draw in Kuiper Belt objects, that is. The North Atlantic region cooled during this interval with a weakening of Northern Hemisphere monsoon strength.

While biomass burning is implicated for the Younger Dryas increase e. Another alternative, involving direct ammonium deposition from the bolide, still fails to account for the observed Tunguska increase.

The authors thus suggest a third mechanism called the Haber process that could account for both the Younger Dryas and Tunguska increases, in which, under high pressure, nitrogen and hydrogen can form ammonia. For the Tunguska increase, a potential impact with permafrost could provide the hydrogen, whereas the Laurentide Ice Sheet itself might be the hydrogen source for the Younger Dryas impact.

The theory is the brainchild of Professor Bill Napier, from Cardiff University, who says it explains the mysterious period of extinction around 11, BC.

The change in climate caused retreating glaciers to advance once again, and coincided with the extinction of 35 families of North American mammals. The collision left behind tell tale traces in the rocks - including a black 'mat' of soot an inch thick thought to have been created by continental wide wildfires. Microscopic 'nanodiamonds' created in massive shocks and only found in meteorites or impact craters have also been discovered dating back to the disaster These findings have led to claims that a 2.

But other scientists say the chances of the Earth being struck by such a large object only 13, years ago are one thousand to one against. And they say a single impact cannot explain such widespread fires. Happens up to 12 to 15 times every ten thousand years. A thriving culture of Paleo-Americans, known as the Clovis people, vanished seemingly overnight. Gone, too, were most of the largest animals: In just the last few years, there has arisen a controversial scientific hypothesis to explain this chain of events, and it involves an extraterrestrial calamity: Now the proponents of this apocalyptic scenario say they have found a new line of evidence: They say they have found these tiny structures across North America in sediments from 12, years ago, and they argue that the diamonds had to have been formed by a high-temperature, high-pressure event, such as a cometary impact.

According to the theory - which has its critics - as the comet broke apart, it rained fire over the entire continent, igniting the plains and forests and creating choking clouds of smoke.

Heat from the explosions and fires melted substantial portions of the Laurentide glacier in Canada, sending waves of water down the Mississippi and into the Gulf of Mexico. That caused changes in Atlantic Ocean currents, which started a 1,year ice age known as the Younger Dryas. Battered by fire and ice, as many as 35 species of mammals including American camels, mammoths, mastodons, the short-faced bear, the giant beaver, the dire wolf and the American lion either immediately vanished or were so depleted in number that humans hunted them to extinction.

The humans themselves, a Paleo-Indian grouping known as the Clovis culture for the distinctive spear points they employed, suffered a major population drop, disappearing in many areas for hundreds of years. These elliptical, wetland depressions, often rimmed with white, crystalline sand, are sprinkled along much of the North Carolina coast and parts of the eastern seaboard from Georgia to the District of Columbia. To Howard and those who share both his interest and his theory, these droplet-shaped dents often choked with bay trees, hence the name were most likely caused by a life- obliterating comet that landed on earth about 13, years ago: Howard wants to prove this, and he wants the world to take note.

Yes a comet caused the Carolina Bays, but 11, years ago, not 13, years ago. Schaffer, has verified evidence from sites in Ohio and Indiana? The only plausible scenario available now for explaining their presence this far south is the kind of cataclysmic explosive event described by West's theory. A 3-mile-wide comet or asteroid exploded over Canada or slammed into the continent about 13, years ago.

University of Oregon archaeologists Douglas Kennett and Jon Erlandson are among about two dozen scientists who say the impact also could have led to the abrupt cooling known as the Younger Dryas, which lasted 1, years. The researchers laid out their proposed theory recently in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. They say the evidence is in a 2-inch-thick carbon-rich black mat found in about 50 sites across North America.

Their article says the layer contains grains with iridium, carbon spherules and fullerenes packed with concentrations of helium 3, "all of which are evidence for an extraterrestrial impact" about 12, years ago and the raging wildfires that followed. They suggest that heat from the detonation or impact may have set off wildfires across the continent and destabilized the vast Laurentide Ice Sheet that covered much of Canada and the northern United States.

The melting of ice may have led to a flood of fresh water, changing ocean currents in the North Atlantic and contributing to the cooling climate that reduced human populations and added to the demise of the animals. No giant crater has been found from the impact, but the scientists say the comet may have broken into smaller pieces and detonated in various places.

Overhunting by Paleoindians, climate change and disease lead the list of probable causes. But now, a new study has reported evidence of a comet or low-density object barrelling toward Earth, exploding in the upper atmosphere and triggering a devastating swath that wiped out most of the large animals, their habitat and humans of that period.

Till date, no one has found a giant crater in the Earth that could attest to such a cataclysmic impact 13, years ago. But the research team has offered evidence of a comet, two and a half to three miles in diameter, that detonated 30 to 60 miles above the earth, triggering a massive shockwave, firestorms and a subsequent drastic cooling effect across most of North America and northern Europe.

But an idea once considered a little out there is now hitting closer to home. A team of international researchers, including two Northern Arizona University geologists, reports evidence that a comet or low-density object barreling toward Earth exploded in the upper atmosphere and triggered a devastating swath of destruction that wiped out most of the large animals, their habitat and humans of that period.

Some 12, years ago disaster struck the North American continent. The Earth's climate, which had been getting steadily warmer at the tail end of the retreating Ice Age, suddenly dropped catastrophically. The megafauna, such as camels and mammoth died out.

A number of explanations have been offered for why this happened. One of the latest is that cataclysmic event thought to have caused several other upheavals in the Earth's history, an impact from outer space.

Some event took place at the start of what we now call the Younger Dryas period, that had a violent effect on the Earth's climate world wide. While the temperature dropped in the north, the hunter-gatherers of the Levant and Middle East saw their surroundings stricken by severe drought. Many hold that this drought was the impetus for the invention of agriculture in this region, rich in easily domesticated plants and animals, setting mankind on the road to urbanisation, trade, and modern civilisation.

The Clovis people were not so lucky. The melting glaciers that had covered Canada and large swaths of the United States had formed a giant fresh water sea, called Lake Agassiz, bigger than all of the present-day Great Lakes combined, in the center of North America.

The remaining glaciation formed a dam, preventing a gradual run-off into the Atlantic. At some point, 12, years ago, that dam burst, and enormous quantities of cold fresh water drained into the North Atlantic in a deluge. And now some scientists are theorising that an impact might have contributed to three events almost 13, years ago, the sudden cold period, the disappearance of 35 large species of mammals the horse and camel actually evolved in the Americas, and survived by crossing the Bering land bridge, heading the opposite way as the migrating humans, before they became extinct in their native environment , and the collapse of the Clovis culture.

The demise of the megafauna could be explained by the Clovis hunters driving them to extinction. And the traditional Lake Agassiz deluge and the subsequent colder climate would suffice to explain the rest. But great systemic breakdowns are ususally not due to a single isolated event, but to a confluence of blows. While the system might have survived one, the second, or even third, proves fatal.

At the joint assembly of the American Geophysical Union, which came together in Acapulco, Mexico on the 24th of May this year, a group of researchers presented their findings, which pointed to a major impact event on the North American continent at close to the start of the Younger Dryas period. A comet, some five kilometres across, entered the Earth's atmosphere, and exploded above the northern ice sheet, causing, among other damage, the catastrophic deluge of melt-water into the Atlantic.

While they have been unable to point to any central impact crater, this could be explained by the bolide disintegrating in the air, and the principal strike zone being covered by glaciation. They also point to four large trenches below the present Great Lakes as possible testaments to the impact. The so called Carolina bays, located in line with the lakes, as well as thousands of smaller features along the Atlantic coast, might also have been a result of the impact. But some geologists protest that there are other, and far more plausible explanations for these features.

The America that emerged from the catastrophe, would be totally different from the one that had once been. And so it might be again. It was thought to be the result of over-hunting by Clovis man or climate change associated with a new ice age. The notion that a comet collided with Earth and caused these events was farfetched until recently, when the group of scientists began looking for evidence of a comet impact, which they call the Younger - Dryas Event. They turned to Goodyear and the pristine Clovis site of Topper.

They found iridium and plenty of it," said Goodyear. That tends to be an indicator of a terrestrial impact from outer space. The Younger- Dryas Event suggests that a large comet exploded above Canada, creating a storm of fiery fragments that rained over North America. The fragments could have easily killed the giant mammals of the day, as well as Clovis man. A comet or some other extraterrestrial object appears to have slammed into northern Canada 12, years ago and triggered an abrupt and catastrophic climate change that wiped out the mammoths and many other prehistoric creatures, according to a team of U.

The sediment layer formed 12, years ago and coincides with both the extinction of the animals and the onset of a mini-ice age that lasted more than 1, years, say Ms.

Becker and her colleagues from several U. They say they are increasingly convinced the impact, extinction and cold snap are all related.

According to their scenario, a comet or large meteoroid generated a shock wave and threw massive amounts of debris, heat and gas into the atmosphere.

This set off wildfires that raced across grasslands in southern North America, depriving the mammoths and other grazing animals of food. The impact and heat also destabilized the ice sheet that blanketed Canada at the time, creating a flood of melt water that poured into the North Atlantic, according to their theory.

The pulse of fresh water then shut down the ocean currents carrying heat from the tropics to the Northern Hemisphere, leading to an abrupt cooling. Few other topics have evoked such polarised opinion and division. The diversity of views on Genesis, even among the most learned of exegetes and scholars, is staggering.

While one extreme insists that the days of Genesis must strictly be interpreted as seven consecutive hour periods thus rendering the earth very young indeed — in the order of thousands, and not millions or billions, of years old , at the other extreme lies the notion that the early chapters of Genesis are devoid of any historical content at all.

There is a plethora of competing views which reside in the middle of those polar extremes: In this article, I attempt to show that, while it is possible to interpret the book of Genesis in light of a young earth, there is no Biblical mandate for this conclusion: That is to say, Genesis could be interpreted in that manner, but it does not have to be.

And, as a scientist, the arguments for an ancient earth seem to be very compelling needless to say, when it comes to Darwinian evolution, it is a very different story. Having shown that Genesis does not require that one read it as conveying a young earth, I hope that readers will be convinced that we can thus read and understand the science on its own terms as well. It seems to me that there are three major subtopics which an article of this nature must address. In approaching the text of Genesis 1, we notice that there are certain features which are suggestive that the text need not be read as necessitating that we take a young-earth view.

First , there is the fact that the initial creation act described in verses 1 and 2 is separated from the six days of creation which proceed it. Consider the first three verses of Genesis Notice that there is a definite pattern associated with the days described in Genesis 1. When the perfect tense is used at the start of a pericope, its purpose is ordinarily to denote an event which sets the background and context of the storyline: That is to say, it takes place before the rest of the story gets underway.

This implies that verses 1 and 2 occurred an undisclosed period of time prior to the first day! This means that, quite aside from how one interprets the days of Genesis 1, the origin of the Universe and, indeed, the earth occurs, as far as the information provided in Scripture is concerned, at an indeterminate time in the past. Second, there is the fact that, in the original Hebrew, there is no definite article pertinent to the first five days, whereas there is a definite article associated with the sixth and seventh day, which seems to suggest there is something special — or different — about those latter two days.

One possibility, which has been entertained by some, is that the writer did not intend us to take the first six days as consecutive days of a single earth week, but, instead, as a sequence of six creation days: That is to say, days of hour duration in which God supernaturally infuses novelty at punctuated intervals.

On this view, it may well be the case that the individual days were separated from one another by unspecified periods of time. Third , there is this whole business of the seventh or, Sabbath day of rest. Consider the first two verses of Genesis Do you notice something peculiar about the seventh day? This has led some exegetes to argue that the seventh day, on which God rests, may be continous, and that we may still be residing in it. This gains traction from Hebrews 4: And yet his works have been finished since the creation of the world.

If, therefore, it may be considered legitimate to take the seventh day as representative of a much longer period of time, then whence the mandate for supposing a commitment to interpreting the other six days as representative of hour periods?

Fifth, it may be noticed that days form a triad that corresponds to the triad formed by days In day 1, God creates the light and distinguishes it from darkness; whereas on day 4, God creates the sun, moon and stars. On day 2, God separates the sky and sea; whereas, on day 5, God creates birds and sea creatures.

On day 3, God causes dry land to appear; whereas on day 6, God creates the land animals and humans. This pattern may suggest that the exact chronological sequence of events is not in mind here.

And God saw that it was good. This may suggest that God allowed the trees and vegetation to germinate and grow by virtue of natural processes. This on its own may suggest that the duration of this day was significantly longer than 24 hours!

Further notice that Genesis 2: Though I reject Darwinian evolution for scientific reasons, Genesis 1: Thus, the seven days of the Genesis account of origins has a familiarity that can hardly be coincidental and tells us something about the seven-day structure in Genesis 1. Furthermore, in the outer courtyard of the temple were representations of various aspects of cosmic geography. For instance, there was the water basin which 1 Kings 7: The horizontal axis in the temple was arranged in the same order as the vertical axis in the cosmos.

From the courtyard, one would move into the organised cosmos as he entered the antechamber, which is where one would find the Menorah, teh Table of Bread and the incense alter. Then there is, of course, the veil which separates the earthly sphere from the heavenly sphere which is the dwelling place of God thus serving the same symbolic function as the firmament. One could continue on and on in the same vein. Such an interpretation makes sense in the context of the very next verse, in which we are told that the function of the sun in moon is as visible lights in the sky.

If this interpretation is correct, it would entail that God appoints the role of the sun and moon, and is not a reference to their creation de novo. A discussion of the meaning of Genesis 1 would not be complete without some mention of Exodus So it is not possible to draw straight lines from Genesis to our working week. While one could continue in this vein, enough has been said.

One of the most frequent theological arguments for a young-earth pertains to the common presumption that death did not exist prior to the Fall. The claim is based upon several demonstrably false assumptions. For one thing, it cannot be dogmatically specified from a young earth standpoint which particular class of living creatures for which suffering and death before the fall is unacceptable.

Thus the argument is based entirely on a fallacy. Further, the text of Genesis nowhere states that there was no death prior to the Fall. Certainly, the second law of thermodynamics things tending toward increased entropy was in place, for they were eating plants and fruit. So, at least some kind of death and degradation preceded the Fall. We also know that God said to Eve that he would greatly increase her pains in childbearing, not give her ones which she did not have before.

The view that all animals were herbivores and that following the fall there was an instant re-creation act, in which body chemistry and behaviour patterns were changed seems to be an enormous extrapolation and an unwarranted eisegetical reading into the text.

The Tyrannosaur was a machine designed for killing. According to the young earth view, not only would its teeth and anatomical and physiological features need to be radically altered, but it would require a whole new digestive system. Then we have the fact that the names of the animals which Adam named prior to the Fall have connotations of violence. As I said previously, Adam did not die physically on the day that he ate of the tree, but lived a full life afterwards.

The conclusion is thus necessitated that God was not talking about biological death or that he was not intending it to be taken literally. Another frequent objection to an old earth lies with the apparently global scope of the Flood.

But this argument, too, hardly seems watertight. For one thing, it fails to take into account that the ancients often spoke of localized or regional events in hyperbolic terms.

One does not need to look too far for examples. Consider the following from the Old and New Testaments:. Indeed, 2 Peter 3: Since the focal point of the flood is Mesopotamia, it seems probable that the ark came to rest in the foothills of Ararat, which is just north of Ninivah. Moreover, it must be borne in mind, the Hebrew word for mountains, har, is a general term referring to any geologic relief, from a small hill up to a towering peak, which makes sense of Genesis 7: While one wants to be careful to consider all of Scripture, we must be similarly careful not to read beyond what the text actually says.

While the issue of the age of the earth will undoubtedly continue to be a point of disagreement among Christians, it should not be made into a hill on which to die. It should not be a point over which the church should divide. Each of them should be fully convinced in their own mind. Whoever regards one day as special does so to the Lord. Salvation is not contingent on what one believes about the age of the earth.

This article has not, of course, dealt with the larger issues of science, nor has it offered a scientific critique of the young-earth perspective. What I have hoped to show, however, is that the Bible is silent on matters concerning the age of the cosmos and world.

We may thus turn to science and other realms of epistemology — engaging with them on their own terms — for the answers to these questions. Get the first chapter of "Stealing From God: I appreciate the tone of our conclusion, how correct it is to look towards the Saviour in all things.

I would not class myself as an active apologetic, and I am certainly not well read in the field, but the one thing that truly saddens me about this topic is that there is a need for debate. It is a grim truth that the only reason a theory like this must be created is that we as Christians can put too much weight in things outwith the Bible. These ideas only come from attempting to rectify scientific theory and scripture, whilst placing an equal importance on each.

I am not trying to say that science is not important, after all the only reason I can type this response is through the great advances in computing, it is only when our quest for scientific or any other worldly sphere advancement dwarfs our love and respect of the Bible that things can get out of hand.

I truly pray that there never comes a day where the meaning of such a verse as that is questioned by Christians. Links are at the end, here: There is no way to estimate the age of the Earth or of the Universe without circular reasoning. God says not to add to His Words or to take anything from them. That include what He says through Scripture and what He says through creation.

I agree the writer of this article is too biased and evolutionists base their findings on predisposed notions of evolution, assumptions, and circular reasoning.

Agreed, nature can be viewed as a Bible commentary. We use many findings to support what is written in scripture. For example, archaeology is also used as a commentary on the Bible. So, the commentary of nature is presupposed as being old before giving it an unbiased reading. Of which, causes folks to reinterpret scripture in a biased way in order for evolution to be true. This is unfortunate for the idea of scripture having authority, but it is even worse for science.

You see, according to the National Academy of Sciences, science is only what can be observed, tested, replicated, and verified. Empirical data must be produced if one claims they are doing science. We are unable to go back and observe, test, replicate, and verify any age of the Earth and unable to do the same with all evolutionary claims and predictions. Yes, evolutionary ideas are based on hope in the supernatural. Those who believe God spoke the universe, the Earth, and humans directly into existence also place hope in the supernatural, yet do not read to question the authority and Truth of scripture.

This is not a conflict of faith and science, this is a conflict between faith and faith. First, biologists unanimously agree that an accurate description of evolution involves zero supernatural phenomena.

Those who believe God used evolution to create have an inaccurate understanding of biological evolution. The idea of supernatural forces playing a role in the process of natural selection is not only an oxymoron, but is in direct conflict with a modern understanding of evolutionary biology. Second, Judeo-Christian scripture repeatedly details creation taking place via supernatural phenomena. Every biblical reference to the formation of the Universe, Earth, and biodiversity point to miraculous events.

Not a single verse in all of ancient scripture suggests anything coming into existence via natural processes. Those who believe God used evolution are in direct conflict with all biblical references to creation. The only way theistic evolution can be seen as an accurate description of how God created is to ignore and exclude authentic scripture.

Complex biological systems exist. Life is diverse and abundant. Yet, how this took place be can only be explained by means of natural or supernatural processes. These are the only two options. Trying to blend natural and supernatural processes is logically and theologically bankrupt.

No honest person is able to give good reason for subscribing to the idea of God using evolution to create. Theistic evolution, not only, requires a false understanding of biological evolution, but also requires a multitude of Judeo-Christian scriptures to be untrue.

We can scrutinize the Scriptures with every scientific and philosophic discipline that we know; but the bottom line is, does it agree with Christ Himself. It is true that the Bible is vague in many places where time is concerned and specific in others, but I think you are right, Mr McLatchie, when you say that we should be careful to consider all of Scripture.

If we cannot believe Genesis we cannot believe the gospel. The whole of Genesis is true, but as with many books of the Bible, there are parts that are to be taken literally, and parts that are not. The literal six-day view is not a test of orthodoxy, period. There are several reasons old earth is unbiblical. One old earth says there is death for millions of years while the Bible says death only happened after adam and eve sinned.

If death didnt occur because of the fall then Jesus death on the cross doesnt cover all sin. We run into many errors. Jesus said in the beginning God created male and female. Because we have never seen one of those before? The point being there ARE plenty of places when a literal reading is not intended!

Ken Ham is a progandist, a misinformationist, and very disingenuous. Interesting article; however, the assumptions given in a number of areas are hermeneutically weak at best. Additionally, a belief in death, specifically animal death before sin, is largely bases on a uniformitarian view of creation, a viewpoint not grounded in proper scriptural exegesis. If one takes a proper view of Scripture from beginning end, in particular issues such as redemption and renewal, there is an identifiable pattern that is readily seen.

The initial creation was perfect. Such a position neglects the meaning of the Hebrew word for good,??? With that said, death in the Hebraic mind and I might add in our modern mind is an intrusion of something undesirable. It was not the norm of what was to be a perfect created world. Some have looked to plants being eaten as proof of death. This is a rather ridiculous position as plants are not nephesh chayyah beings as are animals and mankind.

Others look to the current animal food chain with its largely carniverous aspects as proof there just must have been death before sin as that is what we observe in the present. Such a position is once again based on uniformitarian presuppositions and is not consistent with the biblical message of death, both spiritual and physical being a result of the entrance of sin through Adam into the world.

To relate Romans to being purely a spiritual aspect is also inconsistent. Finally, although there is much more to be said in this regard, we are looking forward to the new heavens and the new earth when all things will be restored to perfection.

This is the cyclical concept of time prevalent in Hebraic thought and clearly observed in Scripture. Are we then to be looking forward to a time when death will still be present? This of course would not be consistent with the numerous scriptures which present our future as a time when death will be no more.

This was the original state of things before sin and the absence of death will be what believers in Christ will one day experience upon his return.

Merely stating the young earth creation position of there being no death before sin as demonstrably false without actually engaging numerous scriptural principles is in itself demonstrably false. Referring to Nephesh chayyah creatures would it be an assumption to exclude reptiles, amphibians and single celled organisms from this group? I could be wrong, but I believe only birds and mammals belong to this group. If so, I think this would present a problem because the nature of some of these animals are purely carnivorous.

This would mean that they would have needed significant changes in molecular structure in order to accomodate such an adaptation from vegetation to striclty meat. The point; however, is the way the Hebrews named animals as described by how Adam named them would suggest death being known before the fall in that some animals were created naturally violent. Who exactly are you trying to make happy? Evolution is considered the cornerstone of modern science.

But evolution is a lie. So old earth has no standing. When does the Bible start meaning what it says? What parts can a lay person read and understand? Is the genealogy of humanity to Christ true? The crossing of the Red Sea? The main problem though is your timeline. If the earth is four billion years old then how old was Adam? Was Pangea before or after Adam named the animals? The problem which arises is that when Gen. It is quite evident from archaeology, however, that this is not the case.

Just as scientists can explain the beautiful phenomenon of the rainbow by using the laws of optics which undoubtedly existed long before Noah's time , so linguistic scientists can show that the many languages of mankind existed long before the period to which the Tower of Babel can be assigned Mormons believe the Jaredites made their journey to America about B.

No reputable linguistic scholar today accepts the Tower of Babel story as an explanation for the multiplicity of languages, for their origins, or for the date of their origins. The simple fact is that there are writings in many parts of the ancient world China, Mesopotamia, Egypt , in widely different languages, dating from a thousand years before the supposed time of the Tower.

This uncontroverted fact shows that the Babel story is only a myth. But it is not only the languages of all the world that supposedly originated at the Tower of Babel, but also all the peoples of the world Gen In other words, in order to accept the story of the Tower as literal and historical, one must believe that there were no other peoples on earth at the time.

Such a belief is contrary to everything that we know about the early periods of human history. The last surviving Jaredite see Omni 1: To account for 28 generations between B. To make the "confusion of tongues" a thousand years or more! Notice also that among the "Jaredite" generations listed in Ether 1 are two Hebrew names, "Aaron" 1: One must ask how such Hebrew names appeared in America, when the Jaredites did not speak Hebrew, but rather a language which had not been confounded.

They can read it as allegory, an object lesson about human pride. But Mormons must and do accept it as literal and historical. The explanation of an Egyptian hypocephalus that was part of the scrolls says:.

Also described is a hierarchy of heavenly bodies, earth, moon, and sun, with different revolutions and time, where the slowest-revolving body is Kolob whose day is years:. Kolob was after the manner of the Lord, according to its times and seasons in the revolutions thereof; that one revolution was a day unto the Lord, after his manner of reckoning, it being one thousand years according to the time appointed unto that whereon thou standest.

This is the reckoning of the Lord's time, according to the reckoning of Kolob. The planet which is the lesser light With the discovery of quantum mechanics, scientists soon learned that the sun's source of energy is internal, and not external. The Sun shines, as we have seen, because of thermonuclear fusion.

It does not get its light from any other star. And there is no star called Kolob that gives light to the stars, either. They all shine by nuclear processes, burning the nuclear fuel in their cores. For example, LDS doctrine regarding astronomy is permeated with references to time being measured, or "reckoned" according to a star's or planet's rate of rotation.

Furthermore, this "reckoning of time" is a prime distinguisher in terms of "greatness. Rates of rotation are largely arbitrary, and of little comment or concern from a fundamental point of view. There is little correlation between a planet's rate of rotation and either its size or mass. Furthermore, for bodies like the sun, the question makes no sense at all because the sun, being a ball of plasma, rotates at different rates, depending on the distance from the center of the sun, and the latitude.

In other words, the Sun does not have a well-defined rate of rotation. This is true for other stars as well; so talking about their rates of rotation as if this was some sort of special defining attribute makes little sense and is of little fundamental interest or value in cosmology.

Now, from Abraham , we are told that Kolob is great, rotates very slowly, and was the first star made first creation. Yet as we learned in the previous section the largest great stars burn through their nuclear fuel very quickly, and end up as supernovae, typically leaving behind a neutron star that is unimaginable dense and rotating very fast.

For Kolob to still be a star, and the first creation, and rotating very slowly, it must be a small star.

Perhaps something like a brown dwarf, a star that's so small it can barely sustain any nuclear processes at all. As such, its mass and energy output would be relatively small. In short, the idea that the first star is great, and still a significant star not burnt out is contradictory. This is no trivial problem.

The idea that the first star is still around, and has a very low rate of rotation, is inconsistent with what we know of stellar evolution. For that first star to be still shining, it must have been very small. Otherwise, it would have long ago burned all its nuclear fuel and would now be a black hole, or a very small neutron star that is rotating very quickly.

Anderson, , First Books Library. Why can't the Hubble Space Telescope see Kolob? The conclusion from the FAIR website "Until someone can make a convincing case that their interpretation of these things is the only reasonable one, any faith-promoting proof from Abraham's astronomy is a flimsy house of cards and any faith-destroying attack on some straw-man interpretation is laughable. Is called in Egyptian Enish-go-on-dosh ; this is one of the governing planets also, and is said by the Egyptians to be the Sun, and to borrow its light from Kolob through the medium of Kae-e-vanrash, which is the grand Key, or, in other words, the governing power, which governs fifteen other fixed planets or stars, as also Floeese or the Moon, the Earth and the Sun in their annual revolutions.

Does this make any sense in the context of the above paragraph? Why would the Sun borrow the 'light of Christ' from a star known as Kolob? Doesn't it make more sense that someone might believe that a star would be borrow its light, meaning the sunlight that shines from it, from another star?

The primary benefit that a star provides to people is to provide light, meaning sunlight and has nothing to do with the light of Christ. ALSO, the idea that our star got its light and power from another star was a theory known in Joseph's time. Joseph likely just believed what the scientists of his day believed and incorporated that into scripture.

The astronomical phrases and concepts in the Abraham texts were also common in Joseph Smith's environment. In these six pages, Taylor calls the planets "governors" and uses the terms "fixed stars and planets" and "grand key. Grant Athay, a research astronomer and director of the University of Colorado Observatory, has written, "At the time that the Book of Abraham was translated…the energy source of the sun was unknown," and "the concept of one star influencing another was also a common concept of the time.

The event is recorded in Gen. The fall of Adam is one of the most important occurrences in the history of man. Before the fall, Adam and Eve had physical bodies but no blood. There was no sin, no death, and no children among any of the earthly creations.

With the eating of the "forbidden fruit," Adam and Eve became mortal, sin entered, blood formed in their bones, and death became a part of life. Adam became the "first flesh" upon the earth Moses 3: After Adam fell, the whole creation fell and became mortal.

Adam's fall brought both physical and spiritual death into the world upon all mankind Hel. The world is the human family. This earth was organized or formed out of other planets which were broke up and remodelled and made into the one on which we live. There was no death in the world; death entered after the fall. McConkie, Mormon Doctrine ].

The current CES manuals used by church still argue that there was no death before Adam underlining added:. It is simple when you understand it. Adam was the first of all creatures to fall and become flesh, and flesh in this sense means mortality, and all through our scriptures the Lord speaks of this life as flesh, while we are here in the flesh, so Adam became the first flesh.

There was no other mortal creature before him, and there was no mortal death until he brought it, and the scriptures tell you that. It is here written, and that is the gospel of Jesus Christ.

In the world another theory of how things began is popularly held and widely taught. This theory, that of organic evolution, was generally developed from the writings of Charles Darwin. It puts forth different ideas concerning how life began and where man came from.

In relation to this theory, the following statements should help you understand what the Church teaches about the Creation and the origin of man. He could not transgress, and by doing so bring death into the world ; for, according to this theory, death had always been in the world. If, therefore, there was no fall, there was no need of an atonement, hence the coming into the world of the Son of God as the Savior of the world is a contradiction, a thing impossible.

The fossils of animals and plants that have lived and died on this earth are thousands and millions of years old. From ancient dead animals and plants, it takes millions of years for oil and coal to form.

What eternal purpose they played in the creation and early history of the earth is unknown. The scriptures do not address the question, and it is not the realm of science to explore the issue of why they were here. We can only conclude, as Elder Talmage did, that "[The oldest, that is to say the earliest, rocks thus far identified in land masses reveal the fossilized remains of once living organisms, plant and animal.

The coal strata, upon which the world of industry so largely depends, are essentially but highly compressed and chemically changed vegetable substance. These lived and died, age after age, while the earth was yet unfit for human habitation. Talmage, "The Earth and Man. To pay attention to and give reasonable credence to their research and findings is to link the church of God with the highest increase of human thought and effort.

Roberts, "The Truth, the Way, the Life. The earth is a coherent whole, and all geologic evidence contradicts the proposition that the earth was made from other planets. The continents line up "as if" they all used to be one continent millions of years ago. To test this theory, rock strata are checked at the "line up" points of distant continents. It works, the rocks are similar at the match points.

There is a layer of iridium all around the whole earth that was deposited there at just about the time the dinosaurs became extinct give or take a hundred thousand years or so. If this earth were made from other earths, then why would that layer cover the whole earth at the same basic depth with the same basic thickness?

This earth was once in a molten state which cooled to allow the continents to solidify. They then separated due to convection from the earth's molten interior plate tectonics , and the continents separated millions of years ago.

We are to understand that it contains the revealed will, mysteries, and the works of God; the hidden things of his economy concerning this earth during the seven thousand years of its continuance , or its temporal existence. We are to understand that the first seal contains the things of the first thousand years, and the second also of the second thousand years, and so on until the seventh.

Temporal, by all interpretations, means passing, temporary or mortal. This, then, has reference to the earth in its fallen state, for the earth was cursed when Adam, who was given dominion over it, transgressed the law. Before that time, this earth was not mortal any more that Adam was. This we learn from other scriptures; for instance, see 2 Nephi 2: Doctrines of Salvation, Joseph Fielding Smith, Volume 1, page 80, Bookcraft edition, original emphasis preserved.

The Discourses of Wilford Woodruff , p. These prophecies will have their fulfilment before the world; and all who will not repent will be engulfed in the destructions which are in store for the wicked. If men do not cease from their murders, whoredoms, and all the wickedness and abominations which fill the black catalogue of the crimes of the world, judgment will overtake them; and whether we are believed or not, these sayings are true, and I bear my testimony as a servant of God and as an Elder in Israel to the truth of the events which are going to follow very fast on each other.

How do we know this? God has told us in new revelation that this earth is destined to continue its temporal existence for seven thousand years, and that at the commencement of the seventh thousand, he will cause seven angels to sound their trumpets.

In other words, we may call it the Millennium, for the meaning of the world millennium is a thousand years. Six thousand years must pass away from the creation till the time that Jesus comes in the clouds of heaven, and he will not come exactly at the expiration of six thousand years. When the Prophet Joseph asked the Lord what was meant by the sounding of the seven trumpets, he was told, "That as God made the world in six days, and on the seventh day he finished his work and sanctified it, and also formed man out of the dust of the earth; even so in the beginning of the seventh thousand years, will the Lord God sanctify the earth, and complete the salvation of man, and judge all things and shall redeem all things, except that which he hath not put into his power when he shall have sealed all things unto the end of all things, and the sounding of the trumpets of the seven angels is the preparing and finishing of his work, in the beginning of the seventh thousand years; to prepare the way before the time of his coming.

Neither of these trumpets have sounded yet, but they shortly will; and this gives us a little clue to the period and age of our world. We know that six thousand years have not yet elapsed since the creation, but we know that they have very nearly expired. But how long that morning had existed we do not know, unless we appeal to the Book of Abraham , translated by Joseph Smith from Egyptian papyrus. That tells us in plainness that the way the Lord and the celestial host reckoned time, was by the revolutions of a certain great central body called Kolob, which had one revolution on its axis in a thousand of our years, and that was one day with the Lord, and when the Lord said to Adam, "In the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.

Hence when we go back to the history of the creation, we find that the Lord was not in such a great hurry as many suppose, but that he took indefinite periods of long duration to construct this world, and to gather together the elements by the laws of gravitation to lay the foundation and form the nucleus thereof, and when he saw that all things were ready and properly prepared, he then placed the man in the Garden of Eden to rule over all animals, fish and fowls, and to have dominion over the whole face of the earth.

All these will be as a drop in the bucket in comparison with the eternal knowledge that will yet flow down from heaven upon the heads of the Latter-day Saints before this generation shall pass away. The earth will be filled with the knowledge of God, as the waters cover the great deep, and the things of all nations will be revealed. The records of old that were kept by the people of Asia, who have since dwindled into savages by reason of the transgressions of their fathers; and those that have been kept by the ten tribes of the north countries, where they have lived for over 25 centuries; and those records that have been kept by the people of the City of Enoch, giving an account of the dealings of God with ancient Zion, will all come forth to help fill the earth with the knowledge of God, as the waters cover the great deep.

And John, when upon the Isle of Patmos, saw things in vision, which were commanded to be sealed up, and they are yet to be unsealed; and in this way we shall receive knowledge upon knowledge, revelation upon revelation, concerning not only the six or seven thousand years of the earth's temporal existence, but concerning the materials of the earth before it was made, and the elements and materials, and all things pertaining to the future earth that is to be created when the elements of this earth shall be dissolved and pass away into space.

Cannon, April 6, Now we see, and according to history we learn, that all creation are at enmity one with another in their natural state. Hence we find the lions with teeth, probably constructed since the fall, and adapted to devour their prey.

I do not believe they had such teeth in the beginning. They had teeth with which they ate "straw like the ox. We see him at this early stage in our race, seeking the blood of his fellows, and entering into secret combinations to kill, and destroy, and rob one another of their position and property, and to be at enmity one against another. The Lord in the midst of this fallen condition of his temporal work, has permitted it to continue for about 6, years.

Enmity prevails, and has prevailed, for the last 6, years, with the exception of now and then a dispensation, being introduced, wherein this fallen nature of ours becomes, in a great measure, changed through obedience to the plan of salvation which God has revealed; and then we begin to love our fellow-men, are filled with love and kindness like, in some measure, our heavenly Father, going forth and proclaiming to them the Gospel of peace, and trying to do them good, and redeem them, and reclaim them; and we succeed, now and then, in bringing some to a higher stake; they are born of God, and become new creatures in Christ, being filled with that superior power, that exists in that celestial world, where we formerly resided.

While this earth existed in its more perfect temporal form, Adam and Eve were placed upon it, and they were immortal, just like all the beasts and just like the fishes of the sea; death had not yet come upon any of them; all things were immortal so far as this creation was concerned.

The first pairs, the beginning of his temporal work, were not subject to death. We are now living near the close of years during which time evil and wickedness have prevailed.

In modern times the LDS Church generally avoids making definitive statements on the age of the earth as evidence by this quote from the Old Testament institute manual:. While it is interesting to note these various theories, officially the Church has not taken a stand on the age of the earth.

For reasons best known to Himself, the Lord has not yet seen fit to formally reveal the details of the Creation. However they don't necessarily embrace the scientific view and provide enough 'evidence' of an earth only thousands of years old by mentioning this theory:.

Although the majority of geologists, astronomers, and other scientists believe that even this long period [ years] is not adequate to explain the physical evidence found in the earth, there are a small number of reputable scholars who disagree.

These claim that the geologic clocks are misinterpreted and that tremendous catastrophes in the earth's history speeded up the processes that normally may take thousands of years. They cite evidence supporting the idea that thirteen thousand years is not an unrealistic time period.

Immanuel Velikovsky, for example, wrote three books amassing evidence that worldwide catastrophic upheavals have occurred in recent history, and he argued against uniformitarianism, the idea that the natural processes in evidence now have always prevailed at the same approximate rate of uniformity. Two Latter-day Saint scientists, Melvin A. Garfield Cook, have also advocated this theory in their book Science and Mormonism. HOWEVER, the quotes given above by the prophets since Joseph Smith's time show that the LDS Church clearly taught that the earth was only thousands of years old instead of billions of years old for all of the 19th century and much of the 20th century.

Many gospel doctrine teachers still teach that the earth isn't nearly as old as scientists say. This value is derived from several different lines of evidence. Traditionally, the earliest fossil evidence of multi-cellular life is about million years old, however in scientists at Yale University reported evidence that worm-like animals lived on Earth 1. The earliest land plant is about million years old. The oldest land animals ever discovered lived about million years ago, according to discoveries made in near Ludlow.

There is also the question of layers of sediment. The layers above are newer than those below. If a skeleton is found in a layer of 60, year old rock, the skeleton is 60, years old.

If it is found below that layer, it is older than 60, years. There are also many other forms of dating, some of which are described here: There are over forty such techniques, each using a different radioactive element or a different way of measuring them. It has become increasingly clear that these radiometric dating techniques agree with each other and as a whole, present a coherent picture in which the Earth was created a very long time ago.

Further evidence comes from the complete agreement between radiometric dates and other dating methods such as counting tree rings [dendrochronology] or glacier ice core layers. Many Christians have been led to distrust radiometric dating and are completely unaware of the great number of laboratory measurements that have shown these methods to be consistent.

This paper describes in relatively simple terms how a number of the dating techniques work, how accurately the half-lives of the radioactive elements and the rock dates themselves are known, and how dates are checked with one another.

Arguments over the age of the Earth have sometimes been divisive for people who regard the Bible as God's word. Even though the Earth's age is never mentioned in the Bible, it is an issue because those who take a strictly literal view of the early chapters of Genesis can calculate an approximate date for the creation by adding up the life-spans of the people mentioned in the genealogies. Assuming a strictly literal of the week of creation, even if some of the generations were left out of the genealogies, the Earth would be less than ten thousand years old.

Radiometric dating techniques indicate that the Earth is thousands of times older than that--approximately four and a half billion years old. Many Christians accept this and interpret the Genesis account in less scientifically literal ways. However, some Christians suggest that the geologic dating techniques are unreliable, that they are wrongly interpreted, or that they are confusing at best.

Unfortunately, much of the literature available to Christians has been either inaccurate or difficult to understand, so that confusion over dating techniques continues. The next few pages cover a broad overview of radiometric dating techniques, show a few examples, and discuss the degree to which the various dating systems agree with each other. The goal is to promote greater understanding on this issue, particularly for the Christian community.

Many people have been led to be skeptical of dating without knowing much about it. For example, most people don't realize that carbon dating is only rarely used on rocks. This is continued here: Honestly I do not know how they can, and I am going to show you that they do not. There are some who attempt to do it but they are inconsistent - absolutely inconsistent, because that doctrine is so incompatible, so utterly out of harmony, with the revelations of the Lord that a man just cannot believe in both.

I say most emphatically, you cannot believe in this theory [of evolution] of the origin of man, and at the same time accept the plan of salvation as set forth by the Lord our God. You must choose the one and reject the other, for they are in direct conflict and there is a gulf separating them which is so great that it cannot be bridged, no matter how much one may try to do so Then Adam, and by that I mean the first man, was not capable of sin. He could not transgress, and by doing so bring death into the world; for, according to this theory [of evolution], death had always been in the world.

Are you prepared to believe such a thing as that? All authentic accounts of the earth's origins have a single source-the Creator of all things, whose explanations come to us through prophets.

For centuries only one account has been available to the world-the record now preserved in the Bible. But with the Restoration have come three others. Each of these four accounts offers valuable insight into the process and purposes of the Creation. After Joseph Smith had translated the Book of Mormon and learned that many plain and precious truths had been taken from the Bible, the Lord commanded him to "translate" the Bible.

In doing so, he used neither Hebrew nor Greek documents but drew upon revelation and inspiration as the source of the text. Moses had been shown a vision depicting something of the breadth and depth of the Lord's creations. When Moses asked for more information about the origin of this earth, the Lord responded: I will speak unto thee concerning this earth;. There are, indeed, some very slight exceptions, as for instance, the ass may mix with the mare and produce the mule; but there it ends, the violation of the laws of procreation receives a check, and its operations can go no further.

We came not from some menial order of life, but our ancestor is God our heavenly Father. McConkie, Mormon Doctrine , p. We have rather specific scriptural indications that the creative period was of relatively short duration.

The current CES manuals used by church still argue against evolution:. These, however, are the theories of men. It was shown to the brother of Jared that all men were created in the beginning after the image of God; and whether we take this to mean the spirit or the body, or both, it commits us to the same conclusion: Man began life as a human being, in the likeness of our heavenly Father.

Lund], in Clark, Messages of the First Presidency, 4: That man and the whole of creation came by chance is unthinkable. It is equally unthinkable that if man came into being by the will and power of God, the divine creative power is limited to one process dimly sensed by mortal man.

There are some who attempt to do it but they are inconsistent—absolutely inconsistent, because that doctrine is so incompatible, so utterly out of harmony, with the revelations of the Lord that a man just cannot believe in both.

I say most emphatically, you cannot believe in this theory of the origin of man, and at the same time accept the plan of salvation as set forth by the Lord our God.

You must choose the one and reject the other, for they are in direct conflict and there is a gulf separating them which is so great that it cannot be bridged, no matter how much one may try to do so.

He could not transgress, and by doing so bring death into the world; for, according to this theory, death had always been in the world. Isn't the evidence that all life evolved from a common source overwhelming? The following excerpts are from a pamphlet on the Creation written by Dr.

Those who have the courage to penetrate through the haze of assumptions which surrounds the question of the origin of life will discover that science presents substantial evidence that creation best explains the origin of life. Four considerations lead to this conclusion.

The challenge they present to the theory of evolution has led many intelligent and honest men of science now living to reevaluate their beliefs about the origin of life. The Evidence from Science, p. Coffin was a Seventh-Day Adventist creationist with minimal credentials as a scientist.

His material presents fallacious arguments based on probability, then makes the utterly false claims that there are no intermediate fossils between species, and that species have not changed since creation. This material was dubious when it was written; it is an embarrassment now. This chart supports that most LDS don't accept evolution whereas most other faiths, including Christian faiths, seem to have more support for the science of evolution than the LDS members do. The third day also gets the sequence of events wrong by describing the placement of fruit trees and grass on the Earth before animals and the Sun were made.

From science we learn that grass and fruit trees evolved only recently. Life existed hundreds of millions of years before the first blades of grass or the first fruiting trees appeared, yet the LDS creation account has grass, fruit trees, herbs and seeds as the first plant life on Earth.

It also says these plants preceded animals such as fish, which in reality first evolved hundreds of millions of years earlier.

The sequential problems persist with the description of events on the fourth day. The creation account has the Sun, Moon, and stars being "made" after the stars were in existence thousands of millions of years before the Earth and Sun, and that Earth, Sun, and Moon came into existence thousands of millions of years before, not after , plants evolved on Earth. Indeed, plants could not have evolved with the Sun's light. The events in days 5 and 6, like those in the previous days, are likewise out of sequence.

Day five has birds and fish created, after plants. It also has whales being created on day 5, before land animals on day 6. Whales actually evolved from land animals, about [] million years ago, and birds did not evolve until long after life including plants first appeared in the seas. As you can see, the disagreements are broad and significant.

As such, it's as incorrect as it's possible for a historical explanation to be. Scientists are currently only dimly aware of the nature of these processes.

Billions of years later, this primitive life form had evolved into more complex species e. Later species evolved into Dinosaurs hundreds of millions of years ago. They died out, probably because of extreme environmental changes brought about by a massive collision of an asteroid with the Earth.

But new species that evolved from the dinosaurs and other species that were on earth with the dinosaurs continued to evolve. Homo Sapiens, Neanderthals, and some of the higher apes appeared much more recently, and shared a common ancestor. All during this extinction of old species and arrival of new species, individual animals died.

A very small fraction of those with hard shells or a skeleton became converted to fossils and were embedded in rocks. Most scientists do not believe that any world-wide flood has occurred. There are serious questions about where all the water came from and went. If the Theory of Evolution is correct then the fossil record and sedimentary rocks were formed over many hundreds of millions of years, as species evolved. One would expect to see that deeper rocks would contain more primitive forms of life, and shallower fossils would be of more highly evolved species.

The tens of thousands of geologists and paleontologists working over the past centuries would never find a single Jurassic Cycad fossil mixed in with a Maple tree fossil. That is because Maples emerged during the more recent Cretaceous era when the Cycads were long extinct.

Dinosaurs would never be mixed with the remains of humans, dogs, cats and other modern mammals. Only a primitive, small mammalian species would be found together with Dinosaurs. And no mammals or dinosaurs at all would be found with trilobites an early form of life that is long extinct.

There would be no signs of human habitation at the lowest layer; only very primitive life forms. In fact, there are probably at least 1 million pairs of species that would never be found together in the same rock layer. If the theory of evolution is [accurate], then the fossil record, from bottom to top, would show gradually more complex, less primitive species. And certain species would be only found in certain layers; they would never be found in others.

A trilobite would never be found with a dinosaur; a dinosaur would never be found with a human fossil. Scientists have concluded that the theory of evolution is [accurate]. They have traveled to the Grand Canyon in Arizona, and to thousands of other locations around the world, and studied the fossil record. They have found fossils of thousands of species of plants and animals which evolutionary scientists believe did not exist on the earth simultaneously.

The older species died out before the first member of the more recent species evolved. They can pick any pair of species e. They found that the fossils of the two species have never been found together.

Also, archaeologists have never found remains of ancient villages and towns in and below the oldest layers of rock. Scientists completed analyzing core samples taken from the bed of the Atlantic Ocean in early Their three drill samples taken from three locations off the east coast of Florida. The deepest layers contained evidence of many species of animals and came from what the project leader, paleobiologist Dr. Richard Norris, called a "happy-go-lucky" ocean.

Above this was a small layer with green glass pebbles, that were originally fused under intense heat. This is believed to be ocean bottom material that was instantly melted by the intense energy release of a colliding asteroid.

Next was a rusty brown layer that is thought to be from the "vaporized remains of the asteroid itself," dated about 65 million years ago. This layer is found elsewhere in the world and contains a high content of iridium, which is a chemical "signature" of asteroids.

Above this is about 5 centimeters 2 inches of gray clay with strong evidence of a nearly dead ocean. There are just some very minute fossils. These were the survivors in the ocean. These results showed that the iridium layer, which has been found at many locations around the world on land, is also observable in the ocean bed.

Fossils of highly developed species man, large mammals, etc. If all species were created within a one week period, as described in Genesis, and all the land animals were preserved on Noah's ark, then all land species would be found both above and below the iridium layer.

There are additional indicators why many scientists believe that the order of creation described in Genesis could not have happened:. Some plants rely upon birds and ants for propagation.

If plants were created on Day 3, and birds and ants were created on Day 5 and 6, and if each Genesis "day" is equal to or more real years as some creation scientists believe , then some plants would have had to survive without propagation for thousands of years.

To other creation scientists who believe that a "day" in Genesis is literally 24 hours, then this does not present a problem.

Imsges: describe how radiocarbon dating is used to determine the age of a dead organism

describe how radiocarbon dating is used to determine the age of a dead organism

That tells us in plainness that the way the Lord and the celestial host reckoned time, was by the revolutions of a certain great central body called Kolob, which had one revolution on its axis in a thousand of our years, and that was one day with the Lord, and when the Lord said to Adam, "In the day thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. In the April Geology, researchers describe finding chemical similarities in the cores between a layer corresponding to , when a 50,metric-ton extraterrestrial object exploded over Tunguska, Siberia, and a deeper stratum dating to 12, years ago.

describe how radiocarbon dating is used to determine the age of a dead organism

Dating of remnant corals in Barbados that had lived near the ocean surface prior to the meltwater deluge indicated that the pulse occurred 14, years ago, several hundred years after the onset of the Bolling-Allerod warming. Yet, with the exception of a few prospectors looking for money rocks, it's almost completely unstudied.

describe how radiocarbon dating is used to determine the age of a dead organism

Verse 22 [ Gen. Suddenly, within the space of a decade, ocean oc reversed in the Atlantic, probably triggered by cold, meltwater flows coming off the shrinking Laurentide Ice Sheet. HOWEVER, the quotes given above by the prophets since Joseph Smith's time show that the LDS Church clearly taught that the earth was only thousands of years old instead of billions of years old for all of the 19th century and much of the 20th century. Humans have, on average, 3 to 4 lethal recessive alleles each. Sit ie your children, your niece or your nephew, and have them read the creation account to you.