Exploring the True Origins of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs
A total of three products were released for the game: Sitcom , Science fiction. Geschichts- und Kunstverein Aschaffenburg e. Retrieved 23 January The series VII episode titled " Ouroboros " derives its name and theme from the ancient mythological snake by the same name.
Fairy Tale or Truth? Archived from the original on October 28, The show's logo and characters have appeared on a wide range of merchandise. Retrieved 23 January Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is one of the most famous fairy tales in the world, first related in when the Grimm brothers published their collection of tales that had been gathered from old European folk stories. American Idol contestant says Katy Perry stole his 'uncomfortable' first kiss 'I've never starved myself':
The specials were televised over three nights starting on Friday 10 April The broadcasts received record ratings for Freeview channel Dave;  the first of the three episodes represented the UK's highest—ever viewing figures for a commissioned programme on a digital network.
On 20 July , a second trailer for series X was released on Facebook , followed by a new teaser every Friday. Following series X, which attracted high viewing figures, Dave, Doug Naylor and the cast showed strong interest in making another series. During the Dimension Jump fan convention in May , Doug Naylor stated that discussions were ongoing with all involved parties and while arrangements had not been finalised, he hoped shooting could begin in February Llewellyn later removed the post from his blog and Doug Naylor issued a statement on Twitter, saying: The two series would be shot back-to-back towards the end of for broadcast on Dave in and respectively,  and would be co-produced by Baby Cow Productions , with company CEO, Henry Normal , executive producing the new episodes.
On 8 September , it was announced that Red Dwarf XII would begin broadcasting on Dave on 12 October ,  and on 15 September it was further announced that each episode would preview a week earlier via the UKTV Play video on demand service, effectively meaning that Series 12 would be starting on 5 October Red Dwarf was founded on the standard sitcom focus of a disparate and frequently dysfunctional group of individuals living together in a restricted setting. With the main characters routinely displaying their cowardice, incompetence and laziness, while exchanging insulting and sarcastic dialogue, the series provided a humorous antidote to the fearless and morally upright space explorers typically found in science-fiction series,  with its main characters acting bravely only when there was no other possible alternative.
The increasing science-fiction elements of the series were treated seriously by creators Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. Satire, parody and drama were alternately woven into the episodes, referencing other television series, films and books. These have included references to the likes of The writers based the whole theme of some episodes on the plots of feature films.
The series III episode "Polymorph" references and parodies key moments from Alien ; from series IV, " Camille " echoes key scenes from Casablanca ,  while " Meltdown " borrows the main plot from Westworld The series VII episode titled " Ouroboros " derives its name and theme from the ancient mythological snake by the same name. The series explores many science-fiction staples such as time-travel paradoxes including the grandfather paradox , the question of determinism and free will on several episodes , the pursuit of happiness in virtual reality and, crucially to the show's premise of Lister being the last human, the near-certainty of the human species' extinction some time in the far future.
Aliens do not feature in the series, as Grant and Naylor decided very early in the process that they did not want aliens involved. This is usually addressed with Rimmer's belief in extraterrestrial life being shot down, such as a vessel he believes to be an alien ship turning out to be a garbage pod. However, there are non-human life forms such as evolutions of Earth species e. Simulants and GELFs frequently serve as antagonists among the later series of the show. The series developed its own distinct vocabulary.
Words and phrases such as hologramatic [ sic ], Dollarpound, Felis sapiens , Simulants , GELF , space weevil , and Zero Gee Football appear throughout the series, highlighting a development in language, political climate, technology, evolution, and culture in the future.
The changes that were made to the series' cast, setting, creative teams and even production values from series to series have meant that opinions differ greatly between fans and critics alike as to the quality of certain series. Lyons stated that what the show "once had was a unique balance of sci-fi comedy, which worked magnificently.
The changes seen in series VII were seen by some as a disappointment; while much slicker and higher-budget in appearance, the shift away from outright sitcom and into something approaching comedy drama was seen as a move in the wrong direction.
Although the pilot episode of the show gathered over four million viewers, viewing figures dipped in successive episodes and the first series had generally poor ratings. The show had also been nominated for the International Emmy Award in , , and The video sales have won eight Gold Awards from the British Video Association,  and the series still holds the record for being BBC Two's longest-running, highest-rated sitcom.
Editor Gill Hudson stated that this result had surprised them as 'the series had not given any new episodes this century'.
The show's logo and characters have appeared on a wide range of merchandise. For instance, the song "Tongue Tied", featured in the " Parallel Universe " episode of the show, was released in as a single and became a top 20 UK hit for Danny John Jules under the name 'The Cat'.
Working together under the name "Grant Naylor", the creators of the series collaboratively wrote two novels. The first, Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers , was published in November , and incorporates plot lines from several episodes of the show's first two series. The second novel, Better Than Life , followed in October , and is largely based on the second-series episode of the same name. Together, the two novels provide expanded backstory and development of the series' principal characters and themes.
Two completely different sequels were made as a result, each presenting a possible version of the story's continuation. Last Human , by Doug Naylor, adds Kochanski to the crew and places more emphasis on the science-fiction and plot elements, while Rob Grant's novel Backwards , is more in keeping with the previous two novels, and borrows more extensively from established television stories.
An omnibus edition of the first two novels was released in , including edits to the original text and extra material such as the original pilot script of the TV series. These videos were named after the first episode of the three presented on the tape, as was typical with other BBC video releases at the time. However, on occasions the BBC decided to ignore the original running order and use the most popular episodes from the series to maximise sales of the videos: All eight series were made available on VHS, and three episodes of series VII were also released as special "Xtended" [ sic ] versions with extra scenes including an original, unbroadcast ending for the episode "Tikka To Ride" and no laugh track ;  the remastered versions of series I—III were also released individually and in a complete box-set.
The first eight series have since been released on DVD in Region 1, 2, and 4, each with a bonus disc of extra material and each release from series III onwards being accompanied by an original documentary about the making of each respective series. The Bodysnatcher Collection , containing the remastered episodes, as well as new documentaries for series I and II, was released in This release showcased a storyboard construction of "Bodysnatcher", an unfinished script from , which was finally completed in by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor who were working together for the first time since All The Shows was released, reworking the vanilla disc content of the two Just The Shows sets within A4 packaging resembling a 'photo album', which carefully omitted information that no extras were included.
This box-set was re-released in a smaller slip-case sized box, reverting to the Just the Shows title, in November The series is also available for download on iTunes. In , BBC Worldwide began creating an 'up-resed' version of the first five series for release on Blu-ray, due to demand from Japan. The Red Dwarf Magazine — the magazine part of the title changed to "Smegazine" from issue 3 — was launched in by Fleetway Editions.
It comprised a mix of news, reviews, interviews, comic strips, and competitions. The comic strips featured episode adaptations and original material, including further stories of popular characters like Mr.
Flibble, the Polymorph, and Ace Rimmer. Notably, the comic strip stories' holographic characters, predominately Rimmer, were drawn in grayscale. This was at the request of Grant and Naylor, who had wanted to use the technique for the television series, but the process was deemed too expensive to produce.
The previous volume of this magazine, dating back to the s, was known as Better Than Life. Exceptions to this were Llewellyn, who reprised his role as Kryten, and the British actress Jane Leeves , who played Holly.
It was written by Linwood Boomer and directed by Jeffrey Melman , with Grant and Naylor onboard as creators and executive producers. According to Llewellyn and Naylor, the cast were not satisfied with Linwood Boomer's script. Grant and Naylor rewrote the script, but although the cast preferred the re-write, the script as filmed was closer to Boomer's version.
The pilot episode includes footage from the UK series in its title sequence, although it did not retain the logo or the theme music of the UK series.
During filming of the pilot, the audience reaction was good and it was felt that the story had been well received. The studio executives were not entirely happy with the pilot, especially the casting, but decided to give the project another chance with Grant and Naylor in charge.
With a small budget and deadline, new scenes were quickly shot and mixed in with existing footage of the pilot and UK series V episodes, to give an idea of the basic plot and character dynamics, alongside proposed future episodes, remakes of episodes from the original show. Despite the re-shoots and re-casting, the option on the pilot was not picked up. Deep Space Nine , in which she was cast as Jadzia Dax. The cast of both the British and American versions criticised the casting of Red Dwarf USA , particularly the part of Lister who is portrayed in the British version as a likable slob but in the US version as somewhat clean cut.
In a interview on Kevin Pollak's Chat Show , Bierko said that casting him as Lister was a "huge mistake" and also said a "John Belushi type" would have been better suited to the role.
The American pilot has been heavily bootlegged, but it has never been broadcast on TV in any country. Because of rights clearance issues, no footage from the second pilot is included in the featurette. Since the end of the eighth series in , Doug Naylor has been attempting to make a feature-length version of the show. A final draft of the script was written, by Naylor, and flyers began circulating around certain websites.
The flyer was genuine and had been distributed by Winchester Films to market the film overseas. Spaceships that tried to escape Earth were hunted down until only one remained Naylor had scouted Australia to get an idea of locations and finance costs, with pre-production beginning in and filming planned for Reasons given for the rejections were that while the script was considered to be funny, it was not ready.
In , material from early drafts of the film was incorporated into the Series X finale " The Beginning ". A total of three products were released for the game: The game has been praised for staying true to the comedic nature of the series, for its entertaining writing, and for the detail to which the background material is explained.
On 14 February , the night before the tenth anniversary of the show's pilot episode broadcast, BBC Two devoted an evening of programmes to the series, under the banner of Red Dwarf Night.
The evening consisted of a mixture of new and existing material, and was introduced and linked by actor and fan Patrick Stewart. In addition, a series of special take-offs on BBC Two's idents , featuring the "2" logo falling in love with a skutter , were used. Taking place outside the continuity of the series, two teams Kryten and Lister versus Rimmer and Cat, although Cat quickly departs to be replaced by alter ego Duane Dibbley were challenged to make the best chicken vindaloo.
After a compilation bloopers show, featuring out-takes, the next programme was Universe Challenge , a spoof of University Challenge. Blobby , Patrick Stewart , and a Dalek. Red Dwarf was originally based on Dave Hollins: The sketches recounted the adventures of Dave Hollins voiced by Nick Wilton , a hapless space traveller who is marooned in space far from earth.
Grant and Naylor chose to use the Dave Hollins: Space Cadet sketches as a base for a television show after watching the film Dark Star. The 7 trillion year figure was first changed to 7 billion years and then to 3 million and the characters of Arnold Rimmer and the Cat were created.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the British comedy franchise. For the eponymous spaceship, see Red Dwarf spaceship. For the type of star, see Red dwarf. Spacecraft in Red Dwarf. List of Red Dwarf characters. List of Red Dwarf concepts. List of Red Dwarf episodes. Retrieved 28 November Retrieved 21 August Retrieved 5 February Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 8 October Retrieved 23 January Archived from the original on 17 October Retrieved 6 February Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers.
Archived from the original on 17 August Retrieved 11 February Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 20 February Archived from the original on 20 July Archived from the original on 28 November Retrieved 6 December The Official Red Dwarf Companion. Retrieved 17 December Retrieved 19 December At this rate, the huntsman reluctantly agrees and lets Snow White go, bringing the queen the heart of a wild animal instead. After wandering through the forest, Snow White discovers a tiny cottage belonging to a group of seven dwarfs.
Since no one is at home, she eats some of the tiny meals, drinks some of their wine, and then tests all the beds. Finally, the last bed is comfortable enough for her and she falls asleep. When the dwarfs return home, they immediately become aware that someone had snuck in secretly, because everything in their home is in disorder.
During their loud discussion about who had snuck in, they discover the sleeping Snow White. She wakes up and explains to them what happened, and the dwarfs take pity on her and let her stay with them in exchange for housekeeping. They warn her to be careful when alone at home and to let no one in when they are away delving in the mountains. Meanwhile, the queen asks her mirror once again: But Snow White beyond the mountains at the Seven Dwarfs is a thousand times more beautiful than you".
Planning to kill Snow White herself, the queen disguises herself as an old peddler. The queen appears at the dwarfs' cottage and offers Snow White colorful, silky laced bodices and convinces Snow White to take the most beautiful laces as a present. Then the queen laces her up so tightly that Snow White faints, causing the queen to leave her for dead. But the dwarfs return just in time, and Snow White revives when the dwarfs loosen the laces.
The queen then consults her magic mirror again, and the mirror reveals Snow White's survival. The queen dresses as a comb seller and convinces Snow White to take a beautiful comb as a present.
She brushes Snow White's hair with the poisoned comb and the girl faints again. She is again revived by the dwarfs when they remove the comb from her hair. When the mirror again indicates that Snow White still lives, the queen makes a third and final attempt on Snow White by disguising herself as a farmer's wife, and offering a poisoned apple to her.
The girl is at first hesitant to accept it, so the queen cuts the apple in half, eating the white harmless half and giving the red poisoned half to Snow White. The girl eagerly takes a bite and falls into a state of suspended animation , causing the Queen to triumph.
This time, the dwarfs are unable to revive Snow White. Assuming that she is dead, they place her in a glass casket. After a short period, a prince was on a hunting trip when he stumbles upon the coffin-contained Snow White. The seven dwarfs succumb to his entreaties to let him have Snow White. The moment he lifts the coffin to carry it away to her proper resting place, the piece of poisoned apple falls from between her lips and Snow White awakens saying "Where am I?
Snow White and the prince invite everyone to come to their wedding party, including Snow White's stepmother. Meanwhile, the queen, still believing that Snow White is dead, again asks her magic mirror who is the fairest in the land.
Not knowing that the Prince's bride is her stepdaughter, the queen arrives at the wedding and sees that the bride is Snow White, whom she thought dead. She is frozen with rage and fear, but when the queen is about to start a pandemonium, the prince orders for her to wear a pair of red-hot shoes and dance in them until she drops dead for the attempting murder of Snow White, so that the wedding will peacefully continue.
Many scholars have theorized about the possible origins of the tale. In , a German historian named Eckhard Sander published Schneewittchen: Fairy Tale or Truth? At the age of 16, Margarete was forced by her stepmother, Katharina of Hatzfeld, to move away to Brussels. Margarete mysteriously died at the age of 21, apparently having been poisoned. Historical accounts point to the King of Spain, who opposing the romance, may have dispatched Spanish agents to murder Margarete.
The name Chione means "Snow" in Greek and, in the story, she is described as the most beautiful woman in the land, so beautiful that the gods Apollo and Mercury both fell in love with her. Mercury put her to sleep with the touch of his caduceus and raped her in her sleep. Then Apollo, disguised as an old crone, approached her and raped her again. These affections led Chione to openly boast that she was more beautiful than the goddess Diana herself, resulting in Diana shooting her through the tongue with an arrow.
The stepmother, Claudia Elisabeth von Reichenstein, was domineering and employed her new position to the advantage of her children from her first marriage. In their first edition, the Brothers Grimm published the version they had first collected, in which the villain of the piece is Snow White's jealous mother. In a version sent to another folklorist prior to the first edition, additionally, she does not order a servant to take her to the woods, but takes her there herself to gather flowers and abandons her; in the first edition, this task was transferred to a servant.
Disney's variation of Snow White gave the dwarfs names and included a singing Snow White. While the heart is mentioned, it is never shown in the box. Snow White is much more mature about And she is discovered by the dwarfs after cleaning the house, not vandalizing it. Furthermore, in the Disney movie the evil queen tries only once to kill Snow White by a poisoned apple and fails this was likely to save time.
She then dies by falling down a cliff and being crushed by a boulder, after the dwarfs had chased her through the forest. In the original, the queen is forced to dance to death. In Snow White , produced by Cannon Movie Tales , the Evil Queen, after being informed for the last time that Snow White is alive and the most fair, is consumed with rage and hurls an object at the mirror causing it to crack.
As she travels to the wedding, the Evil Queen begins to age rapidly as the mirror continues to crack. By the time she reaches the wedding and bursts in, she is an old hag and is humiliated by the crowd. She leaves and, simultaneously with the mirror in her castle, disintegrates into a pile of dust while Snow White and the Prince are married. In the adaptation Snow White and the Huntsman , directed by Rupert Sanders , Snow White becomes a warrior in order to overthrow the Evil Queen named Ravenna, and the huntsman named Eric is presented as her mentor and possible love interest.
The Disney movie Enchanted film features a character named Giselle Amy Adams who is loosely based on Snow White poisoned apple , Sleeping Beauty fighting a dragon , and Cinderella losing a shoe at a dance. Giselle recovers and later fights Narissa, who has transformed into a dragon. The Royals believe that their stories should be followed, lest they end in disaster. Many later versions omit the Queen's attempted cannibalism , eating what she believed to be the lungs and liver of Snow White.
This may be a reference to old Slavic mythology which includes tales of witches eating human hearts. Descendants film character Evie is the cheerful yet flirtatious daughter of the Evil Queen. Many other variations of the story exist across and outside Europe. In some of these variations the dwarfs are robbers, while the magic mirror is a dialog with the sun or moon. The famous " Heigh-Ho " sequence from the film. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Imsges: dating white dwarfs
The material is also repeated in a different context in his The New Comparative Method:
Red Dwarf brings Dave record audience". Krysten Ritter stands out in bright red jacket to promote second season of superhero show Jessica Jones Lady in red Hippie chic!
Daily Post subscription required. Notify me when new comments are posted. The theme tune and incidental music were written and performed by Howard Dating white dwarfswith the distinctive vocals on the closing theme tune by Jenna Russell. Last Humanby Doug Naylor, adds Kochanski dating white dwarfs the crew and places more emphasis on the science-fiction and plot elements, while Rob Grant's novel Backwardsis more dwafs keeping with the previous two novels, and borrows more extensively from established television stories. He left before series V due to whiye scheduling clash he ended up directing a show starring his wife, Ruby Wax so Juliet May took over as director.
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