Linked particularly with Staffordshire are the many animal and human figures produced in the 19thC. Each of the pictured bottles has a relatively short description and explanation including estimated dates or date ranges for that type bottle and links to other view pictures of the bottle. It is one of the few things in English I have run across on Fjerdingstad, The title of the article is "Fjerdingstad: Newly formed, soft whitish wood of a tree between the outer skin of bark and the central core of heartwood, also known as alburnum. The marks renewal - Abolition and invalidation of all duty marks, including those for unguaranteed objects of national origin. I would also like to know more about her and the jewelry she designed. Diplomatic plates were first issued in
Complete with original ribbon white stripes were added after He is considered to be part of the Arts and Crafts Movement. This general shape continued to be used for liquor bottles - particularly for foreign produced spirits - throughout the 20th century and is still used for some spirits today; many "single malt" Scotch bottles e. French boxes, cupboards and chests of drawers with seven compartments, one for each day of the week. We would love to know more!
James Andrew Page worked between and in Plymouth, he died in Two Cape silver tablespoons not a pair , but both in Old English pattern and both by Johannes Combrink. The first has engraved owners initials JM in script, this spoon has excellent hallmarks, makers mark IC and the anchor Welz mark 25 , and a rounded drop. It also has the initials AFDT struck on the back of the stem, we assume another owner.
The second has a slightly wider handle, no initials, and very clear makers mark IC Welz mark These are good quality, the forks around 90 grammes each and the spoons over All 6 have an engraved family crest, a raised lion facing right between 2 horns. The pattern has the regular Thread and Shell pattern, double struck on both sides , but with scrolls instead of shoulders, as with all Military variants Pickford, Silver Flatware, page Pickford did not illustrate a photographic example of this pattern , a further indication of its rarity.
In addition, all pieces carry additional journeyman's marks Y, K, 3 petal flower, O , so the particular silversmit A fabulous Victorian silver prize medallion, one of the finest we have encountered.
The medallion is oval, surrounded by a cast rim of flowers. A silver suspension loop is attached to an ornate scroll. This medallion is large and heavy, the quality is exceptional. The hallmarks are small but clear, very well struck. Donald Fowler was Provost the Scottish equivalent of Mayor of Tain between and , he was a chemist by profession. A Cape silver konfyt fork in the Fiddle pattern, with 3 tines.
The fork has the original owners initials PJS, quite quaintly engraved in Colonial style. The fork has excellent hallmarks, they could not be better. They include makers mark MLS and the leaf device, with the veins clearly visible Welz mark He led an interesting life, he married 4 times, and had 10 children.
A set of 6 Irish silver dessert spoons, in the Fiddle pattern with rat-tails, a feature of Irish flatware of the period. The spoons have original owners engraved initials WMH.
The hallmarks on all 6 are excellent, and include makers mark IB for James Brady, who worked between and Irish retailers were among the first to mark flatware, early adopters of corporate branding. The ladle is the No 4 pattern, which has organic flowing scrolls in relief, so quite pleasing to hold. The ladle is hand hammered, with the planish marks visible in the bowl and the stem. The ladle has a flat circular bowl with a narrow lip, about 0.
The ladle is grade silver, as is usual for Danish silver. The well struck hallmarks include "Evald Nielsen" in an attractive script, with "No 4" indicating pattern, date letter "ANNO ", the letter "S" surrounded by dots in shaped punch for silver, and "" in oval punch surrounded by dots for grade of silver. Evald Nielsen worked between and from Copenhagen, he designed all his own designs as opposed to his contemporary Georg Jensen. An interesting German silver coin dish, with a German 3 Mark silver coin set in the centre of the circular dish.
Given the size of their building it must have been a substantial business see photo. The hallmarks are clear, the German silver half moon and crown used after , standard mark, and a script makers mark von Hafen, for Juwelier von Hafen, a Hamburg Jeweller established in , they still exist today, specializing in jewelry with a nautical theme. A Gold and enamel sweetheart brooch for the Middlesex Regiment Duke of Cambridge's Own , set on a gold safety pin for attachment. The brooch has no hallmarks, but most brooches of this period were 15 Carat gold.
The regiment existed between and , but has battle honours from Albuhera Peninsular War, 16 May , their nickname was the "Die Hards". A collection of 10 sterling silver Royal souvenir spoons. Six spoons have enamel finials, 1 has enamel bowl as well. Six spoons are English, 3 are Canadian and 1 is Dutch. An Art Nouveau antique silver mustard pot, complete with original green glass liner. The pot is oval in shape, and has traditional Art Nouveau stylised flowers on the 4 corners, repeated on the lid thumbpiece.
The glass pot sits on a circular support, which is also hallmarked as is the main body and lid. The hallmarks are clear, and include registration mark RD , meaning Walker and Hall registered this design to prevent copying by competitors.
A fabulous set of 6 Tiffany Sterling silver Indian Chrysanthemum tablespoons, in immaculate condition, they could not be better. The pattern is truly beautiful, it extends right down the back of the spoon bowls as well.
M, the M indicates these are early pieces the pattern was produced from This must be one of the most beautiful example of hallmarks, with the design wrapping over and through the hallmarks. Each individual spoon weighs grams, certainly the heaviest tablespoons we have encountered the very best quality English tablespoons can reach grammes.
Indian Chrysanthemum has been described as "one of the most magnificent and celebrated sterling silver designs of the 19th century. Chrysanthemum represents one of the last great designs of the Victorian period" - www.
Grosjean joined the Tiffany firm as the Superintendent of Silverwa An Edwardian silver and enamel novelty vesta case, of circular form with hinged flip top lid and striker built into the base. The vesta has an applied enamel in silver rope border, featuring a pack of 8 English foxhounds, very attractively modelled with lovely colours.
Vesta cases also called matchsafes were used to store vestas early matches before safety matches were invested , they were very popular between and All 6 spoons have engraved owners initials G, we assume the original owner. This set has been made by hand, there are slight differences in length, also differences in the shape of the handle, with some having narrower ends.
One spoon also has a noticeably larger bowl than the other 5, so perhaps made at a different time. The drop on 2 spoons is also slightly longer, overall interesting but subtle differences between the spoons. The hallmarks also exhibit differences, three spoons are struck with makers mark IC three times, the other three are struck with makers mark IC four times similar to the English duty dodgers.
The orientation of the marks also differs, some are struck vertically and some sideways, so it appears the silversmith struck marks quite randomly. This mark is 29 or mark 30 in the book Cape Silver by Welz, the C is quite close the the I, and has short arms, almost looks like a K. The slightly larger spoon, whic The label has a curved rectangular shape, with an attractive bright cut and wiggle work border, and original chain.
This particular form of label is uniquely Irish, English examples of this type curved up, only Irish labels curve down. The Claret engraving is quirky, done by hand and rougher than London examples of the time. The hallmarks are excellent, and include makers mark BT in a serrated oblong, harp crowned in a irregular shaped punch so pre and Hibernia in an oval punch used before A very similar label, also by Taitt, is depicted in the book Wine Labels , pg , figure , for W-WINE, described as circa so the dates match.
The same book describes Taitt as "arguably the most innovative of Irish wine label makers, a particularly successful exponent of bright-cut engraving".
He made the famous balloon label, only one of which is known, pg 82, and he worked between and An interesting silver gilt Georgian vinaigrette, in the shape of a purse or handbag, the body decorated with chased 3 leaf device, which has been described as a trefoil design in the literature.
The shape is lovely, very pleasing to hold, and with the texture has good grip. The quality is excellent, certainly made by a master craftsman. The base has a leaf design around oval eye. The lid is also beautifully decorated, a central flower on finely engraved cross-hatch surrounded by pattern border, and the side of the lid has a fruiting vine border, very delicately chased.
The vinaigrette has 2 eyelets which holds the original chain, each chain link is also decorated with a bar pattern. The pierced grille has a foliate design, also engraved, both hinges are perfect.
The interior gilding is also perfect. The base has anchor town mark, partially worn makers mark and a very A fabulous pair of Cape Silver lemoen lepels, orange spoons , in excellent condition, and with very clear makers mark.
The spoons are typical of the Cape lemoen lepels, with pointed terminal and bowl, the bowl itself eye shaped and quite deep. The spoons have typical Cape engraving, with a 4 petal flower and wrigglework along the edges of the handles. They also have a distinctive V joint connecting handle to bowl, the 2 v joints are quite different in angle and style, reflecting their hand-made character.
The IC makers mark on both spoons is well struck and clear Welz mark 32 with canted corners. A collection of ten sterling silver shipping and sporting souvenir spoons, 7 with enamel finials.
Bowling shield trophy spoon, Sheffield , Gladwin Ltd 8. A fine and heavy cast silver commemorative caddy spoon made to celebrate the investiture of the Prince of Wales in The bowl is quite deep, the feathers have been shaped, the detail of the feathers is also very fine. Another example of this caddy spoon is shown in the book "The Story of the Caddy Spoon " produced by the Society of Caddy Spoon Collectors, page A pair of antique sterling silver shoe buckles, made in Birmingham in The buckles are rectangular with canted corners, with a supporting centre strut for attachment to a shoe.
Shoe buckles were fashion accessories for both men and women from the mid 17th century for the next few hundred years. The spoons are lovely quality and in excellent condition, we really like these spoons. The cartouche has been chased and engraved by hand, you can see small differences between the 2, notably the size and orientation of the scroll underneath. The cartouches are engraved with a family crest, a Griffin's head erased, this is the family crest of the Nalder Family Fairbairns crests.
The pattern was revived late 19th century by Carrington, who called it Carrington Shield. The hallmarks are bottom marked, and include clear makers mark WP, with the W and P co-joined for William Pinder, who worked from Bunhill road between and Grimwade page The crowned leopards head and lion passant are partially worn but still cle The lid has an oval panel with seated figure of justice holding sword and scales, surrounded by a wreath.
The base is engraved with original owners initials T: V, the base also has a clear makers mark of AK under flower Adrianus Kuijlenburg of Schoonhoven, , see Nederlands Responsibility Marks since no The lid has a Minerva head office mark duty mark , and the box interior rim has the Lion Passant 2nd purity for grade silver and date letter G for The ladle has an interesting engraved family crest, a collared lion between 2 horns.
Pattern book appendix pg Any services and pieces are rare" - page The fork is an excellent gauge, over 60 grammes, a good quality fork. It is double struck with a variant of Kings pattern, but with an ornate scrolling design below the raised family crest.
The crest is a griffin holding a branch with leaves in its beak, described as "Griffin's head erased argent holding in the baek a sprig or rose branch proper", this is the Watson family crest. Private die flatware was individually commissioned with the family crest die-stamped rather than engraved on a stock pattern Pickford, Silver Flatware, page Pickford describes these as "fascinating, but obviously impossible to build into services".
Note - this fork is acco This design is called the "Five Barred Gate", the 5 bars are surrounded by grapes, vines and tendrils. This label is of particular interest as it is upside-down, the central vine leaf is usually on top, here it is underneath.
The label is quite balanced so it is not easy to see it is upside-down, so an easy mistake for the engraver who did the piercing and applied the chain to make. A number of other examples, all the correct way up, can be seen on the Steppes Hill website www. Another version of this label is depicted A Regency silver sauce boat, by the highly respected firm of Emes and Barnard.
The sauce boat is the traditional shape, with leaf capped flying scroll handle, 3 shell and hoof feet, and heavy cast gadroon border.
The boat is a generous size and weight, over grammes, this is a good quality sauce boat, as you would expect from these makers. The boat has a lovely engraved family crest, a church with spire, with crosses on the roof and spire. The hallmarks are very clear, including makers mark RE over EB and date letter e for Rebecca Emes was married to John Emes, who was in partnership with the Chawners, he died in and Rebecca became a partner. Edward Barnard rose from workshop manager to full partner, also in Emes and Barnard was one of the most successful London silver businesses in its day, they supplied many leading retailers, including Rundell, Bridge and Rundell.
An Edwardian silver pocket stamp case, with a spring loaded interior for holding stamps in place. The case is rectangular, with an engine turned design with vacant circular cartouche for initials or family crest, and ring attachment for attachment to an Albert chain.
The interior is gilded, the stamp compartment is also engine turned. The case, lid and stamp compartment are all hallmarked. A pair of Canadian silver tableforks in the Fiddle pattern, with original owners script initials EB engraved on the back of the forks. The hallmarks on both forks are clear, and include pseudo lion passant with a very thin body , pseudo oval Georgian duty mark, and makers mark PB for Peter Bohle.
The lion passant is struck upside down on both forks, indicating the striking of marks was rather haphazard. Peter was apprenticed to leading Canadian silversmith Robert Cruikshank for 7 years between and , but spent his career working in Montreal, Quebec.
The family were German immigrants from Hanau known for its silver industry. A pair of Scottish Provincial silver tablespoons, made in Aberdeen by Peter Ross between and The spoons are Fiddle pattern, and have original owners engraved initials AGC. The spoons are in lovely condition, well preserved, and the hallmarks are clear. Note - We have a matching single tablespoon S The ladle is in the Rococo style, with a fluted bowl and asymmetrical chased floral decoration on the handle and back of bowl, and has a hooked terminal or end, described as a "crooked end" by Bennett - Irish Silver, pg The ladle also has an engraved family crest, an armoured arm embowed holding an arrow.
The bowl, which is fluted on both sides, is huge, over 10 cms in diameter, this is a substantial ladle with a good gauge. The fluted bowl was described by Douglas Bennett as "an alluring feature feature for the collector" Collecting Irish Silver, pg The join of bowl to handle has character, the drop has worn engraving, and also a semi circular strengthening plate, which unfortunately was not strong enough to prevent da A Danish modernist silver strawberry serving spoon, in Georg Jensen style.
The spoon is beautiful, and is a good weight and quality. The spoon has a large circular bowl, with a pierced strawberry leaf design, to allow the juices to be drained before serving. The handle is cast, and has 2 well designed strawberries amongst foliage, these are embossed so provide a nice grip for the handle. This spoon is a useful size, suitable for serving other items besides strawberries.
The spoon has 4 hallmarks, all of which are well struck and clear. The 3rd mark is "Haandarbejde" indicating this item was made by hand, and the 4th mark is the script F surrounded by oval dots, the assay master mark for Frederik Fabritius, who worked between and The presence of this older assay masters mark is a mystery, it has also been observed on other D A collection of 10 sterling silver souvenir spoons, all from a different British town. The spoons were made in Birmingham, London, Chester and Sheffield, with dates ranging from to All 10 spoons have clear hallmarks.
Canterbury, Birmingham , Turnbull Brothers, Cathedral in bowl 6. Oxford, Birmingham , gilded armorial in bowl 7. A lovely sterling silver medallion, commemorating the year anniversary of Stellenbosch University in This is a high quality medallion, with beautiful stylised engraving.
The front depicts the "Ou Hoofgebou" Old Main Building , the oldest building on campus, built in , in Cape classical style, with collonaded veranda and ornamental balcony. Or, three towers gules 2 and 1; II: Azure, three oak twigs each with two leaves below and an acorn above, argent, 2 and 1; Upon an inescutcheon sable, an open book proper, with a red initial letter S in upper dexter, and with two seals, one red and one blue, pendant from the book source www.
A set of 6 Georg Jensen sterling silver Cypress pattern fruit spoons with triangular bowls, these would be called grapefruit spoons by the English. This is a fabulous set of grapefruit spoons, stunning design and very practical for use, strong bowl tips. This is a vintage set dating from , all 6 pieces are fully hallmarked. All 6 pieces also carry London import marks, sponsors mark G.
The Cypress pattern won the design competition held for the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Georg Jensen company Georg Jensen, A tradition of Splendid Siulver, page Tias Eckhoff, a Norwegian, has been described as one of Norway's most versatile designers. A set of 6 sterling silver grapefruit spoons, with pointed bowls for easy access to the fruit. The spoons have a threaded border pattern with pointed terminals, sometimes referred to as French pattern. The spoons are very pleasing quality and weight, they have a solid feel in the hand, as is often the case with pre-war silver.
All 6 spoons are clearly hallmarked with Sheffield hallmarks for and makers mark EV for Viners Limited, started by Adolphe Viner in , the E refers to his son Emile. Viners was a leading 20th century British cutlery brand, known for good quality, they were acquired by Oneida in These spoons also have an additional set of 3 hallmarks, smaller but clearly struck, these are Irish import marks that were struck on foreign silver.
These marks include the Dublin assay office Boujet mark,. The Boujet mark is a stylized representation of a medieval A lovely set of 5 18th century Dutch silver Hanoverian pattern 3 pronged forks, with a matching 6th fork made slightly later by another maker, we assume to replace a loss shortly after they were made. The forks are quite plain and elegant, with turn down ends, and a prominent drop and pip, the "Amsterdam Lofje", characteristic of spoons and forks from Amsterdam.
The forks have no engraving or monograms. All the forks have makers mark HK in script for Hendrik Kamerlingh II, who worked between and , and Amsterdam town mark crown above 3 crosses. The 6th fork has makers mark HO for Hendrik Overhulsman, who worked between and , also with Amsterdam town mark.
All 6 makers and town marks are slightly squashed, this is usual on 18th century bottom marked flatware as the spoon maker would have re-hammered the stems after return from the assay office, as the stem would bulge when the marks were struck.
All 6 forks have an additional hallmark, V in shield under a crown, this is a Dutch tax mark used The spoons have no initials or engraving, and no signs of removal. The hallmarks on all 4 spoons are excellent, all individually struck.
Samuel Neville worked between and , he was a respected member of the community, he was Warden between and and was also elected to the Dublin City Council in He was Master in and An interesting 17th century style silver notched 2 pronged fork, a replica of the earliest known English table fork. The fork has 3 notches at the top of the stem, a rare feature seen occasionally on puritan spoons.
This fork is a good gauge, very pleasing to use, we tested it on cold meats and olives! The hallmarks are excellent, and include makers mark FH for Francis Howard, the firm worked between and The fork comes in it's original box, with label "V. Andrews", A real talking point for your dinner table. This fork is identical to S which we have already sold, made 2 years later.
A set of 8 Cape Silver tablespoons and table forks 4 of each in the Old English pattern, all with original owners engraved initials JM in script. The forks are lovely, long and elegant, and in great condition, the spoons have seen more use, with wear to the bowls. The spoons have wide circular drops, more continental in style.
Six pieces 4 spoons and 2 forks have additional initials AFDT engraved on the back of the stems, we assume an earlier owner, the AFDT showing signs of wear. Seven items have excellent hallmarks makers mark IC and crude anchor, Welz mark 25 , one fork has different marks, makers mark IC struck with a worn punch Welz mark 29 and what appears to be crowned leopards head clearly struck but worn punch, outline clear but no detail.
Combrink had a long career, and this IC mark with worn punch is well known, it is assumed the punch became worn over time. The crowned leopard town mark is more of a mystery, this punch was used by Twentyman and Waldek Welz and , and is unknown by The tines are different from most konfyt forks, these are quite fat, widely spaced and short 3.
The fork has original owners initials TFM, the engraving in an unusual script, quite pleasing overall. The fork has makers mark I. B in oval punch, with the I and B co-joined. This is depicted in the book "Cape Silver and Silversmiths" by Stephan Welz as mark 20, page , for Johan Anton Bunning, a German soldier who arrived in the Cape in and died in He mark is confirmed as he made silver for the Dutch Reformed Church, whose records confirm him as maker, but the Fiddle pattern style of the fork is problematic, as it was only introduced circa , so it is unlikely he made this fork.
A number of alternatives exist, it could have been made by a son Cape silversmiths regularly carried on using punches created by fathers. More likely is that this is the mark of another Cape silversmith, whose mark has not yet been attributed. A matching pair of nursery rhyme silver baby implements, a spoon and baby pusher, intended as Christening gifts. The detail on both is lovely, as can be seen from the photographs. Both are clearly hallmarked, the spoon was made in , the pusher in , but both by the same maker WH Collins, and both part of their nursery rhyme collection.
The pusher has original owners initials MJ, lightly engraved so this could be removed. The pusher also has a registration number, indicating the design was protected.
A fabulous pair of Baltimore silver tablespoons, in the Kings pattern, by Samuel Kirk of Baltimore, and bearing Baltimore assay marks for The spoons are very good quality and gauge, unlike many American spoons of the period, which were often thinner and lighter than their English counterparts.
They are single struck in Scottish fashion , the back of both spoons is engraved Lyon, we assume the original owner. In addition to makers mark S. Kirk in script in rectangular punch, the spoons have the oval Baltimore Coat of Arms quality mark, in rectangular punch with cut corners, and date letter C, used by Assay Master LeRoy Atkinson between and see www. These date to an interesting period in American silver history, Baltimore between and was the only place and date where hallmarks were required on silver in the USA, following the passing of the Assay Act by the State Legislature of Maryland in it was unpopular so repealed i A magnificent set of 4 Victorian cast silver Cherub salts, replicas of a style introduced by Paul de Lamerie.
The salts have a cast vine leaf bowl, supported by a cherub with arm outstretched, and two dolphin feet supporting the bowl. These are fabulous quality, they weigh between and grammes each, averaging at grammes each, and the condition is excellent. The salts are all solid, and stand well on the table, no wobble at all. One salt is clearly hallmarked on the vine leaf, A Swiss silver scalloped silver bowl, with an inserted Canton Bern 5 Batzen coin dated The bowl is planished hand hammered in Arts and Crafts style , and has 6 segments.
The bowl has a pleasing weight and is good quality, we believe hand-made. The bowl is hallmarked grade silver , and a shaped shield with V and 3 circles for the prestigious Jezler of Schaffhausen, established in and a leading Swiss silver and jewellery brand today. The shield is mounted on its original wooden stand, with brass hinge, it also has an additional silver plaque on the back that is engraved "The Grand Challenge Shield ". Below that, the Cape Colony coat of arms with female herald supporters, blowing trumpets.
To the right and left Zulu shields and spears above crossed rifles, all above a shooting range scene, with seated adjudicator and spectator with binoculars, surrounded by laurel wreath. This shield is also found in white metal and copper, this is a sterling silver version, with a full set of clear hallmarks.
A set of 6 silver and enamel teaspoons, with 6 different coloured enamel roses, made in to commemorate the "Year of the Rose", and the year anniversary of the RNRS Royal National Rose Society. The hallmarks are clear on all 6 spoons. Each individual spoon weighs over 20 grammes, these are good quality spoons, very suitable for use. The Royal National Rose Society is not only the world's oldest specialist plant society but the foremost global authority on the cultivation and care of the rose.
A rare pair of Cape silver tablespoons in the Old English pattern, engraved with the crest of the Cape Regiment. The spoons are engraved "CAPE.
REG" above a bugle, suspended from a shamrock shape rope knot. This bugle was used as a crest for English Light regiments, currently still used by the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry lightbobs. As is often the case with regimental silver, these spoons have been well used and well polished , so the crest is worn, one is better than the other. The Cape Regiment was formed in , and consisted of Khoisan and Coloured men under white officers, headquartered in Simonstown.
In it was renamed the Cape Corps, it remained in existence until Major Matthew Richmond, a New Zealand Colonial administrator and politician, served with the Cape Regiment in , so may have used these spoons.
A lovely Georgian silver chamberstick, of good quality and gauge, that is still in excellent condition. The pan is circular but with an octagonal design, the border has alternating devices one floral, one more rectangular. The candle nozzle is also octagonal, with a column design.
The flying scroll handle has a cast thumb-piece with engraved family crest, and slot for holding the companion extinguisher. The chamberstick also has its original detachable conical extinguisher sometimes called dunce cap extinguisher with acorn finial, this is also engraved with the same family crest, its attachment has the same floral motif as on the pan.
A number of impressive pieces by these makers have survived, including a pair of impressive wine coolers that can be seen on the Rau website www.
The crest , a "demi-lion ram A fabulous pair of cast silver mustard pots, realistically modelled as dragons, with the head resting on the lid, and coiled body forming the pot, with barbed tail forming the handle. The back of the dragon's head acts as a thumb piece, the hinged lids open to reveal clear glass liners for holding the mustard or other condiments. These are substantial items, they weigh over grammes each without the liners, the quality is superb.
The bodies were cast in 2 separate sections, the solder join is visible on the interior. The hallmarks are excellent on both pieces, the lids are hallmarked as well.
We have not encountered this model before, it is possible they were specially commissioned and as such are unique. Vander was established in by Cornelius Joshua VanderPump, the firm became "the last of England's preeminent silver firms, creating exceptional silver masterpieces using the time-honored traditions of the silversmith's art.
It was this firm's steadfast commitment to quality that made them the A collection of ten American sterling silver souvenir spoons, 5 of which have decorated bowls and 6 of which have decorated stems, 2 decorated front and back, and 2 are gilded. As is usual for these American souvenir spoons, the details are lovely. Honolulu, maker R in wing, Surf Rider 3.
Detroit, Mechanics Sterling, Detroit Harbour bowl 8. Chicago, Whiting, Ft Dearborn bowl. A fabulous early Georgian George II silver sauce boat, one of the best we have seen. The sauce boat is an exceptional size and quality, tipping the scales at grammes The sauce boat has Rococo decoration, with engraved swirling shells, flowers and scrolls, it also has an intricate diamond pattern which is also hand engraved.
The 3 cast shell feet are also fabulous, with a scroll between shell foot and shell attachment. The leaf capped double scroll handle has also been cast and applied. The sauce boat has a Rococo family armorial 3 wheat sheaves and a cross on one side and a family crest on the other, consisting of a lion rampant holding 2 wheat stalks. The Sable a cross potent is the Alleyn family, in this case the arms of the wife, we have not yet identified the arms of the husband.
It may possibly be the Lidsel family from Essex, Gules three garbs argent. This sauce boat is accompanied with the Heraldic report identifying the Alleyn fami An octagonal sterling silver tray, with an applied celtic zoomorphic border, and 4 celtic feet. This tray is extremely good quality and gauge, it weighs just over 1 kilogramme, and is nicely proportioned.
The celtic design is very intricate, the mythical beasts clearly visible, with 3 celtic knots on each of the 8 borders.
The hallmarks are clear for Birmingham , the makers mark is lightly struck but still discernable. They have a reputation for very fine quality silver, this tray is no exception.
A set of 18 Wallace Georgian Colonial pattern sterling silver forks, 12 are table forks and 6 are salad forks, which are very suitable for use as cake forks. The forks have 4 prongs, and the pattern is quite elegant but restrained.
The design of the forks is different front and back, the front a shaped pedestal, the back a lovely foliage design. Wallace Silversmiths dates back to , and is still in existence today, this pattern was made from to The forks have no monogrammes.
A 24 piece set of Georg Jensen sterling silver Cypress pattern flatware, consisting of 6 dinner knives, 6 dinner forks, 6 dinner spoons and 6 soup spoons. This set has a lovely elegant design, we particularly love the soup spoons. This is a vintage set dating from , all 24 pieces are fully hallmarked. All 24 pieces also carry London import marks, sponsors mark G. The Cypress pattern won the design competition held for the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Georg J An antique Dutch silver vinaigrette zilveren lodereindoosje in the form of an armoire kabinet.
The box is rectangular in shape, with an engraved armoire, complete with drawers, it also has a pierced rim on the lid.
The back is decorated with an engraved flower, while the base, sides and lid have engraved wrigglework decoration.
The lid is clearly hallmarked with maker mark IS under star makers mark in the book "Netherlands Responsibility Marks since " for Johannes Jacobus Smits, who worked in Schoonhoven between and The lid also has a very clear date letter O for The rim of the box also has makers mark and Minerva head office mark duty mark. Loderein comes from the French "l'eau de reine" translated "water of the king", as only the wealthy could afford the perfumed cologne.
A set of 12 Dutch silver cake forks, with a threaded border pattern, with the traditional thicker cake cutting tine. The forks are quite dainty, but still good quality, around 18 grammes each. All 12 forks are hallmarked with makers mark V. All 6 spoons have good hallmarks, makers mark SN for Samuel Neville struck both ways.
They also have Hibernia and Harp Crowned, and date letter H for note absence of duty mark, only introduced in Ireland in A pair of Victorian silver grape scissors, once an essential implement in an upmarket Victorian drawing room, used to cut the stems of a bunch of grapes. For some more information about the early development, see Gracht. At the time he was the leader of growing national Dutch resistance against Spanish occupation of the country, which struggle is known as the Eighty Years' War.
By then Delft was one of the leading cities of Holland and it was equipped with the necessary city walls to serve as a headquarters. After the Act of Abjuration was proclaimed in Delft became the de facto capital of the newly independent Netherlands, as the seat of the Prince of Orange. When William was shot dead in , by Balthazar Gerards in the hall of the Prinsenhof, the family's traditional burial place in Breda was still in the hands of the Spanish.
Therefore, he was buried in the Delft Nieuwe Kerk New Church , starting a tradition for the House of Orange that has continued to the present day. Makers mark IT for: Johannes Tiddens, registered , date letter A for , 1st standard silver, town mark Delft.
Originally basing themselves near the pond now known as the Hofvijver in the centre of The Hague, in the 13th century Count Willem II built the Binnenhof, or current houses of parliament, on the same spot. Lacking city rights, The Hague was unable to build the traditional wall and moat system of the day, so a town hall was built which can still be seen today in the Groenmarkt.
He insisted that by the following day he 'be offered the keys of the city at a ceremony in The Hague. A few months later Napoleon proclaimed The Hague 'third city of the kingdom'. Gregorius van der Toorn II, registered The Hague marked 2nd standard silver or kleine keur ; town mark, the stork without crown, lion rampant without crown and the year letter without an crown.
Deventer was probably founded around by the English missionary Lebuinus, who built a wooden church on the east bank of the river IJssel. In January the sack and burning of this church by a Saxon expedition was the cause for the first punitive war waged by Charlemagne to the Saxons, in which, in retribution, the Irminsul sacred tree was destroyed. This was not the first human settlement at the location; between and , remains of a Bronze Age settlement dated to c. The towers of the St. Nicholas Church date back to c.
The village of Deventer, already important because of a trading road crossing the river IJssel, was looted and burnt down by the Vikings in It was immediately rebuilt and fortified with an earthen wall in the street Stenen Wal remains of this wall have been excavated and restored. Deventer received city rights in , after which fortifications were built or replaced by stone walls around the city for defense.
Between and , Deventer grew to be a flourishing trade city because of its harbour on the river IJssel, which was capable of accommodating large ships. The city eventually joined the Hanseatic League. One of the commodities it traded in, dried haddock and cod from Norway, gave the citizens the nickname they carry to this day: The town mark for Deventer is based on the coat of arms: This Deventer town mark is often confused with that of Arnhem, Leeuwarden, Middelburg or Nijmegen, where a double-headed eagle was used as town mark.
City of Dokkum Dokkum is a Dutch fortified town in the municipality of Dongeradeel in the province of Friesland. The best known event in Dokkum's history is the assassination of the Anglo-Saxon missionary Saint Boniface in Oliver of Cologne preached the Fifth Crusade in Dokkum in and Dokkum sent a contingent; the crescent in the coat of arms of Dokkum refers to this event. Dokkum acquired city rights in In Dokkum was sacked by the Spaniards after it had joined the Dutch Revolt.
In , the Admiralty of Friesland was established in Dokkum. However, it was moved to Harlingen in City of Dokkum, the town mark is based on the coat of arms, three stars under a crescent moon.
Eise Ruardi gratitude Zilverstudie. The city was formed along the Thure river, in the midst of peat swamps. This river was a branch of the river Dubbel and ran approximately near the current Bagijnhof. The first reference to Dordrecht was made in in the Annals of Xanten for the Years where the author notes how the Northmen Vikings plundered eastern and western Frisia and set fire to the town of Dordrecht. Around reference to Dordrecht was made by a remark that count Dirk IV was murdered near "Thuredrech".
Dordrecht was granted city rights by William I, Count of Holland, in , making it the oldest city in the present province of South Holland. In the 12th and 13th centuries, Dordrecht developed into an important market city because of its strategic location. It traded primarily in wine, wood and cereals. Dordrecht was made even more important when it was given staple right in In a Latin school was founded in Dordrecht. It still exists today as the Johan de Witt Gymnasium and is the oldest gymnasium in the Netherlands.
On 18—19 November , the Saint Elisabeth's flood flooded large parts of southern Holland, causing Dordrecht to become an island. It was commonly said that over 10, people died in the flood, but recent research indicates that it was probably less than people. In the 18th century, the importance of Dordrecht began to wane, and Rotterdam became the main city in the region.
Yet throughout the centuries, Dordrecht held a key position in the defence of Holland. It hosted an army division well into the 20th century.
City of Dordrecht silver guild used a crowned rose as town mark, similar to which the city of Norwich UK used in the late 16th and at the beginning of the 17th century, the town marks was a crowned rose which was later replaced by a rose alone. At the end of the 18th century Dordrecht used a rose uncrowned with leaves.
Eindhoven is a municipality and a city located in the province of North Brabant in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams. The written history of Eindhoven started in , when Duke Hendrik I of Brabant granted city rights to Endehoven, then a small town right on the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams.
At the time of granting of its charter, Eindhoven had approximately houses enclosed by a rampart. Just outside of the city walls stood a small castle. The city was also granted the right to organize a weekly market and the farmers in nearby villages were obliged to come to Eindhoven to sell their produce.
Around , the city's fortifications were strengthened further. And between and , a new castle was built within the city walls.
In , Eindhoven was plundered and burned by troops from Guelders. The reconstruction of Eindhoven was finished in , with a stronger rampart and a new castle. However, in it fell again: During the Dutch Revolt, Eindhoven changed hands between the Dutch and the Spanish several times during which it was burned down by renegade Spanish soldiers, until finally in it was captured once more by Spanish troops and its city walls were demolished.
Eindhoven did not become part of the Netherlands until During the French occupation, Eindhoven suffered again with many of its houses destroyed by the invading forces. Eindhoven remained a minor city after that until the start of the industrial revolution. Eindhoven never had an official silver guild and some silversmiths of Eindhoven were known to apply their own version of the town mark based on the coat of arms being three posthorns.
The hatchet is a later tax mark. Enkhuizen is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland and the region of West-Frisia. Enkhuizen was one of the harbour-towns of the VOC, just like Hoorn and Amsterdam, from where overseas trade with the East Indies was conducted.
It received city rights in In the midth century, Enkhuizen was at the peak of its power and was one of the most important harbour cities in the Netherlands. However, due to a variety of reasons, notably the silting up of the harbours, Enkhuizen lost its position to Amsterdam. Town mark is based on the coat of arms of Enkhuizen: Makers mark NR for: It is assumed that Gorinchem was founded circa the year by fishermen and farmers on the raised land near the mouth of the river Linge at the Merwede.
Somewhere between and , Gorinchem became property of the Lords of Arkel. At the end of the 13th century earthen mounts reinforced with palisades were built around the settlement to protect it from domination by the neighboring counties of Holland and Gelre.
Half a century later real city walls were built complete with 7 gates and 23 watchtowers. Otto van Arkel granted it city rights on 11 November Jan van Arkel had a dispute with Albert I, brother of Willem V of Holland, leading to war and subsequently to the annexation of Gorinchem to Holland in This resulted in increased trade and Gorinchem grew to be the eighth city of Holland. On 9 July , the Watergeuzen Dutch rebels against Spanish rule conquered the city and captured 19 Catholic priests and monks because they refused to renounce their faith.
These priests and monks were brought to Brielle where they were hanged and were from then on known as the Martyrs of Gorkum. In the 16th century the city walls were so deteriorated that they were replaced with new fortifications and eleven bastions, which still are almost completely intact.
The new walls were rounded off in and were placed farther from the town centre, making the city twice as large. In Gorinchem became part of the old Dutch Water Line. The city walls had four city gates: Of these four gates only the Dalem Gate remains. In the 18th century, the economy went into decline. After the French domination, the retreating French troops took station in the bastion fortress of Gorinchem. After a three-month siege they capitulated but the city was heavily damaged.
The first town mark of Gorinchem was based upon the city arms, three tower castle in combination with the coat of arms of the family of van Arkel; https: Adriaan van Sgravenweert, registered , date letter b for or The town mark of Gorinchem province zuid Holland has been based upon two crenelated beams Coat of arms of the family van Arkel in a shield with a crown but also seen without crown. At the end of the 18th century the two crenelated beams were simplified into a wave pattern.
Gorinchem is pronounced Gorcum and often spelled Gorcum. From left to right; DR for Dirk Rosenburg, registered , crowned O duty free mark of for old objects, Gorinchem year letter A, uncrowned for and 2nd standard silver, followed by the city mark of Gorinchem without crown for 2nd standard silver.
Later in October , the hall marks and year letter Kingdom of Holland were introduced. Around the year , the area where Gouda now is located was swampy and covered with a peat forest, crossed by small creeks such as the Gouwe. Along the shores of this stream near the current market and city hall, peat harvesting began in the 11th and 12th centuries. In , the name Gouda is first mentioned in a statement from the Bishop of Utrecht.
In the 13th century, the Gouwe was connected to the Oude Rijn Old Rhine by means of a canal and its mouth at the Hollandse IJssel was developed into a harbour. Castle Gouda was built to protect this harbour. In , Floris V, Count of Holland, granted city rights to Gouda, which by then had become an important location. City-canals or grachten were dug and served as transport ways through the town. Great fires in and destroyed the city. In , the city was occupied by Les Gueux Dutch rebels against the Spanish King who also committed arson and destruction.
In the demolition of Castle Gouda began. In , , , and , Gouda suffered from deadly plague epidemics, of which the last one was the most severe: In the last quarter of the 16th century, Gouda had serious economic problems. It recovered in the first half of the 17th century and even prospered between and But its economy collapsed again when war broke out in and the plague decimated the city in , even affecting the pipe industry. After , Gouda enjoyed a period of progress and prosperity until Then another recession followed, resulting in a long period of decline that lasted well into the 19th century.
Gouda was one of the poorest cities in the country during that period: Crowned for 1st standard silver and uncrowned for 2nd standard silver. From left to right Finch in contour facing right maker's mark for: Pleunis van Geelen, registered in the city of Gouda during Pleunis van Geelen became essayer and appraiser of the city Gouda in The city mark of Gouda uncrowned for 2nd standard of silver followed by the date-letter, unclear could be d or i for either or The city was founded on the northernmost point of the Hondsrug area.
The oldest document referring to Groningen's existence dates from However, the city already existed long before then: In the 13th century, when Groningen was an important trade centre, its inhabitants built a city wall to underline its authority. The city had a strong influence on the surrounding lands and made its dialect a common tongue. The most influential period of the city was the end of the 15th century, when the nearby province of Friesland was administered from Groningen.
During these years, the Martinitoren was built, which loomed over the city at then metres tall, making it perhaps the highest building in Europe at the time. The city's independence came to an end when in , it chose to accept Emperor Charles V, the Habsburg ruler of the other Netherlands, as its overlord.
It later joined the Republic of the Seven United Provinces. In , the University of Groningen was founded, initially only for religious education. In the same period the city expanded rapidly and a new city wall was built. Groningen used a combined town mark and date letter. The town mark of Groningen is based on the coat of arms: Above the bar is a number to indicate the alphabet series used; below the bar an alphabetical letter. In this case; town mark Groningen, 8th alphabet for , makers mark JS for: Joseph Seeser, registered , 1st standard silver.
Guild city mark of Haarlem, the coat of arms: Haarlem receives a sword for its shield from the German emperor in thanks for the victory in Damietta during the 5th crusade. Scene is now referred to as "the legend of the Haarlem shield". Haarlem has a rich history dating back to pre-medieval times, as it lies on a thin strip of land above sea level known as the strandwal beach ridge , which connects Leiden to Alkmaar.
The people on this narrow strip of land struggled against the waters of the North Sea from the west, and the waters of the IJ and the Haarlem Lake from the east.
Haarlem became wealthy with toll revenues that it collected from ships and travellers moving on this busy North-South route. However, as shipping became increasingly important economically, the city of Amsterdam became the main Dutch city of North Holland during the Dutch Golden Age. The town of Halfweg became a suburb, and Haarlem became a quiet bedroom community, and for this reason Haarlem still has many of its central medieval buildings intact.
Hendrik Blommendael , registered Harlingen , West Frisian: Harns is a municipality and a city in the northern Netherlands, in the province of Friesland at the Wadden Sea. Harlingen is an old town with a long history of fishing and shipping. Harlingen received city rights in The Admiralty of Friesland was established in Dokkum in but moved to Harlingen in Town mark of Harlingen is based on the coat of arms: Harlingen has used different variations.
Johannes Spannenburgh , registered Harlingen used date letters for Friesland. To explain the entire history of this colourful emblem you'd need an entire book, but here's the short answer. The first mention of the existence of the coat of arms dates to a document from The main feature on the coat of arms, the tree, is a telling symbol of the Duke's forest. The tree, accompanied by two smaller ones, was already implemented on the oldest known city seal.
The eagle is the German Reich's eagle with the Austrian shield on its chest. The gold crown and the two wild men were added in when the coat of arms was placed on the new city hall. One explanation could be that they made the forest dwellers who were associated with the founding of the city into guards.
Theodorus van Berckel Jr. Founded in , Hoorn rapidly grew to become a major harbour town. The Hoorn fleet plied the seven seas and returned laden with precious commodities. Exotic spices such as pepper, nutmeg, cloves, and mace were sold at vast profits. With their skill in trade and seafaring, sons of Hoorn established the town's name far and wide. Jan Pieterszoon Coen — is famous for his violent raids in Dutch Indies now Indonesia , where he "founded" the city of Batavia in now Jakarta.
He has a big statue on the Rode Steen square in the center of Hoorn. His story of his travel and hardship found its way into the history books when he published his adventures in under the title Journael ofte gedenckwaerdige beschrijvinge van de Oost-Indische reyse van Willem Ysbrantsz. Bontekoe van Hoorn, begrijpende veel wonderlijcke en gevaerlijcke saecken hem daer in wedervaren 'Journal, or memorable description, of the East-Indian voyage of Willem Ysbrantz.
Bontekoe of Hoorn, comprising many wondrous and dangerous things experienced by him'. In , the explorer Willem Corneliszoon Schouten braved furious storms as he rounded the southernmost tip of South America.
He named it Kaap Hoorn Cape Horn in honour of his home town. Hoorn's fortunes declined somewhat in the eighteenth century. The prosperous trading port became little more than a sleepy fishing village on the Zuiderzee. Following the Napoleonic occupation, there was a period during which the town gradually turned its back on the sea. It developed to become the market for the entire West Frisian agricultural region.
Stallholders and shopkeepers devoted themselves to trading in dairy produce and seeds. When the railway and metalled roads came to Hoorn in the late nineteenth century, the town rapidly took its rightful place as a conveniently located and readily accessible centre in the network of towns and villages which make up the province of Noord-Holland.
The town mark is based on the coat of arms a music horn on a bow. Makers mark three stars for: By , there were already wooden buildings on the site where Kampen is currently located. The name Kampen, however, is not mentioned until The city has had city rights since As a result of its convenient location on the busy trade route between the Zuiderzee and the Rhine, Kampen quickly developed from simple settlements into a prosperous trading town, to become one of the most powerful and leading cities of northwestern Europe.
In the 14th century, Kampen exchanged with the bishop of Utrecht, Jan van Arkel, the Mastenbroek polder against the right to increase the IJsseldelta. The silting up of the IJssel brought a gradual end to the prosperity of Kampen from on.
For a long time Kampen did not want to sign a union and make economic and political concessions to other cities, as was usual in the Hanseatic League. When the County of Holland went to war with the Hanseatic League this situation came to an end: Kampen was originally more oriented toward the Baltic trade and commerce with the hinterland of the Rhine, and therefore in formally joined the Hanseatic League. The city had much influence in the League; despite loud protests from the other towns in lower reaches of the IJssel and from other Hanseatic cities, the League agreed in to build a bridge over the river.
With this bridge Kampen hoped to be able to develop closer relationships with the hinterland. After the massacre of Zutphen on 15 November, the city voluntarily surrendered to the Spanish. In , the city changed ownership again after the Siege of Kampen, led by George van Lalaing. Due to its right to increase the IJsseldelta, Kampen was owner of the growing Kampereiland.
From the islands were leased. The rents were so large that the city did not need to raise taxes. Kampen only became well known again in the 19th century. The city was difficult to reach from the sea, because the surrounding wetlands became silted up and shallow. During the preceding centuries, the watercourse of the river IJssel was dredged several times, but the costs were relatively high and within a few years, the river silted up again.
As the IJssel had several delta-like mouths here, the main route of the river shifted several times. In the 19th century, a new strategy was put in place to counter this problem: This had the advantage that less sand and silt were deposited and resulted in a river course that "swept itself clean". A key figure in this story is city architect Nicolaas Plomp, who, besides his work for the current IJssel front of the city of Kampen, was also involved in hydraulic engineering. Due to the emerging industry in the 19th century and the importance of roads and railways for the economy, highways and paved roads were constructed to replace transportation over sand and mud roads.
Kampen used for 2nd standard silver a combined town and standard mark; R. D above three towers, R. Jan van Kamen Camen ….. Ljouwert, is the capital city of the Frisian province of Friesland in the Netherlands. It is situated in the northern part of the country. The area has been occupied since the 10th century although recently, remains of houses dating back to the 2nd century AD were discovered during a dig near the Oldehove , and was mentioned as a city in German sources in The actual city charter was granted in Situated along the Middelzee Middle Sea , it was an active trade centre, until the waterway silted up in the 15th century.
In the city had a population of 32, A proto-Frisian culture slowly began to emerge around — BC known for its artificial dwelling hills as a defence against the sea. After a series of costly battles against the Frisians, the Romans were suddenly sworn fealty.
The de facto independence they later enjoyed as a Roman vassal shows that this might have been a mostly diplomatic decision based on the temporary favourable bargaining position. Together with other Germanic tribes such as the Salians later Franks and the Batavii they managed to keep the region north of the Lower Rhine mostly free from Roman influence.
After incorporation into the Frankish empire, Friesland was divided into three parts. The westernmost part developed at the start of the second millennium into the County of Holland, while the remainder of Frisia had no feudal overlord, a situation known as the Frisian freedom.
Under Napoleon, the department was named Frise. After Napoleon was defeated in , the department became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands as the province of Friesland. Lion rampant in a crowned shield, guild city mark for Leeuwarden used as of till And the Frisian date letter H for City of Leiden Leijden.
Leiden and archaic Dutch also Leyden is a city and municipality in the Dutch province of South Holland. It is twinned with Oxford, the location of England's oldest university. Leiden has historically been associated with the Roman outpost Lugdunum Batavorum.
This particular castellum was however closer to the town of Katwijk, whereas the Roman settlement near modern-day Leiden was called. In the oldest reference to this, from circa , the settlement was called Leithon.
The landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill motte , was initially subject to the Bishop of Utrecht but around the burgraves became subject to the county of Holland. This county got its name in from a domain near the stronghold: Early 13th century, Ada, Countess of Holland took refuge here when she was fighting in a civil war against her uncle, William I, Count of Holland.
He besieged the stronghold and captured Ada. Leiden received city rights in In , its population had grown to about persons.
Leiden flourished in the 16th and 17th century. At the close of the 15th century the weaving establishments mainly broadcloth of Leiden were very important, and after the expulsion of the Spaniards Leiden cloth, Leiden baize and Leiden camlet were familiar terms. In the same period, Leiden developed an important printing and publishing industry.
The influential printer Christoffel Plantijn lived there at one time. One of his pupils was Lodewijk Elzevir — , who established the largest bookshop and printing works in Leiden, a business continued by his descendants through and the name subsequently adopted in a variant spelling by contemporary publisher Elsevier.
In , the city sided with the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule and played an important role in the Eighty Years' War. Besieged from May until October by the Spanish, Leiden was relieved by the cutting of the dikes, thus enabling ships to carry provisions to the inhabitants of the flooded town. As a reward for the heroic defence of the previous year, the University of Leiden was founded by William I of Orange in Yearly on 3 October, the end of the siege is still celebrated in Leiden.
Tradition tells that the citizens were offered the choice between a university and a certain exemption from taxes and chose the university. The siege is notable also for being the first instance in Europe of the issuance of paper money, with paper taken from prayer books being stamped using coin dies when silver ran out.
Leiden is also known as the place where the Pilgrims as well as some of the first settlers of New Amsterdam lived and operated a printing press for a time in the early 17th century before their departure to Massachusetts and New Amsterdam in the New World. On 12 January , a catastrophe struck the city when a boat loaded with 17, kg 38, lb of gunpowder blew up in the middle of Leiden.
King Louis Bonaparte personally visited the city to provide assistance to the victims. Although located in the center of the city, the area destroyed remained empty for many years.
In the space was turned into a public park, the Van der Werff. It was rarely used for making silverware after and usually only for high level reproduction of antique items.
After silversmiths maintained the use the their former maker's marks initials for works in " sterling " silver standard while the later system of hallmarking first two letters of the surname was used for works in " Britannia standard ".
The practice of using two sets of marks continued until At this date, due to the confusion which had arisen, plate workers were ordered to destroy their existing marks and register a new one composed by the initials of their Christian name and surname, choosing letters of different character from those previously used note 5. The " Britannia standard " had a revival in the reproduction of antique items in the late Victorian Era late 19th century , during the reigns of Edward VII and George V first third of the 20th century and in more recent years 's and 's.
After the hallmarking system change 1 January " Britannia " silver is marked with the millesimal fineness hallmark "", associated, on an optional and voluntary basis, with the " Britannia " symbol. The marks of " Britannia " and the " lion head erased " had only slight changes over time so that the dating of items manufactured using these standards depends especially on the "date letter" representing the year in which the object was verified by the Assay Office and on the maker's mark initials modified in , when new criteria were introduced.
London - Nathaniel Locke. London - Charles Adam.
Imsges: dating silver plate letter dates
The pictured quart bottle is not embossed and was produced in a turn-mold as it has no side mold seams and fairly obvious horizontal concentric rings indicating its turn-mold heritage. In the fire, only nine buildings escaped the flames. They used this trademark of a medieval axe from until
Overseas territories have diverse statuses and enjoy a large autonomy. They were made in porcelain, pottery or brass from the late 19thC. These are good quality, the forks around 90 grammes each and the spoons over
Makers mark IT for: The flying scroll handle has a cast thumb-piece with engraved family crest, and slot for holding the dating silver plate letter dates extinguisher. As the business dates show, all of these companies were active during the height of aberdeenshire dating bottle types popularity - the s and s. Hallmark on the eye is obscured but the best known maker if not the only one at that point was Arthus Bertrand in Paris. Though born in the United States, near New Orleans, Clemens Friedell - was educated in Austria where he first learned to work with silver. Example is a Nouveau pendant with amethyst, blue stone looks dating silver plate letter dates aquamarineand pearl drop. A lovely set of replica lace back trefid coffee spoons, perfectly preserved on original box, they do not appear to have been used.
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