decanters & drinking-glasses (dating notes)
Set of cordial glasses or tiny wines, solid brass with solid brass tray. This will be noted where known. A link to this catalog follows:
This exception to the side mold seam "rule" was caused by the specific workings of these machines which masked the upper portion of the side mold seam. Apparently this style, though primarily used for champagne, was also used for other products particular wine - see image below since these bottles are found more commonly than one would expect for an upscale product like champagne. A key concept in historic bottle dating is the high probability i. Spirits shapes used for wine: This particular bottle was produced in a turn-mold and has an applied single part finish that is similar to the champagne finish except that it is rounded instead of flat on the outside surface. The author has also seen Star Bitters labels on Wait's bottles as well as both labels on the immensely period popular Hostetter's Stomach Bitters bottles! W Lovely Georgian wine glass with round funnel bowl engraved with a hatched and festooned border with pendants over sprays of foliage, on opaque twist stem with spiral lace twist over corkscrew.
Several excellent sources of information on very early wine bottles 17th and 18th centuries are available and recommended since this website does not comprehensively cover bottles made prior to the early 19th century. Three notable publications are: An excellent historical overview of the 19th century wine trade, with a special emphasis on Western America, is found in The Bottles of Old Sacramento: Catalog to access the page that links to all the scans of this very useful catalog.
Wine and champagne bottles are listed primarily on pages This page is divided into just two categories due to the relative simplicity of the design and limited variations of these types of bottles, as follows: Each of the pictured bottles has a relatively short description and explanation including estimated dates or date ranges for that type bottle and links to other view pictures of the bottle.
Additional links to images of similar bottles are also frequently included. The array of references used to support the conclusions and estimates found here - including the listed dating ranges - are noted.
Additional information and estimates are based on the empirical observations of the author over 50 years of experience; this is often but not always noted. Various terminology is used in the descriptions that may be unfamiliar if you have not studied other pages on this site. If a term is unfamiliar, first check the Bottle Glossary page for an explanation or definition. As an alternative, one can do a search of this website. Wine and champagne bottles are some of the most commonly recovered items from historic sites throughout the U.
As already noted, wine and champagne bottle shapes tend to be some of the least diverse of any group of bottles covered on this website, though many of the shapes are very diagnostic of being a wine or champagne bottle. In addition, most of these specific shape classes have been in use for to years or more, continue to be used today, and are often very closely identified with certain types of wines. Some of the pictures found below are of modern bottles in styles that go well back into the 19th century with little change in the overall "look" of the bottle.
Given this almost unprecedented similarity through time, the dating of these bottles by shape is largely impossible and other manufacturing related diagnostic features must be used to determine the approximate age range of items; a subject that is covered on various other pages on this website Schulz ; Wilson One other note on wine bottles is that they are somewhat rarely embossed, but instead product identified with labels or frequently with blob seals.
Most other types of bottles show a tendency towards more embossed examples through the last half of the 19th century and into the first couple decades of the 20th.
This is not true for wine bottles where if anything, the tendency was to move from applied blob seals two shown in the picture at the top of this page to completely unadorned bottles that were labeled only through that same time period Munsey Blob seals were in use for wine bottles from the early 17th century until well into the early 20th century, though proportionally not in absolute numbers there were likely more used on bottles prior to than after that time.
One potentially confounding factor when trying to date wine and champagne bottles is that many, or possibly even a majority, of wine bottles were imported from Europe, often with European wine in them. Since the technology of European bottle makers lagged behind North American manufacturers during the late 19th and early 20th centuries to , bottles produced during this period in Europe often exhibit manufacturing based diagnostic features which would date them several decades older if they had been produced in the U.
When attempting to date known or suspected imported items please keep this in mind. The variety of shapes of early pre wine bottles is surprisingly diverse - given the limited numbers of bottles produced during that era - compared to the shapes found in later years. The bottles pictured here are a sampling of just some of the different shapes that were used for wine primarily during the first half of the 19th century and before.
These bottles were commonly used for wine as well as spirits like rum. This type bottle is European in origin Belgium or Dutch though ones like it were imported into this country during the early to midth century since few if any utilitarian bottles like this were being made in the U.
Click on the following hyperlinks to view more images of this bottle: The chestnut flask pictured to the right is a typical early American example that was most likely produced by a New England glasshouse between and - the heyday of this particular style.
It is free-blown, has a blowpipe type pontil scar in its pushed up base, and is medium olive green in color. Click on the following link to view more pictures of this chestnut flask: That company name is embossed very faintly on the base of this bottle - click NEGBCo base marking to view a picture of the base.
The center of the base has a sand pontil mark that is typical of the era. Like its English counterparts, this bottle was made in a three-piece mold though very similar types were also free-blown usually earlier and produced in dip molds. This wide squatty style was common in different variations from the late 18th century into the middle of the 19th century.
It has a crudely applied mineral finish, a faint sand pontil scar on the base, and likely dates from between and Click on the following links for more images of this bottle: Of interest on this bottle is a faint bluish cast to the apex of the moderately pushed-up base. This general type of bottle was also mouth-blown in two and three-piece molds and later late 19th and early 20th centuries in turn-molds. This shape was undoubtedly commonly used for a variety of beverages and physically similar examples can date from the early 19th through early 20th century.
Thus, manufacturing based diagnostic features must be used to come up with a reasonable date range for this style. Even then, the typical absence of embossing on most of these type items and the rarity of original labels which often allows for dating refinement, makes for relatively imprecise dating reliability. This shape of bottle compared to the ones above shows the trend of wine bottles from wider and squatty to taller and narrower as time progressed Jones Click on the following links to view an early 19th century or slightly before free-blown English wine bottle - with the original label - that would be a precursor to the utility bottle pictured to the right: It is English in origin, very dark olive green glass i.
These bottles were certainly used for both wine and spirits. Image courtesy of Glass Works Auctions. The general dating ranges for each of the pictured examples is in the description of the bottle above, and not reiterated here.
The reasons for the relative diversity of shapes used to contain wine during this earlier era is varied and includes the following: During this period bottles were a scarce and relatively expensive commodity and what one used to bottle a product was what one could acquire - new or used.
Many types of bottles saw use for a wide array of products. For example this type of early American Stoddard utility bottle ca. There was a decided lack of variety of bottle shapes in general during this early era, necessitating the use of more different types of bottles for a given substance than later late 19th and early 20th centuries when more bottle types were available and identified with specific products. The lack of variety of early shapes in general was probably a function of limited manufacturing techniques to make unusual designs only so much one can do free blowing or with a dip mold , limited market or demand for different shapes, and the labor intensity of making bottles and high glassblower pay which made bottles quite expensive to produce Scoville This distinctive and familiar shape of bottle is commonly referred to as a "Bordeaux" type bottle; they were also called a "claret", "sauterne" the latter primarily in light green or aqua glass , and likely other names IGCo.
These names also refer to the application to which these bottles were typical used, i. These bottles are typified by having a tall body with almost vertically parallel sides with sometimes a bit of a taper from shoulder to heel , a moderately steep shoulder, moderately short but distinct neck a bit less than a third the length of the body , and usually a champagne style single part finish.
The bases usually have a moderate to deep push-up with the presence of a mamelon common. Click Illinois Glass Company catalog - page to view that companies available Bordeaux bottle, which is specifically noted as a turn-mold. This shape originated in Europe by at least the early to mid 19th century and likely came to the U.
The style follows the chronologic trend of wine bottles from wider and squatty to taller and narrower, which is shown somewhat by the bottles pictured in the previous section. French made bottles of this specific style free-blown but without pontil scars were found on the Steamboat Bertrand which sank in the Missouri River in and were likely being made at least as early as the s Switzer , Jones , Van den Bossche A bottle very similar to the Bertrand examples is pictured below left.
The Bordeaux style does appear to be a distinct evolutionary change from the utility bottle pictured in the section above bulging neck, mineral finish and these early ads may have been describing that type bottle instead.
In any event, this shape most likely dates back at least to the s for wine and continues to be used today for many types of red wines few white wines produced throughout the world. Click close-up of shoulder, neck, and finish to view a close-up picture of this modern bottle. Upon close inspection of these two bottles the only substantive differences are related to the method of manufacture, the modern version being of course machine-made. The bottle pictured above left is a likely early 20th century example of a Bordeaux style bottle that was produced in a turn-mold as it has no side-seams and the distinctive concentric horizontal rings on the body typical of that manufacturing method.
The label on this bottle implies a dating no earlier than the early s based on the contents or capacity notation, which was not required prior to this time. This bottle could date from the same era as the label since turn-mold bottles were still being produced at least as late as the early s Illinois Glass Company , Toulouse b. However, the bottle could possibly pre-date the label and have been re-used for this semi-medicinal product since the bottles method of manufacture turn-mold, tooled finish was being used at least as early as the late s.
Click on the following links for more pictures of this Bordeaux shaped wine bottle: The small size 9. This bottle exhibits a lot of the characteristics and crudity of a bottle made during the first half of the 19th century, but is not obviously pontil scarred making it likely to date around the Civil War period of , since after this period dip molded bottles become more and more unusual and prior to this period pontil marks are almost universal.
Click on the following links for more view of this bottle: This bottle is very similar to those pictured and described in Switzer that were determined to be French in origin and dating right from to early , when the Steamship Bertrand sank in the Missouri River.
Earlier Bordeaux style bottles tend to have a bit more slope to the shoulder compared to the later ones with a sharper angle; compare the bottle to the left with the two pictured above Van den Bossche However, this feature appears not to be definitive of an early manufacture since, as with most bottle styles, there were subtle variations made throughout the many years of use.
These bottles are also free-blown or dip molded, have laid-on champagne type finishes, and very deep kick-ups. The Bordeaux style of wine bottles were made for an exceptionally long period of time - from possibly the early 19th century surely from no later than the s to the present day. Occasional examples can be found with a different type finish primarily external screw threads in the 20th century , though the majority of the bottles made up to the present have a cork accepting champagne finish but are otherwise identical in shape.
This shape of bottle can be mouth-blown in a turn or two-piece mold or machine-made. Thus, the general dating of this style must be done using manufacturing based diagnostic features; see the Bottle Dating pages for more dating information. Click on the following link to view a webpage that describes the three major wine bottle shapes the Bordeaux and the following two shapes: It should also be noted that identically shaped bottles in aqua as well as olive green were used from the very early 19th century until well into the 20th century for olive oil.
This distinctive and familiar shape of bottle is most often referred as a "Burgundy" or sometimes "cognac" bottle, though other names are of course possible IGCo. The style was also used for cognac distilled white wine though the cognac bottles tend to be taller in the body discussed more below. Burgundy bottles have a moderate height body with almost vertically parallel sides, a long sloping shoulder which merges seamlessly into the neck which is usually topped by a champagne style single part finish.
The height of the shoulder and neck in combination is usually equal to or a bit more than the height of the body heel to shoulder. The bases usually have moderate to deep push-ups with the presence of a mamelon common, though later 20th century ones have minimal push-ups and small to non-existent mamelons. Like the Bordeaux style bottle above, the Burgundy shape originated in Europe by at least the early 19th century and likely came to the U.
It seems to have first shown up in the U. Champagne bottles tend to be a little wider in the body and made with heavier glass; differences that are usually distinct when one has the two types side by side. In addition champagne bottles were usually made in a darker olive green color than the Burgundy style, though this is quite variable and a likely meaningless distinction.
This precise shape continues to be used today for many types of red and white wines produced throughout the world. Click close-up of shoulder, neck, and finish to view a close-up picture of this modern bottle showing the lack of clear transition from the shoulder to the neck.
The bottle pictured to the right is another modern Burgundy style bottle that was used for sake, showing that there was and is some alternative use of this style beyond certain types of wine.
Click close-up of the shoulder, neck, and finish to view the unusual cork stoppered finish on this example, which would be considered a bead finish. Most Burgundy style bottles have a champagne finish, though in more recent times midth century on external screw threads are common. However, the latter type finish is not widely used with the exception of "cheap" wine, simply because it is associated with cheap wine and few wine producers - not unexpectedly - wish their product to be thought of that way.
Thus, the general dating of this style of bottle must be done using manufacturing based diagnostic features; see the Bottle Dating pages for more dating information. Click on the following link to view a webpage that describes the three major wine bottle shapes the Burgundy and the shapes above and below: This is the third and last of the three dominant styles of wine bottles which bridge the time from at least the mid 19th century to the present day.
This particular shape was - and still is - referred to as a "hock" or Rhine wine. Glassmakers during the early 20th century called them by either name IGCo. Click on the following link to view the illustration and listing for hock wine bottles in the Illinois Glass Company catalog - IGCo.
This catalog indicates that these bottles are of German or French origin, though sold through this American glass company catalog. During the 19th century, hock wine bottles typically contained both red and white Rhine and Mosel wines. The term "hock" is reported to be an English pronunciation of the abbreviation for Hockheim , which is a vineyard village south of Mannheim, Germany from which the first Main-Rhine wines were exported to England Van den Bossche The distinctive shape of these bottles is typified by being tall and slender with no sharp break where the body merges into the shoulder though the shoulder starts where the parallel body sides just begin to converge and no discernable break where the shoulder becomes the neck.
This general shape dates back to at least the s or s in Europe, though these early to mid 19th century examples are just slightly "squattier" in shape relatively speaking than those pictured here.
They were also typically free-blown or dip molded, often exhibiting pontil scars reflecting the technology of that period, and are sometimes blob sealed Boow ; Van den Bossche Hock wine bottles from the 19th and early 20th centuries are most often seen in shades of olive green or amber, but were produced commonly in a wide array of other colors from colorless to aqua to red amber a common color; see bottle to the right pictured above to various shades of blue or bluish green bottle to left below.
Machine-made examples typically date from the mid to late s and after see last note at the bottom of this page for a dating caution. Today this precise shape is synonymous with white wines made throughout the world from an assortment of grapes including Riesling usually green bottles and Gewurztraminer usually amber bottles Van Den Bossche Both of these bottles were produced in a turn-mold, as they have no body mold seams in evidence and distinctive horizontal rings from the turn mold process.
Both also have applied champagne finishes and moderate push-up bases with small mamelons. Like most we believe hock wine bottles these bottles were very likely imported from Europe and date from the late 19th or early 20th centuries. Click on the following links to see more images of these bottles: The bottles pictured to the right above are downscaled examples of the typical hock wine shape which date from the same era as the bottles above, i.
Both have typical champagne finishes, though the blue green one left is applied and likely foreign made and the smaller amber one has a tooled finish and possibly American made. W Fine pair of Georgian bucket rummers cut with a band of diamonds over basal broad flutes, on stems with central ball knop. W Rare and beautiful set of six Edwardian goblets with conical bowls decorated in intaglio with a rose and leaves, on drawn reeded stems and subtly ribbed folded feet.
Inspired by the engraving on 18th century Jacobite glasses. W Fine Georgian wine glass with bell shaped bowl engraved with fruiting vines, on multispiral airtwist stem with shoulder knop. W Fine Georgian wine glass with bell shaped bowl on double knopped opaque twist stem with ply spiral band over vertical gauze. W Beautiful Georgian 'Newcastle' goblet with funnel bowl finely engraved with flowers, foliage birds and scrollwork, on stem with annulated knop over elongated inverted baluster knop.
W Beautiful Victorian goblet finely engraved with a scrolled and spotted band over foliate festoons above basal foliate band, on spreading folded foot engraved en suite. W Good Georgian tumbler cut with fans and broad flutes over basal moulded vertical pillar flutes.
W Lovely Georgian wine glass with round funnel bowl engraved with a hatched and festooned border with pendants over sprays of foliage, on opaque twist stem with spiral lace twist over corkscrew. W Beauiful grey glass rummer cut with a band of waisted panels of fine diamonds over basal broad flutes, on fluted spreading stem and octagonal foot. DB10 Rare Georgian baluster dram glass with round funnel bowl with basal tear on teared stem with inverted baluster knop and basal flattened knop on folded foot.
At the end of the Seven Years' War in , he along with many others opposed what they considered to be over-generous peace terms granted to the defeated enemy, France, in the Treaty of Paris. The King, feeling personally insulted, was encouraged to issue general warrants warrants in which the name of the accused is not specified for the arrest of Wilkes and 48 others on a charge of seditious libel. At the trial, the Lord Chief Justice ruled that as an MP Wilkes was protected by Parliamentary privilege from arrest on a charge of libel.
Crowds chanted "Wilkes, Liberty and the Number 45". W Fine Georgian wine glass with bell shaped bowl cut with zigzags and lenticles, on centre knopped stem cut with small hexagonal facets and scalloped foot cut en suite with the bowl.
W Superb pair of Georgian rummers with barrel shaped bowls cut with a band of alternating panels of stars and fine diamonds over basal broad flutes, on blade knopped stems.
Imsges: dating old wine glasses
These are all in excell
W Rare Georgian ale flute with ogee bowl decorated in wash enamel with hops and barley, on opaque twist stem with two spiral corkscrews over two spiral tapes. A bottle may have mold seams but no embossing, but all embossed bottles were molded and have mold seams even if they are not readily apparent. The author has also seen Star Bitters labels on Wait's bottles as well as both labels on the immensely period popular Hostetter's Stomach Bitters bottles!
This entire website is dating penticton bc a key to the dating and typing of bottles. Shape Period Funnel or dating old wine glasses - some examples to end s Bell - Ovoid onward Rounded onward. Machine-made examples date from the mid to late s and later. If your bottle is a milk bottle that fits this description, click Machine-made Bottles to move to the Machine-made bottles dating page for more possible dating refinement and to ols more information. This body of information will be utilized and extrapolated to make dating and typing estimates for the majority of bottles for estonia singles dating there is either no specific company or glass maker information available or such is not possible to determine because the dating old wine glasses are unmarked i. Click close-up of shoulder, neck, and finish to view a close-up picture of this modern bottle.