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I am a caring, loving and sensitive adult with a responsible and mature disposition. The information in this flyer is provided for general information only, is not intended to be legal advice, and may change without notice. Although the first, primitive versions of the eastern ceramic types may have been made on occasion in the North China Plain, in virtually every case these types were elaborated in the east and given more-precise functional definition, greater structural strength, and greater aesthetic coherence. Submit an Immigrant Visa Application After provisional approval of Form I petition, you or your adoption service provider will submit a visa application to the consular section of the U. However, as the Cultural Revolution waned in the mids, work began again in earnest, and the China Association of Archaeology was established in Share this article Share.

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Government sponsorships, including other J-visa applicants, are subject to the MRV processing fee. The remainder are employed primarily in public services. If you violate Chinese laws, even unknowingly, you may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. The number, complexity, and size—the Simuwu tetrapod weighed 1, pounds kg —of the Late Shang ritual vessels reveal high technological competence married to large-scale, labour-intensive metal production. The painted bands of this pottery may represent the start of the Painted Pottery culture.

Tripods with a variety of leg shapes, serving stands, gui pitchers with handles, and goblets with petal-shaped feet were characteristic.

Ring feet were used, silhouettes became more angular, and triangular and circular perforations were cut to form openwork designs on the short-stemmed serving stands. A variety of jade ornaments, a feature of Qingliangang culture, has been excavated from Songze burial sites. Sites of the Liangzhu culture from the last half of the 4th to the last half of the 3rd millennium have generally been found in the same area.

The pots were mainly wheel-made, clay-tempered gray ware with a black skin and were produced by reduction firing; oxidized redware was less prevalent. Some of the serving stand and tripod shapes had evolved from Majiabang prototypes , while other vessel forms included long-necked gui pitchers.

The walls of some vessels were black throughout, eggshell-thin, and burnished, resembling those found in Late Neolithic sites in Shandong see below. Extravagant numbers of highly worked jade bi disks and cong tubes were placed in certain burials, such as one at Sidun southern Jiangsu that contained 57 of them.

Liangzhu farmers had developed a characteristic triangular shale plow for cultivating the wet soils of the region. Fragments of woven silk from about bce have been found at Qianshanyang northern Zhejiang. Along the southeast coast and on Taiwan, the Dapenkeng corded-ware culture emerged during the 4th and 3rd millennia. This culture, with a fuller inventory of pot and tool types than had previously been seen in the area, developed in part from that of Fuguodun but may also have been influenced by cultures to the west and north, including Qingliangang, Liangzhu, and Liulin.

The pots were characterized by incised line patterns on neck and rim, low, perforated foot rims, and some painted decoration. By the 3rd millennium bce the regional cultures in the areas discussed above showed increased signs of interaction and even convergence. That they are frequently referred to as varieties of the Longshan culture c.

That influence, diverse in origin and of varying intensity, entered the North China Plain from sites such as Dadunzi and Dawenkou to the east and also moved up the Han River from the Qujialing area to the south. A variety of eastern features are evident in the ceramic objects of the period, including use of the fast wheel, unpainted surfaces, sharply angled profiles, and eccentric shapes.

There was a greater production of gray and black, rather than red, ware; componential construction was emphasized, in which legs, spouts, and handles were appended to the basic form which might itself have been built sectionally.

Greater elevation was achieved by means of ring feet and tall legs. In stone and jade objects, eastern influence is evidenced by perforated stone tools and ornaments such as bi disks and cong tubes used in burials.

Other burial customs involved ledges to display the goods buried with the deceased and large wooden coffin chambers. In handicrafts an emphasis was placed on precise mensuration in working clay, stone, and wood.

Although the first, primitive versions of the eastern ceramic types may have been made on occasion in the North China Plain, in virtually every case these types were elaborated in the east and given more-precise functional definition, greater structural strength, and greater aesthetic coherence.

It was evidently the mixing in the 3rd and 2nd millennia of these eastern elements with the strong and extensive traditions native to the North China Plain—represented by such Late Neolithic sites as Gelawangcun near Zhengzhou , Wangwan near Luoyang , Miaodigou in central and western Henan , and Taosi and Dengxiafeng in southwest Shanxi —that stimulated the rise of early Bronze Age culture in the North China Plain and not in the east.

The inhabitants of Neolithic China were, by the 5th millennium if not earlier, remarkably assiduous in the attention they paid to the disposition and commemoration of their dead. There was a consistency of orientation and posture, with the dead of the northwest given a westerly orientation and those of the east an easterly one.

The dead were segregated, frequently in what appear to be kinship groupings e. There were graveside ritual offerings of liquids, pig skulls, and pig jaws e. Evidence of divination using scapulae shoulder blades dating from the end of the 4th millennium from Fuhegoumen, Liaoning implies the existence of ritual specialists.

There was a lavish expenditure of energy by the 3rd millennium on tomb ramps and coffin chambers e. Although there is no firm archaeological evidence of a shift from matrilineal to patrilineal society, the goods buried in graves indicate during the course of the 4th and 3rd millennia an increase in general wealth, the gradual emergence of private or lineage property , an increase in social differentiation and gender distinction of work roles, and a reduction in the relative wealth of women.

The occasional practice of human sacrifice or accompanying-in-death from scattered 4th- and 3rd-millennium sites e. Early forms of ancestor worship , together with all that they imply for social organization and obligation among the living, were deeply rooted and extensively developed by the Late Neolithic Period.

Such religious belief and practice undoubtedly served to validate and encourage the decline of the more egalitarian societies of earlier periods. The 3rd and 2nd millennia were marked by the appearance of increasing warfare, complex urban settlements, intense status differentiation, and administrative and religious hierarchies that legitimated and controlled the massive mobilization of labour for dynastic work or warfare.

The casting of bronze left the most-evident archaeological traces of these momentous changes, but its introduction must be seen as part of a far-larger shift in the nature of society as a whole, representing an intensification of the social and religious practices of the Neolithic.

A Chalcolithic Period Copper Age; i. A growing number of 3rd-millennium sites, primarily in the northwest but also in Henan and Shandong, have yielded primitive knives, awls, and drills made of copper and bronze. Stylistic evidence, such as the sharp angles, flat bottoms, and strap handles of certain Qijia clay pots in Gansu; c. The construction and baking of the clay cores and sectional piece molds employed in Chinese bronze casting of the 2nd millennium indicate that early metalworking in China rapidly adapted to, if it did not develop indigenously from, the sophisticated high-heat ceramic technology of the Late Neolithic potters, who were already using ceramic molds and cores to produce forms such as the hollow legs of the li cooking caldron.

Chinese bronze casting represents, as the continuity in vessel shapes suggests, an aesthetic and technological extension of that ceramic tradition rather than its replacement. The number, complexity, and size—the Simuwu tetrapod weighed 1, pounds kg —of the Late Shang ritual vessels reveal high technological competence married to large-scale, labour-intensive metal production.

Bronze casting of this scale and character—in which large groups of ore miners, fuel gatherers, ceramists, and foundry workers were under the prescriptive control of the model designers and labour coordinators—must be understood as a manifestation , both technological and social, of the high value that Shang culture placed on hierarchy , social discipline , and central direction in all walks of life.

The prestige of owning these metal objects must have derived in part from the political control over others that their production implied. Although they fall within the region traditionally assigned to the Xia, particular archaeological sites can be hard to identify dynastically unless written records are found. The possibility that the Xia and Shang were partly contemporary, as cultures if not as dynasties , further complicates site identifications.

A related approach has been to identify as Xia an archaeological horizon that lies developmentally between Late Neolithic and Shang strata. By the end of the Tang dynasty — , however, the Nestorian community had disappeared.

The history of civilization started in the Middle East about bce , whereas the North China civilization began about a millennium and a half later. The Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations flourished almost simultaneously during the first civilizational phase — bce.

Ancient Chinese education served the needs of a simple agricultural society with the family as the basic social organization. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.

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Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. Previous page Visual arts. Page 25 of Next page The Shang dynasty. Learn More in these related articles: Escalation of the outbreak flag history In flag of China agriculture, forestry, and fishing ancient agriculture In origins of agriculture: China rice In rice apple production In apple bonsai In bonsai famine occurrence In famine: The role of policy grain cultivation In origins of agriculture: East Asia land reform program In land reform: Lost or Stolen Passports: If your passport is stolen, you must apply for both a new passport at the U.

Embassy or consulate, and a new Chinese visa. File a police report at the nearest police station right away. Domestic violence in China is rarely recognized as a crime. The Chinese legal system can be opaque and the interpretation and enforcement of local laws arbitrary.

The judiciary does not enjoy independence from political influence. You are subject to Chinese laws. If you violate Chinese laws, even unknowingly, you may be expelled, arrested, or imprisoned. Be aware that some crimes are prosecutable in the United States, regardless of local law. In vitro fertilization IVF is widely and legally practiced in China.

Surrogacy, however, is strictly forbidden under Chinese law and surrogacy contracts will not be considered valid in China. The use of reproductive technology for medical research and profit is strictly controlled in China.

Contracts and Commercial Disputes: Before entering into a commercial or employment contract in China, have it reviewed by legal counsel both in the United States and in China. Foreign Commercial Service can assist you in identifying and vetting business contacts and opportunities. Earthquakes can occur throughout China.

Check here for information about earthquake preparedness. English teachers in China frequently report employment disputes which can result in termination, lost wages, confiscation of passports, forced eviction from housing, and even threats of violence.

Research your future workplace and make sure that you have the proper work visa to teach in China. Please see the Teaching in China Guide on the U. If you have a serious dispute with your school, consult with a local attorney; and seek assistance from the police if your safety is threatened. Business disputes, court orders to pay a settlement, or government investigations into both criminal and civil issues may result in an exit ban which will prohibit your departure from China until the issue is resolved.

Chinese authorities have confirmed that individuals and their family members who are not directly involved or even aware of these proceedings can be subject to an exit ban as well. Embassy or consulate can provide a list of local attorneys who serve U. Local law enforcement authorities are generally unwilling to become involved in what they consider private business matters.

International Parental Child Abduction: Information on the prevention of international child abduction in China can be found on our website. Homosexuality was decriminalized in China in , but there are no civil rights laws that prohibit discrimination or harassment on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity.

Prejudices and discrimination still exist in many parts of the country. Same sex marriages are not legally recognized in China and local authorities will not provide marriage certificates to same-sex couples.

NGOs and their employees should ensure they are complying with all relevant statutory requirements, particularly if working in sensitive areas or fields. We strongly recommend that you not to travel to North Korea. If you cross into North Korea, even inadvertently, you will be subject to North Korean law. Sidewalks often do not have curb cuts and many streets can be crossed only via pedestrian bridges or underpasses accessible by staircase. Assistive technologies for blind people and those with other vision disabilities are unreliable, and access to elevators in public buildings can be restricted.

In major cities, public restrooms in places visited by tourists usually have a least one accessible toilet. Do not buy counterfeit or pirated goods. The bootlegs are illegal in the United States and you may also be breaking local law by purchasing them. Political and Religious Activity: Participating in unauthorized political or religious activities, including participating in public protests or sending private electronic messages critical of the government, may result in detention and Chinese government imposed restrictions on future travel to China.

If you attempt to bring larger quantities, the literature will likely be confiscated and you may be fined, detained, or deported. China has a social insurance system to which foreigners who work in China must contribute.

When you sign an employment contract, you must apply for a social insurance number, and it is important that your employer work with you to comply with the regulations. Special Scrutiny of Foreign Citizens: Security personnel carefully watch foreign visitors and may place you under surveillance. Hotel rooms including meeting rooms , offices, cars, taxis, telephones, Internet usage, and fax machines may be monitored onsite or remotely, and personal possessions in hotel rooms, including computers, may be searched without your consent or knowledge.

Security personnel have been known to detain and deport U. The southeast coast of China is subject to strong typhoons and tropical storms, usually from July through September. See our travel tips for Women Travelers. The standards of medical care in China are not equivalent to those in the United States. Hospitals in major Chinese cities often have VIP wards gaogan bingfang , which are fairly modern and typically staffed with well-trained English speaking doctors and nurses. Rural areas have rudimentary facilities and inadequate staffing.

Additionally, Rh-negative blood may be difficult to obtain; the blood type of the general Asian populace is Rh positive. Chinese ambulances are often slow to arrive, and most do not have sophisticated medical equipment or trained responders. Cash payment for services is often required prior to treatment, including emergency cases.

Travelers will be asked to post a deposit prior to admission to cover the expected cost of treatment. Hospitals in major cities may accept credit cards. Embassy and consulates general in China maintain lists of local English-speaking doctors and hospitals.

We do not pay medical bills. Make sure your health insurance plan provides coverage overseas. Most care providers overseas only accept cash payments. See our webpage for more information on insurance providers for overseas coverage. We strongly recommend supplemental insurance to cover medical evacuation. Carry prescription medication in original packaging, along with the prescription. Air pollution is a significant problem in many locations. Embassy in Beijing and the U. The Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection provides its own air quality data for cities throughout China.

Most roads and towns in Tibet, Qinghai, parts of Xinjiang, and western Sichuan are situated at altitudes over 10, feet. Take appropriate precautions to prepare for and be alert to altitude sickness.

The following diseases are prevalent: Be up-to-date on all vaccinations recommended by the U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Road Conditions and Safety: Rules, regulations, and conditions vary greatly throughout China, but a general rule of thumb is that traffic safety is poor and driving in China can be dangerous. Traffic can be chaotic and largely unregulated and the rate of accidents in China, including fatal accidents, is among the highest in the world.

Motorcycle and bicycle accidents are frequent and often deadly. Pedestrians do not have the right of way, and you should show extreme caution when walking in traffic, even in marked crosswalks. Child safety seats are not widely available.

China has a rapidly growing public transportation sector-- including subways, trains, and buses -- with a generally positive safety record.

Mass transit is widely available in major cities, and is generally safe, although individuals on crowded buses and subways are often targeted by pick-pockets. It is our understanding that Chinese law offices are within the jurisdiction and authority of the Ministry of Justice. Under the Ministry of Justice is the Department of Public Notaries and Lawyers, which in turn establishes legal advisory offices at provincial and local levels.

All lawyers and public notaries in China are part of this system, and as such are employees of the State. Lawyers in the Chinese system therefore do not necessarily assume the advocacy role expected of lawyers in the United States, but rather have obligations to the State as well as to their clients. Anyone who retains the services of a lawyer in China should understand this difference between the American and Chinese legal systems.

American law firms with a presence in China maintain representative offices which may provide legal advice to clients on commercial, tax, or economic law as it relates to investment in China by foreign firms. Chinese Ministry of Justice. Complete information on the operation of the Convention, including an interactive online request form are available on the Hague Conference website. The person in the United States executing the request form should be either an attorney or clerk of court.

In its Declarations and Reservations on the Hague Service Convention , China formally objected to service under Article 10, and does not permit service via postal channels. Service on a Foreign State: Service of Documents from China in the United States: See information about service in the United States on the U. Defense Requests in Criminal Matters: The Chinese Central Authority for the Hague Evidence Convention designated to receive letters of request for the taking of evidence is the Ministry of Justice.

Requests for the taking of evidence under the Hague Evidence Convention are transmitted directly from the requesting court or person in the United States to the Chinese Central Authority and do not require transmittal via diplomatic channels. Letters of Request and accompanying documents should be prepared in duplicate and translated into Chinese.

China does not permit attorneys to take depositions in China for use in foreign courts. Under its Declarations and Reservations to the Hague Evidence Convention and subsequent diplomatic communications, China has indicated that taking depositions, whether voluntary or compelled, and obtaining other evidence in China for use in foreign courts may, as a general matter, only be accomplished through requests to its Central Authority under the Hague Evidence Convention.

Consular depositions would require permission from the Central Authority on a case by case basis and the Department of State will not authorize the involvement of consular personnel in a deposition without that permission.

Participation in such activity could result in the arrest, detention or deportation of the American attorneys and other participants. Documents issued in the United States may be authenticated for use in China by a contacting the U.

Department of State Authentications Office and b then having the seal of the U. Documents issued in U. For information concerning travel to China, including information about the location of the U. China is not a signatory to the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction Hague Abduction Convention , nor are there any bilateral agreements in force between China and the United States concerning international parental child abduction.

Legal systems and laws pertaining to custody, divorce, and parental abduction vary widely from country to country. Parents are encouraged to consult with an attorney who specializes in family law in China and who can provide accurate legal guidance that is specific to their circumstances.

The Office of Children's Issues may also coordinate with appropriate foreign and U. Parents are strongly encouraged to contact the Department of State for assistance. Parents may wish to consult with an attorney in the United States and in the country to which the child has been removed or retained to learn more about how filing criminal charges may impact a custody case in the foreign court.

The Office of Children's Issues may be able to assist parents seeking access to children who have been wrongfully removed from or retained outside the United States.

Parents who are seeking access to children who were not wrongfully removed from or retained outside the United States should contact the appropriate U.

Embassy or Consulate in China for information and possible assistance. Neither the Office of Children's Issues nor consular officials at the U. Embassy or Consulates in China are authorized to provide legal advice. This list is provided as a courtesy service only and does not constitute an endorsement of any individual attorney.

The Department of State assumes no responsibility or liability for the professional ability or reputation of, or the quality of services provided by, the persons or firms included in this list. Professional credentials and areas of expertise are provided directly by the lawyers. The Department of State assumes no responsibility or liability for the professional ability or reputation of, or the quality of services provided by, the following persons or firms.

Divorce cases brought before the courts often include voluntary mediation to resolve conflicts and to help develop parenting plan s best for the family.

Parents are encouraged to consult with an attorney who specializes in family law in China who can provide accurate legal guidance that is specific to their circumstances. While travelling in a foreign country, you are subject to the laws of that country. It is important for parents to understand that, although a left-behind parent in the United States may have custody or visitation rights pursuant to a U.

For this reason, we strongly encourage you to speak to a local attorney if planning to remove a child from a foreign country without the consent of the other parent. Attempts to remove your child to the United States may:.

To understand the legal effect of a U. For information about hiring an attorney abroad, see our section on Retaining a Foreign Attorney. Although we cannot recommend an attorney to you, most U. Embassies have lists of attorneys available online. Please visit the local U. Embassy or Consulate website for a full listing. For more information on consular assistance for U. Country officers are available to speak with you Monday - Friday, 8: For assistance with an abduction in progress or any emergency situation that occurs after normal business hours, on weekends, or federal holidays, please call toll free at See all contact information.

The information in this flyer is provided for general information only, is not intended to be legal advice, and may change without notice. Questions involving interpretation of law should be addressed to an attorney licensed in the relevant jurisdiction. Intercountry adoption processing in Convention countries must be done in accordance with the requirements of the Hague Adoption Convention; the U. China still remains the top country of origin for intercountry adoptions to the United States.

Until a decade ago, adoptees from China were predominately infant girls but now the pool of available children is comprised overwhelmingly of those with disabilities or older children split evenly across genders.

This demographic shift is largely due to increased efforts by the Chinese government to promote domestic adoption for children in need of permanent homes and by improvements in the Chinese economy which have simultaneously reduced the number of orphans while increasing the number of families willing to adopt. Additionally, a child must meet the definition of a Convention adoptee under U. In addition to being found suitable and eligible to adopt by USCIS, prospective adoptive parents PAPs seeking to adopt a child from China must meet the following requirements imposed by China: Applications from individuals with past criminal records will be considered on a case-by-case basis if the individual has three or fewer minor criminal violations that did not result in severe outcomes none in the last ten years and five or fewer traffic violations with no severe outcomes.

Because China is party to the Hague Adoption Convention, children from China must meet the requirements of the Convention in order to be eligible for intercountry adoption. In such cases, the birth parent s have rarely relinquished their parental rights or consented to the adoption of their child ren.

A brief summary of the Convention adoption process is provided below. You must complete these steps in the following order to meet all necessary legal requirements. Adoptions completed out of order may result in the child not being eligible for an immigrant visa to the United States.

A list of the accredited ASPs authorized to operate in China is located here. A primary provider must be identified in each Convention case and only accredited or approved adoption service providers may act as the primary provider in your case. Your primary provider is responsible for: You will need to submit a home study, fingerprints, and a background check as part of this application. The referral is a proposed match between you and a specific child based on a review of your dossier and the needs of the child.

The adoption authority in China will provide a background study and other information, if available, about the child to help you decide whether to accept the referral or not.

We encourage families to consult with a medical professional and their adoption service provider to understand the needs of the specific child but family must decide for itself whether or not it will be able to meet the needs of, and provide a permanent home for, a specific child and must conform to the recommendations in the home study submitted to USCIS for the number of children and capacity to deal with any disability-related needs of an adoptive child.

If you accept the referral, the adoption service provider communicates that to the Central Authority in China. Learn more about this critical decision. Prospective adoptive parents either accept or refuse a referral and send the document to their agency, which forwards it to CCCWA. CCCWA requires a response on a referral within three months of sending a referral to a family.

If the reason for the rejection is considered justifiable, such as a medical need that the prospective adoptive parents feel they cannot meet, the CCCWA may refer a second child to the prospective adoptive parents within a month's time. If CCCWA regards the rejection as unreasonable, the prospective adoptive parents will have difficulty obtaining a second referral and CCCWA may suggest that the prospective adoptive parents withdraw their application for adoption in China.

Requirements for Adopting Children with disabilities or older children: Once prospective adoptive parents decide to accept a referral of a child with disabilities or an older child, they have 72 hours to fill out the necessary forms to complete their pre-approval application.

Prospective adoptive parents can review the case, including the medical and growth records and a photo of the child. The specific medical or other needs of the child is documented in the referral and the prospective adoptive parents can decide if they can meet the child's needs; for example, whether their insurance would cover the child's medical needs, and whether they themselves are able to provide any educational or rehabilitative support, etc.

If the prospective adoptive parents decide they are able to meet this child's needs, they indicate such to the CCCWA and from that point onward they have 72 hours to fill out the necessary forms to complete the dossier. If the prospective adoptive parents have not completed the forms and submitted them within 72 hours, the child's name goes back on the list and other prospective adoptive parents can review that child's file.

For detailed information, please consult your adoption service provider. USCIS will make a provisional determination as to whether the child appears to meet the definition of a Convention adoptee and will likely be eligible to enter and remain in the United States. Submit an Immigrant Visa Application After provisional approval of Form I petition, you or your adoption service provider will submit a visa application to the consular section of the U.

Consulate General in Guangzhou responsible for issuing immigrant visas to children from China. You should fill out these forms in your prospective adoptive child's name. Answer every item on the form. A consular officer will review the provisionally approved Form I petition and the visa application and, if applicable, advises you of options for the waiver of any ineligibilities related to the visa application.

Adopt the Child in China Remember: Before you adopt or obtain legal custody of a child in China, you must have completed the above four steps. Only after completing these steps can you proceed to finalize the adoption or a grant of legal custody by China for the purposes of emigration and adoption.

The process for finalizing the adoption [or obtaining legal custody] in China generally includes the following: Applying for Your U. Once your child has acquired U. Department of State has the authority to grant, issue, or verify U. Getting or renewing a passport is easy. The emphasis since has been on suburban development, although residential areas in the urban core have also been rehabilitated. Major new residential and commercial construction was undertaken in the early s in central Tianjin as a result of damage incurred in the Tangshan earthquake of Before World War II many of the suburban residential areas were built on marshy, poorly drained land subject to flooding, and sanitary conditions were especially bad.

Most of the modern complexes have been constructed near industrial zones on the outskirts of the city. Many of the large commercial and administrative buildings in the central city were built by foreign concessionaires.

They are typical of European and Japanese colonial architecture of the s and s, with buildings of contrasting architectural styles juxtaposed helter-skelter, without any plan. Some of the public buildings dating from the s were built in imitation of the Soviet monolithic style, and housing complexes are usually standard multistory rectangular blocks. More recent commercial and residential construction follows modern design, with individual balconies and multicoloured facades.

The majority of the population lives in the central city, where densities are probably in the range of 15, to 75, persons per square mile 6, to 29, persons per square km. Before most people were engaged in commercial or service occupations. Since then the occupational structure of the city has changed, and about half the population is employed by industry and only about one-fifth in commerce.

The remainder are employed primarily in public services. Ethnic minorities constitute a small proportion of the population; the largest groups are Tungans Hui , Koreans, Manchu, and Mongolians.

Most of them live in the central city in areas that have special historical associations. The largest single community of Tungans is in the northern suburb of Tianmucun. Since heavy industry has been developed and the existing industrial base consolidated for greater productivity. Major activities are the production of heavy machinery, chemicals, and iron and steel and shipbuilding and repair.

Other products include machinery for textile mills and agriculture, machine tools, electrical equipment, bicycles, tractors, elevators, precision instruments, trucks, and watches. The chemical complexes at Dagu, Tanggu, and Hangu north of Tanggu on the rail line to Tangshan produce agricultural fertilizers and pesticides, pharmaceuticals, chemicals and petrochemical products, plastics, artificial fibres, dyestuffs, and paints.

Textiles are the chief light industry. Other such products include processed foods, hides, rubber goods, and paper. Retail and wholesale trade is managed by commerce bureaus that are responsible to municipal and provincial authorities. Pricing and personnel matters are managed locally, while the distribution of commodities, long-range planning, and high-level financial management are handled by provincial-level bureaus responsible to Beijing.

A municipality-run General Trade Corporation formed in the early s helps coordinate and improve the efficiency of domestic and foreign trade by assuming functions previously performed by central government agencies. The lines are served in Tianjin by three railway stations, classification yards, and extensive maintenance and repair facilities. Heavily traversed inland waterways radiate to the south and southwest along the Grand Canal and Ziya and Daqing rivers; they connect the city with Baoding , Cangzhou , and Hengshui in southern Hebei province.

Other main roads extend southward along the Jing-Hu railway into Shandong province, westward to Shanxi province, and northward to Qinhuangdao , northeastern Hebei, and the Northeast formerly Manchuria. Intraurban and suburban transport is extensive. In addition, about two dozen long-distance motor bus routes connect the urban core with more distant rural areas.

Tianjin is the main collection point and transshipment centre in North China for goods manufactured for export and is the chief port of entry for heavy machinery and other capital-intensive imports.

Its predecessor, the Municipal Revolutionary Committee, was established in during the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution — The Tianjin Municipal Planning Commission plays a key role in managing industry and commerce. It controls the supply and distribution of industrial raw materials, sets production levels, allocates funds for capital investments, determines manpower needs, supervises product research and development , and coordinates transportation, public works , and environmental policy.

Marshy, low-lying lands were drained and converted to agricultural and recreational use, new roads were constructed, and streetlights were installed. Severe water shortages developed in the early s because of industrialization, population growth, and drought that cut off the water supply from Miyun Reservoir northeast of Beijing. These shortages were temporarily alleviated by diverting water from the Huang He Yellow River , to the south, but construction was also undertaken to divert water from the Luan River , to the northeast.

The project began in late , and its initial stage was completed in late Swampy lowlands to the southwest have been drained; one of the most extensive was converted into the large recreational area of the Shuishang Gongyuan Park on the Water. Electricity is generated by thermal power plants fueled with coal , and the city is connected by a power grid with Beijing and Tangshan , Hebei province.

Tianjin has many Western-style and Chinese hospitals, with separate facilities for children, workers, and members of ethnic minorities. In an Office of Planned Births was established by the municipality and was granted status and authority equal to the Department of Public Health.

During the late s and early s, enrollments fell. The general universities of Nankai and Tianjin are located in Nankai district, on the southwestern periphery of the city. Other higher educational institutions include the Polytechnic University, the University of Technology, the Academy of Fine Arts, the Conservatory of Music, a medical university, a normal university, and other colleges and universities.

Work-study schools attached to factories supplement formal educational programs. The city has several museums and a major library. The largest movie house is the Peace Cinema. There is also an astronomical observatory. There are several dozen parks and recreation centres. Recreational clubs have been built for industrial workers, and there are several stadiums—including the Tianjin Olympic Center Stadium, built to host preliminary football soccer matches during the Olympic Games.

The marshy, poorly drained area surrounding contemporary Tianjin was sparsely populated until the Song dynasty — , when the settlement of Sanchakou was built on the west bank of the Hai River.

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It is a constitutional republic consisting Guangzhou Consulate General -- All categories. The original settlement was later joined by the larger town of Zhigu, built on high ground at the confluence of the Ziya and Hai rivers.

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