Same Sex Marriage: Is It The Time For Legal Recognition

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This accusation was added to the other traditional blood libels against the Jews, such as piercing the Host used for communion and using Christian children as an offering during Passover. This was true of both married as well as unmarried men. The prohibition on non-procreative sexual acts imposed by section prescribes traditional sexual relations upon men and women. Part of a series on. Because Jews were obliged to live in specified Jewish quarters, there was severe overcrowding. One of these Cheider is affiliated with Haredi Orthodox Judaism.

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Anaconda with Gigant Black Dick I am being discreet, because after all, some things can only be dealt with orally and cannot be put down on paper! The ADL Anti-Defamation League published on the "ADL Global " [34] an international survey conducted in to measure antisemitic opinions in countries around the world. Blonde blowjob cumshot Double Bimbo Threesome 6: Section of IPC, its legislative objective is to criminalize all the sexual activities which are against the order of nature, thus punishing the unnatural sex. Per her role in the Kindertransporte is slowly gaining recognition in English-speaking countries.

It was created to keep the fabric of society together. It goes against the laws of the land that have been used for hundreds of years and were based on the basis of the commandments. There is no explicit mention of homosexuality or hemophilia in any of the statute books of India.

A person cannot be prosecuted for being a homosexual or hemophilic. But the sexual act of sodomy is a criminal offence. Whoever voluntarily has carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years and should also be liable to fine.

The offence of homosexuality is read under this section as an Unnatural Offence. The term Carnal Intercourse used in this section refers to sexual intercourse between men or in other words, homosexual relationships. Section of the Indian Penal Code, was enacted by the British in The Indian law against homosexuality seems to be too harsh. The Constitutional validity of section of IPC was challenged in the Delhi High Court as being violative of fundamental rights guaranteed under the Indian Constitution.

Here it may be noted that, in practically all crimes against human body listed under the Indian Penal Code, some sort of physical violence or coercion is an essential element of crime. The only exception is in the favour of section, which criminalizes sexual activity that leaves no victims. In the history of the statute from, in there was only 30 cases in the High Courts and Supreme Court.

To paraphrase, three things can be said about the government's stance: In other words the three pillars of the classic culture arguments to criminalize the likes of us.

Why Should Be Legalized: Arguments in favour of Decriminalizing Homosexuality: Gay and lesbian rights activists from various parts of the countries were protesting for their rights and for decriminalizing the homosexual conduct. There is a big debate in our country too- whether it should be legalized or not. I am giving some of the arguments in favour of decriminalizing it, specifically in Indian context- in view of Section of the Indian Penal Code.

The fundamental right to liberty under Article prohibits the state from interfering with the private personal activities of the individual.

The concept of privacy is so broad that no comprehensive and all encompassing definition of the term can be given. Ministry of Justice , the South African court held that, Privacy recognizes that we all have a right to a sphere of private intimacy and autonomy which allows us to establish and nurture human relationships without interference from the outside community.

Even at the international level, the right to privacy has been recognized in the favour of lesbians and gay man. Infringement of, the right to equal protection before law requires the determination of whether there is a rational and objective basis to the classification introduced. There should be a just and reasonable nexus between the classification and the object sought to be achieved by the legislation.

Section of IPC, its legislative objective is to criminalize all the sexual activities which are against the order of nature, thus punishing the unnatural sex.

Section assumes that natural sexual act is that which is performed for procreation. Hence, it thereby labels all forms of non-procreative sexual act as unnatural. This gives a very narrow view to the distinction between the procreative and non-procreative sexual act. Hence, the legislative intent of creating a public code of sexual morality has no rational nexus with the classification created. Further the very object of the section is vague, unreasonable, arbitrary and based up on the stereotyped notion that sex is only for procreation.

Now if this presumption is accepted is correct then, what justifies the policies of family planning and the use of the contraceptive devices 3 Section discriminates on the basis of sexual orientation: Article prohibits discrimination on several grounds, which includes Sex. By prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sex, article establishes that there is no standard behavioral pattern attached to the gender.

The prohibition on non-procreative sexual acts imposed by section prescribes traditional sexual relations upon men and women. In so doing the provision discriminates against the homosexuals on the basis of their sexuality and therefore constitutes discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. Section violates the enjoyment of civil laws and gay men and lesbians and leads to other adverse effects: Section of IPC punishes Obscenity; the current definition of obscenity can lead it to incriminate the gay and lesbian writings.

As male homosexuality is a criminal offence, the presumption is that it is something depraved and can corrupt the minds and bodies of the persons. In the prevailing atmosphere any writing about the lesbians and the gay men can be criminalized, as homosexuality is treated as something immoral or depraved.

The workman's Compensation Act, provides that in case of death caused by injury at the work place, the dependents of the employee are entitled to receive the compensation from the employer, the dependents will include a widow, minor legitimate son, unmarried daughter, widowed mother and an infirm son or daughter. Thus a gay or a lesbian couple cannot claim the benefits under this section. This is not an isolated example and there are other such Acts that are discriminatory towards homosexuals.

I end this issue with a quote? There are several sections in the Indian Penal Code which are anachronistic in a changed world. Section is a prime example. As a matter of fact, Section as it stands, would have made what Clinton did to Monica Lewinsky or rather what Monica Lewinsky provided to Clinton, an offence. I am being discreet, because after all, some things can only be dealt with orally and cannot be put down on paper!

The crucial words are "against the order of nature. Perhaps the way out is now to argue that nature and its various orders have themselves changed. In fact a higher percentage of men in the study reported having male-to-male sex than sex with sex workers. This was true of both married as well as unmarried men. Close to 10 per cent unmarried men and 3 per cent married men reported having had sexual intercourse with other men in the past 12 months. The data is indicative of a reality the government is either unable or unwilling to see.

The real threat to marriage is the alarmingly high divorce rate. Marriage is also a legal joining of two individuals. People who are not religious choose to get married in a registry office and not in church. Marriage shows the strongest commitment you can make to one another. Gay men and lesbians are just as human and have the same needs and desires as heterosexual human beings.

I fail to see what God has to do with this Marriage in this instance is not religious, but a legal joining. Getting married is the ultimate way of showing your love and commitment to your partner, so why should gay people be deprived of this right. Who are we to sit and judge anyway.

Same sex marriages should be legalized. If people find gay relationships contrary to their religion, it is up to them to refrain. Those who do not share their religious opinions should be free to make their own choice on this as on other issues.

The argument that same sex marriages should not be made legal "because they do not produce kids" is ridiculous. Should heterosexual couples over 50 not be allowed to marry as they cannot produce kids either? If two people love each other and want to unite their destinies, then it is a beautiful thing which should be celebrated.

Whether it is called "marriage" or "life pact" does not matter. Same-sex unions harm no one; one's support or opposition to this is a matter of personal belief and morality, with which the government has no business to interfere.

The universality of Human rights demands that prevailing and dominant cultural and social norms cannot be invoked in a manner as to circumvent or restrain fundamental and constitutional rights. If we were to accept the government's arguments in the Delhi high court case, then many of the progressive legislations in my country would never have been enacted. For example, even today there are many men who think that tradition gives them a right to beat up their wives, or that they deserve to get a very fat dowry just because they were born with a penis.

If we give in to these cultural beliefs, then there is nothing to turn round the legislations that we have made to stop violence against women or dowry and dowry related deaths. The Jews continued to prosper in the independent Netherlands throughout the 19th century. The latter part of the 19th century, as well as the first decades of the 20th century, saw an ever-expanding Jewish community in Amsterdam after Jews from the mediene the "country" Jews, Jews who were living outside the big cities — like Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague -, in numerous small congregations throughout the Dutch countryside left their communities en masse , searching for a "better life" in the larger cities.

Boundaries between Gentiles and Jews started 1 to blur due to increase in Gentile-Jewish marriages and residential spreading, 2 to cross due to a decrease in observance of religious practices like Sabbath and eating kosher food, and 3 to shift as civic involvement and political participation increased [6].

Dutch Jews were a relatively small part of the population and showed a strong tendency towards internal migration. They never coalesced into a real pillar. One of the reasons was the attraction of the socialist and liberal " pillars " before the Holocaust, rather than becoming part of a Jewish pillar. Especially the rise of socialism was a new segment in the pillarized Dutch society that attracted and was created by intermarrying Jews, and Jews and Christians who had abandoned their religious affiliation.

Religious-ethnic background was of less importance within the socialist and liberal segments, though individuals could maintain some rituals or practices [8]. In another Nazi census the total number of people with at least one Jewish grandparent in the Netherlands was put at , In , there were some , Dutch Jews living in the Netherlands, among them some 25, German-Jewish refugees who had fled Germany in the s other sources claim that some 34, Jewish refugees entered the Netherlands between and , mostly from Germany and Austria.

In the Nazi census, some , persons declared they were members of the Ashkenazi Dutch-Israelite community; 4, persons declared they were members of the Sephardic Portuguese-Israelite community. Some 19, persons reported having two Jewish grandparents although it is generally believed a proportion of this number had in fact three Jewish grandparents, but declined to state that number for fear that they would be seen as Jews instead of half-Jews by the Nazi authorities.

Some 6, persons reported having one Jewish grandparent. Some 2, persons who were counted in the census as Jewish were members of a Christian church, mostly Dutch Reformed , Calvinist Reformed or Roman Catholic. In , most Dutch Jews were living in Amsterdam. The census in gives an indication of the geographical spread of Dutch Jews at the beginning of World War II province; number of Jews — this number is not based on the racial standards of the Nazis , but by what the persons declared themselves to be in the population census:.

In , only about 35, of them were still alive. The exact number of "full Jews" who survived the Holocaust is estimated to be 34, of whom 8, were part of a mixed marriage and thus spared deportation and possible death in the Nazi concentration camps ; the number of "half Jews" who were present in the Netherlands at the end of the Second World War in is estimated to be 14,, the number of "quarter Jews" 5, Factors that influenced the great number of people who perished were the fact that the Netherlands was not under a military regime, because the queen and the government had fled to England, leaving the whole governmental apparatus intact.

An important factor is also that the Netherlands at that time was already the most densely inhabited country of Western Europe, making it difficult for the relatively large number of Jews to go into hiding. Most Jews in Amsterdam were poor, which limited their options for flight or hiding. Another factor is that the country did not have much open space or woods to flee to.

Also, the civil administration was advanced and offered the Nazi-German a full insight in not only the numbers of Jews, but also where they exactly lived. It is important to note that the average citizen of the Netherlands was unaware of the operation of "death camps" such as Mauthausen for the majority of the occupation, as all Dutch citizens were obligated to "register" and undertake work in Germany.

A theory is that the vast majority of the nation accommodated itself to circumstances: The occupiers had to employ only a relatively limited number of their own personnel; Dutch policemen rounded up the families to be sent to their deaths in Eastern Europe.

Trains of the Dutch railways staffed by Dutch employees transported the Jews to camps in the Netherlands which were transit points to Auschwitz, Sobibor, and other death camps. During the first year of the occupation of the Netherlands, Jews, who were already registered on basis of their faith with the authorities just as Protestants, Catholics and others were , had to get a large "J" stamped in their IDs while the whole population had to declare whether or not they had "Jewish" roots.

Jews were banned from certain occupations and further isolated from public life. Starting in January , some Dutch Jews were forced to move to Amsterdam; others were directly deported to Westerbork , a concentration camp near the small village of Hooghalen.

Westerbork was founded in by the Dutch government as the Central Refugee Camp to give shelter to Jews fleeing Nazi persecution following Kristallnacht. After the German occupation of the Netherlands in , it became a transit camp for Jews who were being deported to the Nazi concentration camps in Middle and Eastern Europe.

All non-Dutch Jews were also sent to Westerbork. In addition, over 15, Jews were sent to labour camps. Ultimately some , Jews were deported in 98 transports from Westerbork to Auschwitz 57,; 65 transports , Sobibor 34,; 19 transports , Bergen-Belsen 3,; 8 transports and Theresienstadt 4,; 6 transports , where most of them were murdered. Another 6, Jews were deported from other locations like Vught in the Netherlands to concentration camps in Germany, Poland and Austria like Mauthausen.

The Dutch underground hid an estimated number of Jews of some 25,—30,; eventually, an estimated 16, Jews managed to survive the war by hiding. Some 7, to 8, survived by fleeing to countries like Spain, the United Kingdom, and Switzerland , or by being married to non-Jews which saved them from deportation and possible death.

At the same time, there was substantial collaboration with the Nazis from members of the Dutch population, including the Amsterdam city administration, the Dutch municipal police, and Dutch railway workers, who all helped to round up and deport Jews. One of the best known Holocaust victims in the Netherlands is Anne Frank. Along with her sister, Margot Frank , she died from typhus in March in the concentration camp of Bergen-Belsen , due to unsanitary living conditions and confinement by the Nazis.

Anne Frank's father, Otto Frank , survived the war. Saint Teresa Benedicta of the Cross. In contrast to many other countries where all aspects of Jewish communities and culture were eradicated during the Shoah, a remarkably large proportion of rabbinic records survived in Amsterdam, making the history of Dutch Jewry unusually well documented.

Also the exploits of Geertruida Wijsmuller-Meijer in saving especially children outside the Netherlands from the shoah, are noted. She organised the first train transport of Jewish children from Vienna in December , after direct negotiations with Adolf Eichmann in the city, and the ultimate children's transport Kindertransport , on 14 May , from the Netherlands with 74 children on board the last ship leaving the country.

Per her role in the Kindertransporte is slowly gaining recognition in English-speaking countries. After the Second World War and the devastations which were caused by the Holocaust, thousands of surviving Jews made aliyah to Mandatory Palestine , later Israel. Aliyah from the Netherlands initially surpassed that of any other Western nation. Israel is still home to some 6, Dutch Jews. Others emigrated to the United States. There was a high assimilation and intermarriage rate among those who stayed.

As a result, the Jewish birth rate and organized community membership dropped. In the aftermath of the Holocaust, relations with non-Jews were friendly, and the Jewish community received reparations payments. In , two years after the end of the Second World War in the Netherlands, the total number of Jews as counted in the population census was just 14, down from a count of , by the German occupation force in Later, this number was adjusted by Jewish organisations to some 24, Jews living in the Netherlands in — nevertheless an enormous decrease compared to the number of Jews counted in — a number which was also disputed as the German occupation force counted Jews on basis of race, which meant that for example hundreds of Christians of Jewish heritage were also included in the Nazi census according to Raul Hilberg in his book "Perpetrators Victims Bystanders: There were also some Catholic Jews living in the Netherlands [during the Nazi occupation] In , the geographical spread of Dutch Jews in the Netherlands was as follows province; number of Jews:.

The Jewish population in the Netherlands became more internationalized, with an influx of mostly Israeli and Russian Jews during the last decades. Approximately one in three Dutch Jews has a non-Dutch background. The number of Israeli Jews living in the Netherlands concentrated in Amsterdam runs in the thousands estimates run from 5, to 7, Israeli expatriates in the Netherlands, although some claims go as high as 12, , [24] although only a relatively small number of these Israeli Jews is connected to one of the religious Jewish institutions in the Netherlands.

Some 10, Dutch Jews have emigrated to Israel in the last couple of decades. An exception is the growing Orthodox Jewish population, especially in Amsterdam. There are currently some synagogues present in the Netherlands, of which some 50 are still used for religious services.

Various antisemitic incidents continue to occur, including the defacing in of a monument dedicated to the Jews of Gorinchem , seventy of whom were murdered in World War II; such incidents are seen as direct consequences of the ongoing tensions in the Middle East.

In June , De Telegraaf published the results of the report on antisemitism among youths, conducted by the Verwey Jonker Institute.

The survey revealed that antisemitism is more prevalent among Muslim: The ADL Anti-Defamation League published on the "ADL Global " [34] an international survey conducted in to measure antisemitic opinions in countries around the world.

The survey was composed of eleven phrases that represent antisemitic stereotypes. Smaller, independent synagogues exist as well. In Amsterdam alone, the NIK governs thirteen functioning synagogues. The NIK was founded in , and at its height in , it represented Jewish communities.

This went down to communities prior to World War II, and 36 communities today. Besides governing some 36 congregations, the NIK also holds responsibility for more than Jewish cemeteries throughout the Netherlands on a total number of Jewish cemeteries of It was founded in Throughout history, Sefardic Jews in the Netherlands, in contrast to their Ashkenazi co-religionists, have concentrated in only a few communities: Only the one in Amsterdam has survived the Holocaust and is still active.

One of these Cheider is affiliated with Haredi Orthodox Judaism. The head shluchim in the Netherlands are rabbis I. Vorst and Binyomin Jacobs. The latter is chief rabbi of the Interprovinciaal Opperrabbinaat the Dutch Rabbinical Organisation [36] and vice-president of Cheider. Chabad serves approximately 2, Jews in the Holland region, and an unknown number in the rest of the Netherlands.

Though the number of Dutch Jews is decreasing, [ citation needed ] the last decades have seen a growth of Liberal Jewish communities throughout the country. Introduced by German-Jewish refugees in the early s, nowadays some 3, Jews in the Netherlands are linked to one of several Liberal Jewish synagogues throughout the country. Liberal synagogues are present in Amsterdam founded in ; families — some 1, members , Rotterdam , The Hague ; families , Tilburg , Utrecht , Arnhem ; 70 families , Haaksbergen , Almere , Heerenveen ; some 30 members and Zuid-Laren.

The NVPJ has ten rabbis; some of them are: A new Liberal synagogue has been built in Amsterdam, meters away from the current synagogue. This was needed since the former building became too small for the growing community. The Liberal synagogue in Amsterdam receives approximately 30 calls a month by people whom wish to convert to Judaism. The number of people actually converting is much lower. The number of converts to Liberal Judaism may be as high as to , on an existing community of approximately 3, Amsterdam is also home to Beit Ha'Chidush , a progressive religious community which was founded in by Jews with secular as well as religious backgrounds who felt it was time for a more open, diverse and renewed Judaism.

The community accepts members from all kinds of backgrounds, including homosexuals and half-Jews including Jews with a Jewish father, the first Jewish community in the Netherlands to do so. Rabbi for the community was German-born Elisa Klapheck , the first female rabbi of the Netherlands, and is now Clary Rooda. The first service was held on the evening of Friday evening January 6, in the historic Koornmarkt synagogue of Delft , and services continued since every two weeks alternating on Friday evening or Saturday morning, next to holidays.

Participation in the activities is open to anyone who feels Jewish, is Jewish or wants to be Jewish: There is no physical separation between the sexes and the style of services is respectful, free and spontaneous. The siddurim — prayer books — contain Hebrew text as well as a phonetic transcription and a translation in Dutch.

As of the beginning of the Jewish year October 2, Hannah Nathans is rabbi of the kehilla congregation, Hebr. Conservative Judaism "Masorti" was introduced in the Netherlands in , with the founding of a community in the city of Almere.

In Masorti Nederland Masorti Netherlands had some 75 families, primarily based in the greater Amsterdam-Almere region. The congregation uses the 19th century synagogue in the city of Weesp. Its first rabbi is David Soetendorp Beth Shoshanna that began in and holds services and other activities in the 19th century Great Synagogue of Deventer. Rosj Pina is a school for Jewish children ages 4 through Education is mixed boys and girls together despite its affiliation to the Orthodox NIK.

It is the largest Jewish school in the Netherlands. As of , it had pupils enrolled. It had some pupils enrolled in Although founded as a Jewish school and affiliated to the NIK, it has a secular curriculum.

Girls and boys are educated in separate classes. The school has some pupils. There are two Jewish nursing homes in the Netherlands. There are some elderly Jews currently residing in Beth Shalom. Visserhuis , is located in The Hague. Both nursing homes are aligned to Orthodox Judaism ; kosher food is available.

Both nursing homes have their own synagogue. There is a Jewish wing at the Amstelland Hospital in Amstelveen. It is unique in Western Europe in that Jewish patients are cared for according to Orthodox Jewish law; kosher food is the only type of food available at the hospital. The Sinai Centrum Sinai Center is a Jewish psychiatric hospital located in Amsterdam, Amersfoort primary location and Amstelveen , which focuses on mental healthcare, as well as caring for and guiding persons who are mentally disabled.

Originally focusing on the Jewish segment of the Dutch population, and especially on Holocaust survivors who were faced with mental problems after the Second World War, nowadays the Sinai Centrum also provides care for non-Jewish victims of war and genocide. Part of NIKMedia is the Joodse Omroep, [53] which broadcasts documentaries, stories and interviews on a variety of Jewish topics every Sunday and Monday on the Nederland 2 television channel except from the end of May until the beginning of September.

NIKMedia is also responsible for broadcasting music and interviews on Radio 5. It is an important news source for many Dutch Jews, focusing on Jewish topics on a national as well as on an international level.

It gives a lot of attention to the Israeli—Palestinian conflict. There are a couple of Jewish websites focusing on bringing Jewish news to the Dutch Jewish community.

By far the most prominent is Joods. Amsterdam's Jewish community today numbers about 15, people. Buitenveldert is considered a popular neighbourhood to live in; this is due to its low crime-rate and because it is considered to be a quiet neighbourhood. Especially in the neighbourhood of Buitenveldert there's a sizeable Jewish community.

In this area, Kosher food is widely available. There are several Kosher restaurants, two bakeries, Jewish-Israeli shops, a pizzeria and some supermarkets host a Kosher department. This neighourbood also has a Jewish elderly home, an Orthodox synagogue and three Jewish schools. Uniquely in the Netherlands, Ashkenazi and Sephardi communities coexisted in close proximity.

Having different cultural traditions, the communities remained generally separate but their geographical closeness resulted in cross-cultural influences not found elsewhere. Notably, in the early days when small groups of Jews were attempting to establish communities, they were bound to use the services of rabbis and other officials from either culture, depending on who was available.

The close proximity of the two cultures inevitably led to intermarriage at a higher rate than was known elsewhere, and in consequence many Jews of Dutch descent have family names that seem to belie their religious affiliation. Ashkenazim elsewhere traditionally avoid naming a child after a living relative. In , while the Netherlands was under Napoleonic rule, all Dutch residents including Jews were obliged to register surnames with the civic authorities, a practice which among Jews had previously been followed only by Sephardim.

As a result of the compulsory registration and other extant records, it became clear that while the Ashkenazim had been avoiding civic registration, many had nevertheless been using an unofficial system of surnames for hundreds of years. Also under Napoleonic rule, in a law was passed obliging Dutch Jewish schools to teach in Dutch and Hebrew. This effected the exclusion of other languages and in due course, Yiddish , the lingua franca of Ashkenazim, and Judaeo-Portuguese , the previous language of the Portuguese Sephardim, practically ceased to be spoken among Dutch Jews.

Certain Yiddish words have been adopted into the Dutch language, especially in Amsterdam which is also called Mokum , from the Hebrew word for town or place, makom , where the historically large Jewish community has had a significant influence on the local dialect.

There are several other Hebrew words that can be found in the local dialect including: Jews played a major role in the development of Dutch colonial territories and international trade, and many Jews in former colonies have Dutch ancestry. However, all the major colonial powers were competing fiercely for control of trade routes; the Dutch were relatively unsuccessful and during the 18th century, their economy went into decline.

Many of the Ashkenazim in the rural areas were no longer able to subsist and they migrated to the cities in search of work. This caused a large number of small Jewish communities to collapse completely ten adult males were required for major religious ceremonies.

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Both nursing homes have their own synagogue.

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However, all the major colonial powers were competing fiercely for control of trade routes; the Dutch were relatively unsuccessful and during the 18th century, their economy went into decline. Retrieved 26 May

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Later, this number was adjusted by Jewish organisations to some 24, Jews living in the Netherlands in — cochin gay dating an enormous dating alone yuri english sub compared to the number of Jews counted in — a number which was also disputed as the German occupation force counted Jews on basis of race, which meant datint for example hundreds of Christians of Jewish heritage were also included in the Nazi census according to Raul Hilberg in his book "Perpetrators Victims Bystanders: The crucial words are "against the order of nature. After the Second World War and the devastations which were caused by the Holocaust, thousands of cochin gay dating Jews made aliyah to Cochin gay dating Palestinelater Israel. After the German occupation of dafing Netherlands init became a transit camp for Jews who were being deported to the Cochin gay dating concentration camps in Middle and Eastern Europe. Vay are currently some synagogues present in the Netherlands, of which some 50 are still used for religious services. Jewish peoplehood Jewish identity.