Beard - Wikipedia

Tattoos and Body Piercings – What Does The Bible Say?

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Annu Rev Sex Res. The guys tackle reputation and penises. For example, a scientist who chose to remain anonymous spent several weeks on a remote island in comparative isolation. While most noblemen and knights were bearded, the Catholic clergy were generally required to be clean-shaven. Most of the clay soldiers in the Terracotta Army have mustaches or goatees but shaved cheeks, which was likely the fashion of the Qin dynasty. My own inner witness tells me that He does not want us getting any kinds of tattoos or cuttings done on our bodies — and that if we do, it is a form of defilement since our bodies are now His Holy Temple. The International Boxing Association prohibits the wearing of beards by amateur boxers , although the Amateur Boxing Association of England allows exceptions for Sikh men, on condition that the beard be covered with a fine net.

Commentary

Our Wise God has already written those words more than years ago, for us to read, and yet we cannot obey it, even on this matter of tattoos and piercings. European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. It is a common practice among Indians, particularly elderly ones, to dye their hair using henna. If ur genuinely looking to meet and get ur ass pounded get in touch. Sikhs also refrain from cutting their hair and beards out of respect for the God-given form. If God was telling them that He was not wanting any kinds of tattoos or body piercing put on their bodies as a way of mourning for the dead, then I also believe that you can extrapolate off this command and assume that God did not want them doing this for any other possible reason, whether it be for the dead or not. People who sit here bashing tattoos are being ridiculous.

Henna stains are orange when the paste is first removed, but darken over the following three days to a deep reddish brown. Soles and palms have the thickest layer of skin and so take up the most lawsone, and take it to the greatest depth, so that hands and feet will have the darkest and most long-lasting stains.

Some also believe that steaming or warming the henna pattern will darken the stain, either during the time the paste is still on the skin, or after the paste has been removed. It is debatable whether this adds to the color of the end result as well. After the stain reaches its peak color, it holds for a few days, then gradually wears off by way of exfoliation. Henuttamehu was probably a daughter of Seqenenre Tao and Ahmose Inhapy. Smith reports that the mummy of Henuttamehu's own hair had been dyed a bright red at the sides, probably with henna.

In Europe, henna was popular among women connected to the aesthetic movement and the Pre-Raphaelite artists of England in the s. Dante Gabriel Rossetti 's wife and muse, Elizabeth Siddal , had naturally bright red hair.

Contrary to the cultural tradition in Britain that considered red hair unattractive, the Pre-Raphaelites fetishized red hair. Siddal was portrayed by Rossetti in many paintings that emphasized her flowing red hair. Opera singer Adelina Patti is sometimes credited with popularizing the use of henna in Europe in the late nineteenth century. Parisian courtesan Cora Pearl was often referred to as La Lune Rousse the red-haired moon for dying her hair red. In her memoirs, she relates an incident when she dyed her pet dog's fur to match her own hair.

It gained popularity among young people in the s through growing interest in Eastern cultures. Muslim men may use henna as a dye for hair and most particularly their beards. This is considered sunnah , a commendable tradition of the Prophet Muhammad. Furthermore, a hadith narration of the Prophet holds that he encouraged Muslim women to dye their nails with henna to demonstrate femininity and distinguish their hands from those of men.

Thus, some Muslim women in the Middle East apply henna to their finger and toenails as well as their hands. Commercially packaged henna, intended for use as a cosmetic hair dye, is available in many countries, and is now popular in India , as well as the Middle East, Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States.

The color that results from dying with henna depends on the original color of the hair, as well as the quality of the henna, and can range from orange to auburn to burgundy. Henna can be mixed with other natural hair dyes including Cassia obovata for lighter shades of red or even blond, or with indigo to achieve brown and black shades. Some products sold as "henna" include these other natural dyes. Others may include metal salts that can interact with other chemical treatments, or oils and waxes that may inhibit the dye, or dyes which may be allergens.

The different words for henna in ancient languages imply that it had more than one point of discovery and origin, as well as different pathways of daily and ceremonial use. Henna has been used to adorn young women's bodies as part of social and holiday celebrations since the late Bronze Age in the eastern Mediterranean. The earliest text mentioning henna in the context of marriage and fertility celebrations comes from the Ugaritic legend of Baal and Anath , [9] which has references to women marking themselves with henna in preparation to meet their husbands, and Anath adorning herself with henna to celebrate a victory over the enemies of Baal.

This early connection between young, fertile women and henna seems to be the origin of the Night of the Henna, which is now celebrated worldwide.

The Night of the Henna was celebrated by most groups in the areas where henna grew naturally: Jews, [11] Muslims, [12] Sikhs, Hindus, Christians and Zoroastrians, among others, all celebrated marriages and weddings by adorning the bride , and often the groom , with henna.

Across the henna-growing region, Purim , [11] Eid , [13] Diwali , [14] Karva Chauth , Passover , Nowruz , Mawlid , and most saints' days were celebrated with some henna. Favorite horses, donkeys, and salukis had their hooves, paws, and tails hennaed. Bridal henna nights remain an important custom in many of these areas, particularly among traditional families. Henna was regarded as having Barakah "blessings" , [ where? Some bridal traditions were very complex, such as those in Yemen, where the Jewish bridal henna process took four or five days to complete, with multiple applications and resist work.

The fashion of " Bridal Mehndi " in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Northern Libya and in North Indian diasporas is currently growing in complexity and elaboration, with new innovations in glitter, gilding, and fine-line work. Recent technological innovations in grinding, sifting, temperature control, and packaging henna, as well as government encouragement for henna cultivation, have improved dye content and artistic potential for henna. Though traditional henna artists were Nai caste in India, and barbering castes in other countries lower social classes , talented contemporary henna artists can command high fees for their work.

These businesses are often open all night for Eid , Diwali and Karva Chauth. Many women may work together during a large wedding, wherein hundreds of guests have henna applied to their body parts. This particular event at a marriage is known as the Mehndi Celebration or Mehndi Night, [ where? In Egypt , Henna is an Ancient tradition practised among women on many occasions. At weddings, all women gather the night before the big day and start having Egyptian Henna drawings all over their hands and then on the feet but with lesser extent.

Egyptian women also use Henna in different colours as a natural and healthy way to dye their hair, since local made Henna is used for smoothing hair too. In Algeria , the bride's mother-in-law traditionally presents her with jewelry and paints the henna on her hands. In Morocco , henna is applied to a bride's hands and feet during a ceremonial henna day, prior to the wedding. Her hands are then wrapped in cotton and sprinkled with rose water.

The wrapping of the hands allow the henna to set to a deep crimson tint. Most of the women in the bride's and groom's family will in turn have henna applied to their hands with less extensive work. Henna is used by women of all ages ceremoniously or decoratively.

In India , as a part of Hindu and Sikh weddings, henna is applied during wedding ceremonies. Traditionally it is thought that the darker the henna on the bride's hand, the more intensely her husband will love her. It is an important part of many Hindu festivals such as Karva Chauth and Diwali , as well as during Eid. It is widely used in south Indian state Kerala , especially during Muslim weddings.

It is a common practice among Indians, particularly elderly ones, to dye their hair using henna. In Saudi Arabia , prenuptial Henna nights are common. Traditionally the bride's hands are painted with henna by one of her female relatives, the belief being that the relative must be happily married or else she will bring bad luck to the bride.

In Bangladesh , henna is used on hands and feet by brides before their wedding , and by many women for Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.

Often the female friends and relatives of the groom design or choose the design for the hands and feet of bride. It is also used by men to color their hair. This also occurs in Pakistan. In Malaysia , henna is used to adorn women's palms, arms and feet as part of pre-wedding celebrations, Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.

Often, a henna ceremony may be held called 'Berinai'. The bride and groom each have their hands stained, but in a trio of ceremonies. The first being three days before the wedding, the second within two days before the wedding and the third which is normally held three days after the wedding.

Singapore holds the same traditions. In Israel , many sfaradi, mizrachi and Middle Eastern communities and families sometimes choose to have a henna party about a week before a wedding. The henna party is smaller than the wedding, as only closer friends and family members are invited.

The bride and groom wear traditional costumes, as do some of the main guests. There is much dancing and music, especially when the henna is brought out. The henna is usually presented in a deep dish with lit candles in it and carried by the grandmother.

She applies the henna onto the palms of the bride and groom and they are blessed. Subsequently, guests stain their palms with henna as well.

There are variations in customs and dress between the different Jewish sfaradi and mizrachi and Arab communities such as the communities of Yemen, Morocco, and Jordan. In Somalia , henna is worn by Somali women on their hands, arms, feet and neck during weddings, Eid ul-Fitr , Ramadan , and other festive occasions. Somali henna designs are similar to those in the Arabian peninsula, often featuring flower motifs and triangular shapes. The palm is also frequently decorated with a dot of henna and the fingertips are dipped in the dye.

Henna parties are usually held before a wedding takes place. In Tunisia , prenuptial henna celebrations last for seven days. On the third day, the bride wears a traditional dress and has henna painted on her hands and feet. The groom's pinky finger is painted with henna on the sixth day. In Turkey , henna is sold in convenience stores and markets, such as the Spice Bazaar in Istanbul.

It is applied onto the palms of a bride the day before her wedding and to those of the guests. Up until recent years it was used in the rural regions as a hair colour by the older women.

Henna is known to be dangerous to people with glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency G6PD deficiency , which is more common in males than females. Infants and children of particular ethnic groups, mainly from the Middle East and North Africa, are especially vulnerable. The health risks involved in pre-mixed paste can be significant. FDA has not approved henna for direct application to the skin. It is however grandfathered in as a hair dye, and can only be imported for that purpose. Natural henna stains only a rich red brown.

Products sold as "black henna" or "neutral henna" do not contain henna, but are instead made from other plants, or from other substances altogether. Neutral henna does not change the color of hair. This is not henna powder; it is usually the powder of the plant Senna italica often referred to by the synonym Cassia obovata or closely related Cassia and Senna species.

Black henna powder may be derived from indigo from the plant Indigofera tinctoria. Societal attitudes toward male beards have varied widely depending on factors such as prevailing cultural-religious traditions and the current era's fashion trends. Some religions such as Sikhism have considered a full beard to be essential for all males able to grow one, and mandate it as part of their official dogma. Other cultures, even while not officially mandating it, view a beard as central to a man's virility , exemplifying such virtues as wisdom , strength , sexual prowess and high social status.

However, in cultures where facial hair is uncommon or currently out of fashion , beards may be associated with poor hygiene or a "savage", uncivilized, or even dangerous demeanor. The beard develops during puberty. Beard growth is linked to stimulation of hair follicles in the area by dihydrotestosterone DHT , which continues to affect beard growth after puberty.

Various hormones stimulate hair follicles from different areas. DHT, for example, may also promote short-term pogonotrophy i. For example, a scientist who chose to remain anonymous spent several weeks on a remote island in comparative isolation. He noticed that his beard growth diminished, but the day before he was due to leave the island it increased again, reaching unusually high rates of growth during the first day or two on the mainland.

He studied the effect and concluded that the stimulus for increased beard growth was related to the resumption of sexual activity. Hardisty, dismissed a connection. Subjects with a greater preponderance of receptors will develop more terminal adult facial hairs. Beard growth rate is also genetic. The anagen phase is the amount of time a hair follicle will grow before the hair falls out and is replaced by a new hair. This in turn determines the length of the hair on that part of the body.

The hairs of some men have shorter anagen phases and consequently have sparser shorter beards. The facial hair of most women and children has a very short anagen phase. Genes also determine whether the hair is a thick terminal hair like that of a bristle or a fine vellus hair like that on a child or womans face..

Biologists characterize beards as a secondary sexual characteristic because they are unique to one sex, yet do not play a direct role in reproduction. Charles Darwin first suggested possible evolutionary explanation of beards in his work The Descent of Man , which hypothesized that the process of sexual selection may have led to beards. Evolutionary psychology explanations for the existence of beards include signalling sexual maturity and signalling dominance by increasing perceived size of jaws, and clean-shaved faces are rated less dominant than bearded.

The ancient Semitic civilization situated on the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent and centered on the coastline of modern Lebanon gave great attention to the hair and beard. The beard has mostly a strong resemblance to that affected by the Assyrians, familiar from their sculptures. It is arranged in three, four, or five rows of small tight curls, and extends from ear to ear around the cheeks and chin.

Sometimes, however, in lieu of the many rows, there is one row only, the beard falling in tresses, which are curled at the extremity. There is no indication of the Phoenicians having cultivated mustachios. Mesopotamian men of Semitic origin Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians and Chaldeans devoted great care to oiling and dressing their beards, using tongs and curling irons to create elaborate ringlets and tiered patterns.

Unlike them, the non-Semitic Sumerian men tended to shave off their facial hair which is especially notable, for example, in the numerous statues of Gudea , a ruler of Lagash , as opposed to the depiction of the roughly contemporaneous Semitic ruler of Akkad, Naram-Sin , on his victory stele. The highest ranking Ancient Egyptians grew hair on their chins which was often dyed or hennaed reddish brown and sometimes plaited with interwoven gold thread. A metal false beard, or postiche , which was a sign of sovereignty, was worn by kings and occasionally ruling queens.

This was held in place by a ribbon tied over the head and attached to a gold chin strap, a fashion existing from about to BC. In Ancient India, the beard was allowed to grow long, a symbol of dignity and of wisdom, especially by ascetics sadhu. The nations in the east generally treated their beards with great care and veneration, and the punishment for licentiousness and adultery was to have the beard of the offending parties publicly cut off.

Confucius held that the human body was a gift from one's parents to which no alterations should be made. Aside from abstaining from body modifications such as tattoos, Confucians were also discouraged from cutting their hair, fingernails or beards. To what extent people could actually comply with this ideal depended on their profession; farmers or soldiers probably would not have grown a long beard because it would interfere with their work.

Most of the clay soldiers in the Terracotta Army have mustaches or goatees but shaved cheeks, which was likely the fashion of the Qin dynasty. The Iranians were fond of long beards, and almost all the Iranian kings had a beard. In Travels by Adam Olearius , a king commands his steward's head to be cut off and then remarks, "What a pity it was, that a man possessing such fine mustachios, should have been executed. Men also commonly wore beards during the Safavid and Qajar eras. The ancient Greeks regarded the beard as a badge or sign of virility ; in the Homeric epics , it had almost sanctified significance, and a common form of entreaty was to touch the beard of the person addressed.

A smooth face was regarded as a sign of effeminacy. From the earliest times, however, the shaving of the upper lip was not uncommon. Greek beards were also frequently curled with tongs. In the time of Alexander the Great the custom of smooth shaving was introduced. The practice of shaving spread from the Macedonians , whose kings are represented on coins, etc. Laws were passed against it, without effect, at Rhodes and Byzantium ; and even Aristotle conformed to the new custom, [22] unlike the other philosophers , who retained the beard as a badge of their profession.

A man with a beard after the Macedonian period implied a philosopher, [23] and there are many allusions to this custom of the later philosophers in such proverbs as: Shaving seems to have not been known to the Romans during their early history under the kings of Rome and the early Republic. Pliny tells us that P. Ticinius was the first who brought a barber to Rome, which was in the th year from the founding of the city that is, around BC.

Scipio Africanus was apparently the first among the Romans who shaved his beard. However, after that point, shaving seems to have caught on very quickly, and soon almost all Roman men were clean-shaven; being clean-shaven became a sign of being Roman and not Greek.

Only in the later times of the Republic did the Roman youth begin shaving their beards only partially, trimming it into an ornamental form; prepubescent boys oiled their chins in hopes of forcing premature growth of a beard. Still, beards remained rare among the Romans throughout the Late Republic and the early Principate. In a general way, in Rome at this time, a long beard was considered a mark of slovenliness and squalor.

Livius , who had been banished, on his restoration to the city, to be shaved, and to lay aside his dirty appearance, and then, but not until then, to come into the Senate.

Augustus did it in his twenty-fourth year, Julius Caesar in his twentieth. The hair cut off on such occasions was consecrated to a god. Thus Nero put his into a golden box set with pearls, and dedicated it to Jupiter Capitolinus.

On the other hand, men of the country areas around Rome in the time of Varro seem not to have shaved except when they came to market every eighth day, so that their usual appearance was most likely a short stubble.

In the second century AD the Emperor Hadrian , according to Dion Cassius , was the first of all the Caesars to grow a beard; Plutarch says that he did it to hide scars on his face.

This was a period in Rome of widespread imitation of Greek culture, and many other men grew beards in imitation of Hadrian and the Greek fashion. Until the time of Constantine the Great the emperors appear in busts and coins with beards; but Constantine and his successors until the reign of Phocas , with the exception of Julian the Apostate , are represented as beardless. Late Hellenistic sculptures of Celts [31] portray them with long hair and mustaches but beardless.

Among the Gaelic Celts of Scotland and Ireland, men typically let their facial hair grow into a full beard, and it was often seen as dishonourable for a Gaelic man to have no facial hair. Tacitus states that among the Catti, a Germanic tribe perhaps the Chatten , a young man was not allowed to shave or cut his hair until he had slain an enemy.

The Lombards derived their name from the great length of their beards Longobards — Long Beards. When Otto the Great said anything serious, he swore by his beard, which covered his breast. In the Medieval Europe , a beard displayed a knight 's virility and honour. Holding somebody else's beard was a serious offence that had to be righted in a duel.

While most noblemen and knights were bearded, the Catholic clergy were generally required to be clean-shaven. This was understood as a symbol of their celibacy. The adoption of different beard styles and personal grooming had great cultural and political significance in the Early Middle Ages.

In pre-Islamic Arabia, men would apparently keep mustaches but shave the hair on their chins. Muhammad encouraged his followers to do the opposite, long chin hair but trimmed mustaches, to signify their break with the old religion. This style of beard subsequently spread along with Islam during the Muslim expansion in the Middle Ages. Most Chinese emperors of the Ming dynasty — appear with beards or mustaches in portraits.

The exceptions are the Jianwen and Tianqi emperors, probably due to their youth - both died in their early 20's. In the 15th century, most European men were clean-shaven. Some beards of this time were the Spanish spade beard, the English square cut beard, the forked beard, and the stiletto beard. In Francis Drake claimed, in a figure of speech , to have singed the King of Spain's beard.

During the Chinese Qing dynasty — , the ruling Manchu minority were either clean-shaven or at most wore mustaches, in contrast to the Han majority who still wore beards in keeping with the Confucian ideal. In the beginning of the 17th century, the size of beards decreased in urban circles of Western Europe. In the second half of the century, being clean-shaven gradually become more common again, so much so that in , Peter the Great of Russia ordered men to shave off their beards, and in levied a tax on beards in order to bring Russian society more in line with contemporary Western Europe.

During the early nineteenth century, most men, particularly among the nobility and upper classes, went clean-shaven. There was, however, a dramatic shift in the beard's popularity during the s, with it becoming markedly more popular.

This trend can be recognised in the United States of America, where the shift can be seen amongst the post-Civil War presidents. The beard became linked in this period with notions of masculinity and male courage. By the early twentieth century, beards began a slow decline in popularity. Although retained by some prominent figures who were young men in the Victorian period like Sigmund Freud , most men who retained facial hair during the s and s limited themselves to a moustache or a goatee such as with Marcel Proust , Albert Einstein , Vladimir Lenin , Leon Trotsky , Adolf Hitler , and Joseph Stalin.

However, the later 20th and early 21st centuries saw beards making a comeback, particularly in the hippie subculture of the s and the hipster movement of the s. In China, the revolution of and subsequent May Fourth Movement of led the Chinese to idealise the West as more modern and progressive than themselves.

This included the realm of fashion, and Chinese men began shaving their faces and cutting their hair short. In the United States, meanwhile, popular movies portrayed heroes with clean-shaven faces and " crew cuts ". Concurrently, the psychological mass marketing of Madison Avenue was becoming prevalent, and makers of safety razors were among these marketers' early clients, including The Gillette Company and the American Safety Razor Company.

The phrase five o'clock shadow , as a pejorative for stubble, was coined circa in advertising for Gem Blades, by the American Safety Razor Company, and entered popular usage. These events conspired to popularise short hair and clean-shaven faces as the only acceptable style for decades to come. The few men who wore the beard or portions of the beard during this period were frequently either elderly, Central European, members of a religious sect that required it, sailors, or in academia.

In Greek mythology and art, Zeus and Poseidon are always portrayed with beards, but Apollo never is. A bearded Hermes was replaced with the more familiar beardless youth in the 5th century BC. In Norse mythology , Thor the god of thunder is portrayed wearing a red beard.

Iconography and art dating from the 4th century onward almost always portray Jesus with a beard. However, Western European art generally depicts John the Apostle as clean-shaven, to emphasize his relative youth. Eight of the figures portrayed in the painting entitled The Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci are bearded.

Mainstream Christianity holds Isaiah Chapter Verse 6 as a prophecy of Christ's crucifixion , and as such, as a description of Christ having his beard plucked by his tormentors. In Eastern Christianity , members of the priesthood and monastics often wear beards, and religious authorities at times have recommended or required beards for all male believers. Amish and Hutterite men shave until they marry and then grow a beard and are never thereafter without one, but it is a particular form of a beard see Visual markers of marital status.

Many Syrian Christians from Kerala in India wore [ when? At various times in its history and depending on various circumstances, the Catholic Church in the West permitted or prohibited facial hair barbae nutritio — literally meaning "nourishing a beard" for clergy. The phrase "nourishing a beard" was interpreted in different ways, either as imposing a clean-shaven face or only excluding a beard that was too long.

In relatively modern times, the first pope to wear a beard was Pope Julius II , who, in —, did so as a sign of mourning for the loss of the city of Bologna. Since then, no pope has worn a beard. Most Latin-rite clergy are now clean-shaven, but Capuchins and some others are bearded. Present canon law is silent on the matter. Although most Protestant Christians regard the beard as a matter of choice, some have taken the lead in fashion by openly encouraging its growth as "a habit most natural, scriptural, manly, and beneficial" C.

Male members of the Church of God in Christ, Mennonite in Moundridge, Kansas, refrain from shaving as they see man created in the image of God, and as God has a beard.

They see their church as the One True Church. One of their tracts stresses the necessity of being bearded.

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I'm mixed black 28y… Posted in: For other uses, see Beard disambiguation. The people of this nation do not want truth they want to be in complete control.

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Aside from abstaining from body modifications such as tattoos, Confucians were also discouraged from cutting their hair, fingernails or beards. In the 15th century, most European men were clean-shaven. Jews, [11] Muslims, [12] Sikhs, Hindus, Christians datint Zoroastrians, among others, all celebrated marriages and weddings by adorning the brideand often the groomwith beards and tattoos dating site. Many Syrian Christians from Kerala in India wore [ when? Searching For Black Tops.