One unit had casualties and needed to get them to cover. Considering Finland was part of Russia until I tried several Russian or Belarus optical sights. Julia 44 Russland JUY The main idea of EOR was to launch two pieces into space independently using advanced Saturn rockets that were then in development; have the two pieces rendezvous and dock in Earth orbit; assemble, fuel, and detach a lunar mission vehicle from the modules that had joined up; and then proceed with that bolstered ship, exactly as in the direct flight mode, to the moon and back to Earth orbit. You think they just drew some numbers out of a hat and sent that into production? We learn to shoot until there is not threat.
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Englisch 5 Deutsch 2 Partner: Omsk ,  Rostov-on-Don-Platov . Because of the length to width ratio, weigh distribution and rate of twist selected, bullet in flight is balancing on the verge of gyroscopic stability. No one is saying either GSW wont be bad, just that tissue wounds caused by 5. It was slowed by traversing Kennedy. Now those get stopped. If a bullet is built like the 5.
Es ist das aktuelle Alter angegeben - die Frauen werden am Sei ruhig kreativ, z. In unserem Forum findest Du weitere Anregungen. Evgeniya 28 Russland JAZ Oksana 28 Deutschland OKK Alyona 28 Ukraine ALY Englisch 6 Deutsch 3 Partner: Englisch 6 Deutsch 2 Partner: Yuliya 30 Russland YUZ Olga 30 Russland OLS Julia 30 Ukraine JUU Darya 30 Schweiz DAN Elena 31 Moldawien EHU Natalia 31 Ukraine NMO Yana 32 Russland YAV Ruslana 33 Ukraine RUK Englisch 6 Italienisch 1 Partner: Tetiana 33 Ukraine TEQ Englisch 3 Deutsch 3 Partner: Svetlana 33 Russland SVS Englisch 6 Deutsch 6 Spanisch 1 Partner: Natalya 34 Russland NIF Englisch 1 Deutsch 4 Partner: Liana 38 Armenien LIU Natalia 40 Italien NAW Englisch 3 Italienisch 4 Partner: Olga 41 Ukraine OYE Englisch 2 Deutsch 1 Partner: Marina 44 Russland MAV Oxana 44 Ukraine OXX Natali 45 Ukraine NTE Englisch 1 Deutsch 2 Partner: Elena 46 Russland EGP Gylia 47 Russland GYY Elena 48 Russland ESL Englisch 2 Deutsch 5 Partner: Lida 49 Ukraine LIQ Englisch 1 Deutsch 3 Partner: Inna 50 Russland INJ Anna 50 Russland ANX Elena 59 Spanien EXV Englisch 1 Spanisch 4 Partner: Liudmila 59 Russland LIC Irina 60 Russland IRC Irina 61 Russland IRS Elina 19 Russland EIV Anastasia Derevyannih Ryazan, Russia.
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Requested money for tickets and insurance. Ann Koloptseva Odessa, Ukraine. Anna Archangelsk Anna mykissforyou myfreeemailbox. Visa and tickets scam Ask money to buy computer, follows with visa, tickets and health insurance. Anna Abramova Cheboksary Russia. Matches birth date with other known scammers. Anna Ersulova Kirov, Russia. Requesting money for Internet photos belong to an international photo model. Anjela Oleynik alias Anna Galotenko.
Doesn't exist, using someone else photo, name and address. Anna Kouminowa Moscow, Russia. Anna Kulygina - Cheboksary, Russia. Requested money for translation service. Another variation of 5. It was designed for use with PBS-type flash and sound suppressors. Successful use of PBS-1 and 7.
Initial idea of creating universal Reduced Velocity round that would work identically across all variations AK74 as well as RPK was quickly rejected. Designers concentrated their effort on perfecting new round only for use with specially modified AKSU equipped with improved variant of PBS To fire grenades comfortably and accurately, new weapon complex was equipped with grenade sight attached to the base of a standard rear AKSU sight and rubber butt-pad.
By the end of s was developed first variant of the Reduced Velocity round. Bullet tips were painted black and area where bullet and case mouth met were strengthened with additional application of lacquer.
Later another bullet was developed with all-lead core and reduced ogive radius. Diameter of the bullet was also increased slightly to improve muzzle pressure from 5. These bullets have a characteristic step-down in the area where bullet is seated into the case. New bullet had length of New weight of the bullet was 5. For proofing of new 5. First was designed to test-proof barrels and second to test-proof strength of the locking mechanism.
Due to increased weight this bullet was lacking boat-tail. It was almost entirely painted yellow; from the tip to the mouth of the case. It was manufactured using mass-production components but selected with additional scrutiny given to nominal dimensional characteristics of the round. It was designed to test accuracy of the new weapon modifications, comparison purposes between prototypes and standard service rounds as well as ballistic calculations and other field research.
First experimental blank rounds had an elongated case with a star-shaped crimped mouth. However after trials it was redesigned to utilize standard case equipped with a hollow bullet made of white plastic.
It was designed to be used with a special reduced caliber blank-firing adapter that provided sufficient pressure to operate gas system and ensured guaranteed disintegration of plastic bullet upon exit. Until s blank rounds had plastic bullets sealed to the case mouth with purple lacquer-sealer and red lacquer-sealer thereafter. It used a standard case, disabled primer and standard bullet.
Four longitudinal impressions were added to the case to differentiate from other types. During USSR times 5. This was simply due to the very small internal capacity of the bullet and an inability to place any reasonable effective amount of incendiary components.
In the middle of s in parallel with 5. Same as with the military variant 7. In contrast to a military round, sporting case was designed to be made of brass by default.
The new cartridge came out pretty powerful — 45mm long case allowed fairly stout powder charge topped with 25mm long bullet that weighed 4. It was equipped with quick reload mechanism and small recoil impulse. New biathlon round was not mass produced at first. Numerous trial batches were made throughout the end of s and the beginning of s.
The new Soviet cartridge became an overnight sensation, while the military version of 5. Sadly a year later the world of biathlon said goodbye to the high-power cartridges. In International Biathlon Union IBU voted in favor of new rules in accordance to which starting from standard round for International Biathlon Competition became.
Safety concerns were sighted as biathlon was gaining popularity as a spectator sport. In the second half of th century an idea of dual feed-type light machine gun was circulating in designer circles. Izhevsk designers took on this idea in the fall of Many accomplished Soviet gun designers took part in this project including Kalashnikov, Dragunov, Nesterov and Aleksandrov. By the end of they had completed drawings for the proposed machine gun.
Several different prototypes were developed. Alongside several variation of belts rounds each and detachable aluminum belt-cans were designed as well.
A round disk magazine was developed by designer Kozlov and another round drum magazine was developed by designer Paranin. The last working prototype of Unified Feed Machine Gun PU was assembled and tested in , but soon after the project was canceled. The Defense Ministry review concluded that as the result of the higher rate of fire and unified feed, weight and dimensions of the gun increased substantially. The device allowed use of round belts on any standard AK or RPK and was driven by a bolt carrier via a lever attached to the charging handle.
Ultimately this project was also abandoned because of excessive complexity of the mechanism and complicated individual tweaking of the components. It was believed that under modern combat conditions a soldier inevitably would be faced with the necessity to reload his empty magazines quickly. To assist in this task round stripper clips were developed 6U These would be manually pre-loaded before-hand and stored in an ammo bag along with loaded magazines.
When need arose a soldier would attach said stripper clips to the top of the magazine via supplied Y-shaped adapter 6U Several other types of stripper clips were developed later, including ones that did not require a separate Y-shaped adapter, but neither of those were officially adopted. By the middle of s it was decided to replace cardboard boxes with more economical and simplistic stapled paper packets. Thirty-six packets were packed into a hermetically sealed steel can totaling rounds per can.
Two round cans were then packed into a standard wooden ammo crate for a total of rounds. The top of the crate was stenciled with the type of ammo inside. Packs were stored in a wooden crate omitting metal cans, rounds per crate total. From this requirement was discontinued. Crates, cans and packs loaded with special types of rounds were also color-marked by painting respective color stripes or rectangles in addition to stenciled markings.
Unusual and somewhat atypical for Soviet nomenclature was the fact that the initial markings on 5. According to convention ammo was to be identified by specifying one after another following characteristics of the cartridge: However, for reasons unknown and undocumented up until all types of 5.
It is worth mentioning that the unusually small new cartridge was met with skepticism in military and designer circles. To his credit first test barrels made for this round had hard time maintaining zero past rounds. At the same time Ministry of Defense demanded no less than 10 rounds for a life span of the barrel. To solve this problem barrel experts from NII as well as specialists from Kovrov and Izhevsk factories were called to assist.
With their combined efforts technology was developed allowing to extend life-span of AK barrels to 12 rounds. Characteristic trademark of the 5. Center of gravity was always near the longitudinal axis of the projectile, albeit closer towards the rear and in actuality never shifts or changes. Because of the length to width ratio, weigh distribution and rate of twist selected, bullet in flight is balancing on the verge of gyroscopic stability.
From the beginning of thes 30 and round magazines were slightly redesigned and improved. Around the beginning of the s work on magazines with even higher capacity was conducted. Steel round quad-stack with realignment to double-stack were in the testing stages when work was canceled due to budgetary constrains. Nathaniel is a history enthusiast and firearms hobbyist whose primary interest lies in military small arms technological developments beginning with the smokeless powder era.
He can be reached via email at nathaniel. No, I mean all possessive pronouns are free of apostrophes: You only use the apostrophe in a possessive suffix contraction to a proper or common noun: Good point and to go with that, adding an apostrophe S to a word does not make it plural, despite what a lot of people seem to think, it simply makes a word possessive. I found myself reading parts with a Russian accent. Like watching a fil in Russian or Finn. I have to turn up the volume to read the captions.
This is the kind of info you want to read and ultimately compile into some book. How do you like the Polonium on your tea Nathaniel? Fantastic article and kudos to the translator. Well I read it on original version, at the. Both guys who translated did an awesome job. And Nath posting it was the icing on the cake. I hope this would make the whole AK-disposable rifle squad think about their mantra. It means something like: Not knowing much of American culture.
Good translation of article as a whole, anyway, thank you. It is quite an old-fashioned word, and is only used here because of the proverb. There are two widely known proverbs in Russia that underline the importance of small, inconspicuous objects or people:.
The first one says: Congratulation to excellent article. It appears to be though only thru cursory reading without errors and in compliance with original Russian designations. That by itself is quite rare. Twist of the rifle allowed this but is not widespread because of the law. Care to have them translated? When two american 5. Most troubles were connected with new powder and stable quality of the bullets when produced in huge amounts in rotary manufacturing lines. Tracer rounds were another kind of headache for the engineers.
Trying to get a rough ballistic match out to a useable range must have driven engineers to drink. But then — huge quantaties of the same products are produced on the daily basis.
For example Lapua produces about 5 rounds a year in all calibers. Invention, modernisation, various bullets design etc. I do hope that one day some of the info will be translated in to english. I would like to see it. Especially the inter-war years. In this case, the jacket materials they were using and their ordnance tooling, etc. Switching to US methods and materials would likely have made the project unfeasible due to cost, time, and technical risks. Working the problems in the wind of how they were already set up for and experienced in was the smart play.
It used to be brass cased ammo was easier too make than steel cased ammo. But, the cost to use steel, that is cheaper than brass, wears tooling faster. In the end, it was said they cost the same in the end. One thing about steel, is the way we can leave it to become the gravel at some ranges. By sticking with what they already knew, they had some design obstacles, but could pretty much reuse almost everything but the dies — no major new ground to break, no massive overhaul of production lines and retraining.
It makes complete sense. Prior to WW2, Soviet researchers were investigating intermediate rifle rounds down to 5. Like the Germans and Swiss had done, the existing bore diameter was used, as a cost effective way to craft a new cartridge. That goes to the Soviets adopting the PPSh 41 in 7.
Americans tend to think the Russians were primitive and did not use good manufacturing skills. Just the opposite to what went on. They were every bit as skilled in determining the amount of equipment was needed, how much raw materials were used, how much became waste that was recycled and how many square meters of floor space was needed. They did a good job of doing that.
Even in Russia the milled receiver was a stopgap on the way to the AKM. Research did not stop because they had found such a reasonable weapon.
Research continues, and foreign weapons were considered along with new ammunition in various calibers. Personally I think we have the best weapon and ammo considering cost to performance values.
I am surprised at how many people hold misinformation regarding the performance of all the cartridges in common use world wide. The persistent belief in how bullets perform in tissue should have been settled a long time ago. The Russians use some common sense during the end years of the Soviet Union.
Much to my surprise Soviet forces were still using SKSs. With the Soviets sending so many AK rifles to just about any country that saluted Lenin would make one think they had fully supplied their own forces with the newer rifle. But like the times I served, we used WW2 era weapons. The odd thing about the M1Cs, is I was an armorer and they were not in our vault. Long life of the 7. For last 3 years, all 7. That is the basics in the mass producing techniques. Scrap metal for couple cents may become millions, as different kind of products are produced in huge quantities.
But on the other side of the coin — you have to increase tolerances. Ballistically this round is as accurate as any good. It showed they were not expected to be used in direct combat. Like out WW2 soldiers often getting the M1 Carbine because they were not expected to face combat as part of their routine. I thought the use of that very long and tough bullet in the 5.
Using a shorter bullet with a slower twist rate seems like accuracy and bore life would improve. I still think the Russian got what they wanted. Now it looks like they will get an improved rifle. They are a very interesting rifle-cartridge combination. Had America set out to copy the 5. With some notable exceptions, such as the M60 adaption of the FG That took over 20 years to become a reasonably dependable weapon. I believe the M60 feed mechanism was that of the MG How many years would it have taken?
Want to talk about clumsy? Just look at the adoption and development of the M16 and M Filled with bureaucracy that caused the infantrymen in Vietnam to be sent to combat with an inferior rifle. Von Braun designed launch vehicles only, and his concept for actually traveling to the Moon was very crude direct ascent. The plan that actually got us to the Moon Lunar orbit rendezvous was first conceived by a Ukrainian, and proposed by two Americans.
We owe Von Braun in part for my favorite rocket of all time the Saturn V which took us to the Moon, but that was far from the only game in town. There were plans for a Lunar mission based on Titan hardware, which could well have succeeded.
Then of course we have all the actual Apollo spacecrafts, which were overwhelmingly designed by Americans. He daydreamed about that, but it was never considered seriously. NASA gave serious consideration to three options: Direct ascent was basically the method that had been pictured in science fiction novels and Hollywood movies. A massive rocket the size of a battleship would be fired directly to the moon, land and then blast off for home directly from the lunar surface. The trip would be like that of a chartered bus, moving from point A to point B and back to A again in one brute of a vehicle.
Strong feelings existed within NASA in favor of direct ascent, largely because it meant the development of a proposed giant booster named the Nova. The development of a rocket that mammoth would just take too long, and the expense would be enormous. Extensive research into the aerodynamic forces affecting the Saturn-Apollo launch configuration was performed in Langley wind tunnel.
Here, researchers study the effects of wind on the Saturn I and escape tower. The demise of direct ascent led to a scrupulous evaluation of the second option: The main idea of EOR was to launch two pieces into space independently using advanced Saturn rockets that were then in development; have the two pieces rendezvous and dock in Earth orbit; assemble, fuel, and detach a lunar mission vehicle from the modules that had joined up; and then proceed with that bolstered ship, exactly as in the direct flight mode, to the moon and back to Earth orbit.
The advantage of EOR was that it required a pair of less powerful rockets that were already nearing the end of their development. EOR enjoyed strong support inside of NASA, especially among those who recognized that selection of EOR as the mode for the Apollo mission would require the virtual construction of a space station, a platform in Earth orbit that could have many other uses, scientific and otherwise, beyond Apollo. For this reason, space station advocates like Dr.
In the end NASA selected neither of the first two options: A casualty of my over-abridged sources, I bet. I presume you are referring to the successful landing of the Falcon 9 1st stage after mission completion. As a kid in the 50s it seemed every landing on planet or moon involved a rocket setting down on it tailfins. That launch and recovery a few weeks ago was spectacular. Von Braun only designed launch vehicles?
The advantage of the LOR architecture is it achieved all the goals Kennedy wanted, it beat the Soviets by landing a man on the moon and bringing him back within a decade. Which is why the Apollo missions beyond Apollo 11 ended up such snorefest to the public, and arguably set back manned space exploration for decades. Actually doing something interesting and longer lasting on the moon without breaking the bank requires EOR and Lunar Surface Rendezvous.
If we only wanted to beat the Russians to the moon, we should have aimed just for a Lunar flyby. And that German said he learned the basics from Goddard. The US Army ignored rockets except for powder burning missiles. So what was stolen here? In terms of firearms far more was stolen from the Russians than vice versa.
Except if you notice the XM8 actually flopped. Did the XM8 go onto becomes a service rifle without being reworked and without problems, anywhere? Then we watched as the G36 has struggled and is now considered to have flopped.
Now we see the M4-type carbines well entrenched around the world. Why do so many people continue to make claims that the M4 and the whole M16 family of weapons is somehow so inferior to European rifles that Americans must be nuts? The Russians seemed to be impressed with the 5.
If anything the article dispels the myth of the air cavity in the nose causing so much more devastation. XM8 floped politicaly same goes for G No one said Ar15 its inferior nor that 5. Except my comment was in response to another now no longer above mine that said the XM8 was superior and the 5. I believe it was by Fascist Corgi. To add to this, the same could be argued for the Russians, how long have they used the AK platform? I would expect the Russians to do a PIP.
A better built AK tightening up tolerances and adding a good aperture sight will give them a fine rifle. It would make sense to keep the rifle. Some would call it a political choice, like when we turned down the XM8, but it is politics of looking at the budget and using common sense. There is no reason to abandon the M4 or the AKS Our package with the M4A1 and MA1 will serve us well. Russia could improve the performance of the 5.
As this article shows they built a stronger bullet that would not break apart. Why so many think it I somehow superior to the 5. It always has, since Dr. Fackler sent me some of his test results.
Just think if they had duplicated the destructive qualities of the M or SS The Galil is also a problem on where and how you pick your poison. The fact that this debate even keeps growing up blah blah fragments, makes horrible wounds , is frankly speaking stupid. The first task of the rifleman is to hit something. Dis you hit the guy? Most of the guys who were taken alive in Georgia had only been hit once and were badly incapacitated.
And ironically the ricochet wounds were fairly common. That was the RK The RK62 has a milled receiver. The top cover is fitted to closer tolerance allowing the aperture right and a night sight, by flipping the sight degrees.
The 62 has a flip up front sight for night shooting. Windage adjustments use counterpoise screws instead of a clamp type adjuster. The issue RK has gone through some changes testing sheet metal. Last I heard it is back to milled and has M furniture. All AK rifles share the same issues with dirt infiltration. Protect your gear as much as possible. The Galil is a refined Valmet. The first Galils used Valmet receivers, an improved dual safety, Stoner 63 magazines and like the 62 better fit and finish.
The rifles like the RK62 in 7. So saying the truth about the 5. Why fight the truth? If you want the enemy to stop shooting at you, would it not be better to have a bullet that has a higher potential of doing so?
OK, since it is much easier to hit your target with a M4 carbine compared to an AKM gives the M4 armed warrior an edge. Russians recognized the 7.
Crude sights limit its usefulness, coupled with the mortar-like trajectory and recoil impulse. That is why the Soviets designed the 5. Both changes improved the ability of the Soviet conscript to hit. Soviets claim it gave an improvement of 2. So, here we see the Russians accomplished a major goal — hit the target as misses do nothing.
If you think a bullet like the 5. Those awesome wounds are expected when both tissue and bone are hit with any round. Chances of a man hit in the chest with a 5. The chances improve is shot with the Soviet rounds. Remember we are discussing flesh wounds as demonstrated by using gelatin. No one is saying either GSW wont be bad, just that tissue wounds caused by 5.
Being hit with distorted bullets has been an issue forever. It is like being hit with a flachette from a Those hitting without interruption leave little ice pick wounds. Those that hit an obstacle and distort, will create bad wounds. Also you seem to have issues with reading. On of those is that the 7n6 makes a better proposition both in range and trajectory. And the round itself proved quite capable. Given that the number factor for the round was and still is to allow the rifleman to hit the target, the 7nX does that very well, at least as good as the NATO proposition.
For various reasons the deal is still to have the guy incapacitated, not dead. I said in another thread. And both had the same first need care, which was the German Sani and were evacuated to the German base. Many guys still serving, have asked to bring back the granpa. This curious reference that sees the Soviets reject the M43, I need to know where it comes from.
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Witnesses recall that the scene nearly brought tears to the eyes of King of Norway, who was present at the race. Body Type Does Not Matter. Anastasija Zagainova Yoshkar-Ola, Russia.
You may think wounding the enemy is a good thing as it causes more troopers to disengage in the fight and care for the wounded. Svetlana 53 Russland SVR My last AK was a Russian.
The familiar bloody drag marks following a battle in Vietnam, is a sure sign of that context. Englisch 1 Deutsch 2 Partner: Reprogram the projectile manufacturers into building 30 caliber pistol bullets and whatnot? Anastasia or Ana Vasilyeva St. It would allow release of gases normally produced by chelsea dating compound during prolonged storage. Barnaul dating the many places he barnaul dating home is http: Near the end of the s Soviet intelligence reported of experimental developments conducted by Americans barnaul dating the new automatic rifle AR of a new 5.
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