History of Albany, New York
They formed successful relations with both the Mahican and the Mohawk peoples , two major Native American nations in the region. The city was officially chartered in with the issuance of the Dongan Charter , the oldest effective city charter in the nation and possibly the longest-running instrument of municipal government in the Western Hemisphere. August 2, [Retrieved August 2, ]. Our Schools [Retrieved July 18, ]. What Corning had saved from destruction, Whalen refurbished.
Since the s, the economy of Albany and the surrounding Capital District has been redirected toward a high technology focus. The Mohican called it Pempotowwuthut-Muhhcanneuw , meaning "the fireplace of the Mohican nation",  while the Iroquois called it Sche-negh-ta-da , or "through the pine woods," referring to their trail to the city. July 5, [Retrieved June 8, ]. March 30, [Retrieved April 26, ]: Albany is one of the oldest surviving European settlements from the original thirteen colonies  and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. As in many American cities, after the advent of the automobile, light rail services declined in Albany and were replaced by bus and taxi services.
Albany won the All-America City Award in both and Albany is one of the oldest surviving European settlements from the original thirteen colonies  and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. It is likely the Albany area was visited by European fur traders, perhaps as early as , but the extent and duration of those visits has not been determined.
Halve Maen , reached the area in , claiming it for the United Netherlands. Commencement of the fur trade provoked hostility from the French colony in Canada and among the natives, all of whom vied to control the trade.
In , a flood ruined the fort on Castle Island, but it was rebuilt in as Fort Orange. Beaver District in At that time the county included all of present New York State north of Dutchess and Ulster Counties in addition to present-day Bennington County, Vermont , theoretically stretching west to the Pacific Ocean ;   the city of Albany became the county seat.
The Dongan Charter was virtually identical in content to the charter awarded to the city of New York three months earlier. At this point, Albany had a population of about people. In , representatives of seven British North American colonies met in the Stadt Huys , Albany's city hall, for the Albany Congress ; Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania presented the Albany Plan of Union there, which was the first formal proposal to unite the colonies.
Tories and prisoners of war were often jailed in the Stadt Huys alongside common criminals. During and after the Revolutionary War, Albany County saw a great increase in real estate transactions. After Horatio Gates ' win over John Burgoyne at Saratoga in , the upper Hudson Valley was generally at peace as the war raged on elsewhere.
Prosperity was soon seen all over Upstate New York. Migrants from Vermont and Connecticut began flowing in, noting the advantages of living on the Hudson and trading at Albany, while being only a few days' sail from New York City.
From statehood to this date, the Legislature had frequently moved the state capital between Albany, Kingston , Hurley , Poughkeepsie , and the city of New York. Albany has been a center of transportation for much of its history. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Albany saw development of the turnpike and by , Albany was the turnpike center of the state.
Simeon De Witt developed a grid block system in , and renamed streets for birds and mammals that had honored British royalty. In , Robert Fulton initiated a steamboat line from New York to Albany, the first successful enterprise of its kind. Three years later, he discovered electromagnetic self-induction the SI unit for which is now the henry. He went on to be the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.
Albany also has significant history with rail transport ,  as the location of two major regional railroad headquarters. While the key to Albany's economic prosperity in the 19th century was transportation, industry and business also played a role.
Largely thanks to the city's Dutch and German roots, beer was one of its biggest commodities. Beverwyck Brewery , originally known as Quinn and Nolan Nolan being mayor of Albany — ,  was the last remaining brewer from that time when it closed in The city's location at the east end of the Erie Canal gave it unparalleled access to both raw products and a captive customer base in the west.
Albany was second only to Boston in the number of books produced for most of the 19th century. To this day, one can see many intricate wrought-iron details that were constructed in those years on what are now historic buildings. The iron industry waned by the s due to increased costs associated with a newly unionized workforce and the opening of mines in the Mesabi Range in Minnesota.
Albany's other major exports during the 18th and 19th centuries were furs, wheat, meat, and lumber. The Bank of Albany — was the second chartered bank in New York. Part of the land annexed to Guilderland was ceded back to Albany in , setting up the current western border. Albany opened one of the first commercial airports in the world, and the first municipal airport in the United States, in Originally on a polo field on Loudon Road, it moved to Westerlo Island in and remained there until The Albany Municipal Airport—jointly owned by the city and county—was moved to its current location in Colonie in By Albany's northern and southern borders reached their modern courses;  Westerlo Island , to the south, became the second-to-last annexation, which occurred in Erastus Corning 2nd , arguably Albany's most notable mayor and great-grandson of the former mayor of the same name , was elected in During the s and s, a time when federal aid for urban renewal was plentiful,  Albany did not have growth in its economy or infrastructure.
It lost more than 20 percent of its population during the Corning years, as people moved to newer housing in the suburbs, followed by most of the downtown businesses moving there as well.
It was known from then on as Albany County Airport until a massive upgrade and modernization project between and , when it was rechristened Albany International Airport.
Governor Nelson Rockefeller — R tried to stimulate the city with new monumental architecture and large, government-sponsored building projects; he drove construction of the Empire State Plaza , SUNY Albany 's uptown campus, and much of the W.
Frangella once quipped, "Governor Rockefeller was the best mayor Albany ever had. Rockefeller did not want to be limited by the Legislature's power of the purse , so Corning devised a plan to have the county pay for the construction and have the state sign a lease-ownership agreement. The state paid off the bonds until It was Rockefeller's only viable option, and he agreed.
Due to the clout Corning gained from the situation, he gained inclusion of the State Museum, a convention center, and a restaurant, back in the plans—ideas which Rockefeller had originally vetoed. Having the state offices in the city enabled it to keep good jobs and retain middle-class residents.
Another major project of the s and s was Interstate and the South Mall Arterial. One of the project's main results, since regretted, was separating the city from the Hudson River, its source of development.
The project would have required an underground trumpet interchange below Washington Park , connecting to the eventually cancelled Mid-Crosstown Arterial. When Corning died in , Thomas Whalen assumed the mayorship and was reelected twice. He encouraged redevelopment of historic structures and helped attract federal dollars earmarked for that purpose. What Corning had saved from destruction, Whalen refurbished for continued and new uses.
Prior to the recession of the s , downtown Albany was home to four Fortune companies. Long-term office holders became rare in the s. Local media began following the drama surrounding county politics specifically that of the newly created county executive position ; the loss of Corning and eventually the machine led to a lack of interest in city politics.
His tenure essentially ended the political machine that had been in place since the s. Many state workers were relocated from the Harriman State Office Campus to downtown, helping its retail businesses and vitality. Patroon Creek , along the northern border, and the Normans Kill, along the southern border, are the two major streams in the city.
The lowest point is sea level at the Hudson River the average water elevation is 2 feet 0. A preserve was set up by the State Legislature in and is on the city's western edge, spilling into Guilderland and Colonie;  it is the only sizable inland pine barrens sand dune ecosystem in the United States,  and is home to many endangered species, including the Karner Blue butterfly.
Dfa ,  and features cold, snowy winters, and warm, humid summers; the city experiences four distinct seasons.
Albany is in plant hardiness zone 6a near downtown and along the shore of the Hudson and 5b at its western end. Snowfall is significant, totaling However, Albany is close enough to the Atlantic coast to receive heavy snow from Nor'easters and the city occasionally receives Alberta clippers.
The neighborhoods of Albany are varied demographically, geographically, architecturally, and historically. Downtown Albany is the city's oldest neighborhood, centered on State Street, one of Albany's oldest streets and its original main street. North and south of Downtown Albany are old residential communities often consisting of row houses ; to the north, those neighborhoods include Sheridan Hollow, Arbor Hill , and North Albany, while to the south is the super-neighborhood of the South End, which includes several smaller neighborhoods.
Single-family detached homes , duplexes, and apartments, along with single-family houses that have been divided into multiple units, can be found west of the older neighborhoods.
The western portion of the City includes the W. Averell Harriman State Office Building Campus and the University at Albany's main campus, as well as offices and commercial properties lining frontage roads along Washington Avenue Extension. Albany has more than 60 public parks and recreation areas. Its current location has been public property since the Dongan Charter of gave the city title to all property not privately owned.
Washington Park was designed by John Bogart and John Cuyler in ,  and opened for public use the following year. The original lake house, designed by Frederick W. Brown, was added in The park had previously been used as a cemetery; its graves were moved to Albany Rural Cemetery. Washington Park is a popular place to exercise and play sports; skate during the winter; people-watch during Tulip Fest ; and attend plays at the amphitheater during the summer.
Buckingham Lake Park is between Manning Boulevard and Route 85 in the Buckingham Pond neighborhood; it contains a pond with fountains, a footpath, a playground, and picnic tables. The Preserve's visitors center details the ecology of the Hudson River and the local environment. The Empire State Plaza , a collection of state agency office buildings, dominates almost any view of Albany.
Built between and at the hand of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller and architect Wallace Harrison , the complex is a powerful example of late American modern architecture  and remains a controversial building project both for displacing city residents and for its architectural style.
Albany's initial architecture incorporated many Dutch influences, followed soon after by those of the English. Housing type quickly changes as one travels westward, beginning with two-family homes of the late 19th century, and one-family homes built after World War II in the western end of the city.
It has a classical exterior, which features a block-long white marble colonnade. Architecture from the s and s is well represented in the city, especially at the W. The state office campus was planned in the s by governor W. Averell Harriman to offer more parking and easier access for state employees. Straying from the popular open campus layout , SUNY Albany has a centralized building layout with administrative and classroom buildings at center surrounded by four student housing towers.
The design called for much use of concrete and glass, and the style has slender, round-topped columns and pillars reminiscent of those at Lincoln Center in New York City. Downtown has seen a revival in recent decades, often considered to have begun with Norstar Bank 's renovation of the former Union Station as its corporate headquarters in Historically, Albany's population has been mixed.
First dominated by the Dutch and Germans, it was overtaken by the English in the early 19th century. Irish immigrants soon outnumbered most other ethnicities by the midth century, and were followed by Italians and Poles. In the mid-to-late 20th century, the African-American population increased with thousands of people from the rural South, as part of the Great Migration. Dutch and Yankee, German and Irish, Polish and Italian, black and Chinese—over the centuries Albany's heritage has reflected a succession of immigrant nationalities.
Its streets have echoed with a dozen languages, its neighborhoods adapting to the distinctive life-style and changing economic fortunes of each new group. Until after the Revolution, Albany's population consisted mostly of ethnic Dutch descendants. Settlers migrating from New England tipped the balance toward British ethnicity in the early 19th century. Their numbers were smaller than in many other eastern cities mainly because most had found manufacturing jobs at General Electric in Schenectady.
Its population rose during the late 19th century, when many Ashkenazi Jews immigrated from eastern Europe. Many of their descendants have since moved to suburban areas. Albany was also a destination of internal migration, as many African Americans moved north in their Great Migration from the rural South before and after World War I to fill industrial positions and find new opportunities.
In the early years, they lived together with Italians, Jews and other immigrants in the South End, where housing was older and less expensive. African Americans made up 3 percent of the city's population in , 6 percent in , 12 percent in , and 30 percent in The change in proportion is related mostly to middle-class white families moving to the suburbs, and black families remaining within city limits during the same time period.
Since the number of Burmese refugees has increased, who are mostly of the Karen ethnicity; an estimated 5, reside in Albany as of January As of the census ,  there were 97, people residing in the city.
There were 46, housing units at an average density of 2, The racial makeup of the city residents was A total of 9. Albany is home to a Triqui language -speaking community of Mexican-Americans. The population had The median age was For every females there were For every females age 18 and over, there were There were 40, households in , out of which The average household size was 2.
Reported property crimes 4, incidents per , residents are somewhat lower. Demographically speaking, the population of Albany and the Capital District mirrors the characteristics of the United States consumer population as a whole better than any other major municipality in the country. According to a study conducted by the Acxiom Corporation , Albany and its environs are the top-ranked standard test market for new business and retail products.
Albany, Rochester, and Syracuse all scored within the top five. Albany's geographic situation—roughly equidistant between New York City to the south and Montreal to the north, as well as approximately 4. The Palace Theatre and The Egg provide mid-sized forums for music, theater, and spoken word performances, with the Capital Repertory Theatre filling the small-sized niche.
It also hosts trade shows, sporting events, and other large-scale community gatherings. In recent years, the city's government has invested resources to cultivate venues and neighborhoods that attract after-hours business. Many restaurants, clubs, and bars have opened since the mids, revitalizing numerous areas that had once been abandoned; various establishments have reclaimed old row houses, businesses, and even a pump station.
The downtown scene is focused on Pearl Street, stretching about two blocks. Up State Street, past the business district, is the Lark Street strip, home to smaller bars that fit into the neighborhood's artistic and eclectic style. The midtown strip generally draws a younger crowd, as it is popular to the local college students. Last call in Albany is 4: More than half of the state's counties have an earlier closing time, but Albany County, as with all counties in the Capital District, has retained the 4: Alive at 5 is a free, weekly concert series held downtown during the summer on Thursdays;  with 10 concerts in , total attendance was roughly , This traditional Albany event marks the beginning of spring as thousands of tulips bloom in the park in early May;  attendance to the Tulip Festival in was approximately 80, Because of Albany's historical and political significance, the city has numerous museums, historical buildings, and historic districts.
It is the only ship of its kind still afloat. The museum is home to exhibits highlighting the contributions of the Irish people in America. The Albany Institute of History and Art , on Washington Avenue near the Center Square Neighborhood and State Capitol, is "dedicated to collecting, preserving, interpreting and promoting interest in the history, art, culture of Albany and the Upper Hudson Valley region. Albany has been the subject, inspiration, or location for many written and cinematic works.
Many non-fiction works have been written on the city. One of the city's more notable claims to fame is Ironweed , the Pulitzer Prize-winning book by Albany native William Kennedy. Ironweed was the third in a series of books by Kennedy known as the "Albany Cycle".
The book is considered a semi-autobiographical memoir. In , the film version of Ironweed premiered at the Palace Theatre. Authors Herman Melville and Henry James lived with their families in Albany when young, before their careers. The City School District of Albany CSDA operates the city's public school system, which consists of 17 schools and learning centers;  in addition, there are 7 charter schools.
Albany has a prominent history in higher education and was ranked third in a Forbes survey called "The Best Places with the Best Education" in ;  it ranked top on Forbes' "IQ Campuses" list as part of its Cheap Places to Live series in Albany Law School private is the oldest law school in New York and the fourth-oldest in the country; it was opened in President William McKinley was an alumnus.
The center of the campus moved to its current Uptown Campus in the west end of the city in Combining the student bodies of all the aforementioned campuses except HVCC results in 63, students, or almost 70 percent of the estimate of Albany's permanent population.
Albany's economy, along with that of the Capital District in general, is heavily dependent on government, health care , education , and more recently, technology. Because of these typically steady economic bases, the local economy has been relatively immune to national economic recessions in the past.
In March , the Albany area had the lowest unemployment rate of any major metropolitan area in New York, at 7. Since the s, the economy of Albany and the surrounding Capital District has been redirected toward a high technology focus. The area's high technology ecosystem is supported by technologically focused academic institutions including Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and the State University of New York Polytechnic Institute. In , the Albany-Schenectady area was listed fourth on Forbes Magazine's annual "Best Cities for Jobs" list, noting that job losses in state and local government were overcome by expansion of the high-tech field.
Albany has a mayor-council form of government , which functions under the Dongan Charter , adopted in when Albany was incorporated as a city. A revised charter was adopted by referendum in , but was applied strictly as an amendment to Dongan. This gives Albany the distinction of having the oldest active city charter in the United States and "arguably the longest-running instrument of municipal government in the Western Hemisphere.
Corning has been called shortsighted for his failure to use the waterfront as an attraction for the city. Much of the original highway plan was never constructed, however: The project would have required an underground trumpet interchange below Washington Park , connecting to the eventually cancelled Mid-Crosstown Arterial.
After Corning died in , Thomas Whalen assumed the mayorship and was reelected twice. He gained federal dollars earmarked for restoring historic structures. What Corning had saved from destruction, Whalen refurbished. Prior to the recession of the s , Albany was home to two Fortune companies: KeyBank and Fleet Bank; both have since moved or merged with other banks.
There was more pressure on officeholders and voters regularly changed allegiances in the s. Local media began following the drama surrounding county politics specifically that of the newly created county executive position ; the loss of Corning and eventually the political machine led to a lack of interest in city politics.
His tenure has essentially ended the Democratic Party political machine that had been in place since the s. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Part of a series on the. However, the latter forfeited its charter during Leisler's Rebellion , making Albany's the oldest effective charter in the country. His title of Duke of York is the source of the name of the province of New York. But, the two systems were not related otherwise, which is why cross streets north and south of Clinton Avenue do not align. The stockade surrounding the city was taken down shortly before the Revolutionary War, allowing for expansion. De Witt, city surveyor at the time, continued the grid pattern to the west, renaming any streets that honored British Royalty for his map.
Hawk Street is the only road that retained its original name; the rest were named after birds and mammals. While downtown went to seed and plans for large-scale construction and improvements came to a virtual standstill in Albany without federal money, pockets of the city's historic housing stock escaped the wrecking ball.
All America City Awards: Nichols Publishing Company; University of the State of New York, , pp. The Historie of Scotland. William Blackwood and Sons; Cartography by Claude Joseph Sauthier. The Dongan Charter [Retrieved ]. How a City Worked: Occupations in Colonial Albany [ archived ; Retrieved ]. The Committee of Correspondence ; [Retrieved ].
Livingston, Philip — [Retrieved ]. Historical Publication Co; Bureau of the Census. Population of the 46 Urban Places: Annexations — [ archived ; Retrieved ]. Frequently Asked Questions ; [Retrieved ]. City of Albany Map. Law and Regulation in Nineteenth-Century America.
The University of North Carolina Press; A Guide to the Empire State. Oxford University Press; Population of the 90 Urban Places: Population of the Urban Places: Yale University Press; For a glimpse of the future, backtrack. Its History and Extent. The Argus Company; Nolan, Michael Nicholas [Retrieved ].
The Bank of Albany ; [Retrieved ]. Trust Co Worth Advice? If you are coming from the South: Take route 87 north from Albany. Get off at exit 13N and proceed north on Route 9. You will be on Route 9 for about four and one-half miles. Turn right east on route 29, which is also Lake Avenue. The Museum is in the old armory building which is 3 blocks on the left.
If you are coming from the North: Take route 87 south. Get off at exit 15 and proceed south on route After about one and one-half miles turn left to stay on Route 50 south, this is also Broadway and Route 9. Go about one-quarter mile and turn left on route 29, which is also Lake Avenue. Y ou can call the museum at or go to mapquest.
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But, the two systems were not related otherwise, which is why cross streets north and south of Clinton Avenue do not align.
Since the s, the economy of Albany and the surrounding Capital District has been redirected toward a high technology focus. With the closure of Union Station on Broadway, area passenger-rail service is provided by Amtrak at the Albany-Rensselaer station across the river in Rensselaer.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. A New Direction When did the custom of dating arise a School. Some people prepare for it. Begun inthe collection has not had a secure, permanent home until the Governor announced in that the historic armory in Saratoga Springs, NY would be renovated to albany ny dating services the collection. Inrepresentatives of seven British North American colonies met in the Stadt HuysAlbany's city hall, for the Albany Congress ; Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania presented the Albany Plan of Union there, which was the first formal proposal to unite the colonies. However, Albany is close enough albany ny dating services the Atlantic coast to receive heavy snow from Nor'easters and the city occasionally receives Alberta clippers.
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