Social Science History: Time line for the history of society, science and social science
The question paper for Natural Sciences 8. So Lyell is correct in linking the name to oaks found in lignite. Generalised section across the Weal in south-east England, crossing the escarpments downs in the north, but following the Ouse valley in the south. Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture distinct arrangement of minerals in pre-existing rocks protoliths , without the protolith melting into liquid magma a solid-state change. They are used as ornaments and, until recently and in great variety, they have served as the source of most medicines and drugs. The upwards components of these counteract gravity, keeping the body in the air, while the forward component provides thrust to counteract both the drag from the wing and from the body as a whole.
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The integrity of eDNA samples is dependent upon its preservation within the environment. It was small, without illustrations, and therefore relatively cheap. It develops naturally from the Solutrean. Columbus hears about cannibals 16th Century Paracelsus - alchemy and experiment new knowledge contrasted with schools Early Villafranchian starts with appearance of a primitive bovid of the genus of Leptobos in Italy.
It was a resource for a foundation course in social sciences at Middlesex University. Main Chronological Headings Quick jump to: Viking ships 9th Century Royal protection for foreign traders size of London 13th Century Mongolian Empire - Silk Road Thomas Aquinas coal by sea 14th Century Columbus hears about cannibals 16th Century Paracelsus - alchemy and experiment new knowledge contrasted with schools God's gift of reason The music of the spheres and a great herbal a triangular run 17th Century - - - - - English Civil War King contained - Hobbes' Leviathan Louis Restoration and Royal Society Bills of mortatlity Newton's mathematical physics Vauban on geometry and war Bloodless English revolution Locke's politics and theory of science.
English translation of Newton's Mathematical Principles The Koran for Christians David Hume's Treatise of Human Nature Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws British Museum Transit of Venus Beccaria's Essay on Crimes and Punishment Priestley's principles of government and dephlogisticated air Another transit of Venus Life giving air Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population 19th Century First British census Owen's Essays on the Formation of Human Character End of war - A new start for geology A new start for museums and archaeology Idyllic country villages and a Manchester massacre James Mill's Essay on Government The spirit of the age Statistical Societies formed New Poor Law An ordinary guy Feuerbach - anthropology and humanism British census with names the steamship and the railway and the thoughts that shake mankind Women and children in coal mines The birth of anthropology Superphosphates and classic field experiments The Claims of Labour and Vestiges of Creation History of "the social movement" The Enfranchisement of Women and the first of the great exhibitions Crimean War Sydenham geology display Association for the Promotion of Social Science The Origin of Species History of the family Emancipation of United States slaves London sewerage system The Subjection of Women Nature launched wreathed in poetry European war and German worker's parties The Descent of Man Durkheim's nephew born The secret of Giuseppe Villella's skull Mary Paley and economics New York and Liverpool: Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft Life and Labour of the People of London Alfred Marshall's Principles of Economics Evolution and ethics La donna delinquente Freud's Interpretation of Dreams Measuring poverty and Nobel prizes Psychological and sociological societies Sociological Review Genes, genotypes and genetics Galton Chair of Eugenics Behaviourism and Ecology First World War The ABC of Communism Political Science and Critical Theory Turing's meadow computation Heavy rain Mass Observation National Income and Expenditure Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex new international sociology - radioactive time Unsupported mothers - child soldiers Karl Popper's Science, Conjectures and Refutations article New Scientist magazine launched International Geophysical Year Outline of Human Genetics s: New Society magazine launched - the people's university Juliet Mitchell's Psychoanalysis and Feminism The coming and going Corporatism Glasnost Big bangs and risk Diana H.
Do your own word processing! Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics Manuel Castells' The Information Age and Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity Sociology top ten Anthony Giddens' Reith Lectures A millennium bug in liquid modernity Free and democratic encyclopedia New international relations A prize for humanities and social science The will to make poverty history?
International Year of Statistics Brain rain e on Hendon Followed by Cambrian - Ordovician - Silurian Azoic: Having no trace of life or containing no organic remains. Oxford Engish Dictionary Wikipedia Wikipedia: Origin of water on Earth 3,,, years ago Did life first come into being in a primordial soup of compounds? In Alexander Ivanovich Oparin argued that it did. See biological bases - circumstances - primeval swamp.
The era of the earliest living beings on earth. Putative fossils are reported from 3,,, years ago. The reference here is to possible cyanobacteria from the Warrawoona Group in Western Australia. Also dated 3,,, years ago. See stromatolites Hamelin Pool stromatolites in Western Australia: Stromatolites which are found to be up to a metre high are believed to be hundreds to thousands of years old as they grow at a maximum of 0.
Seaweed , Algae-colonies, Flagellate algae. The reference relates to Multicellular filaments from arctic Canada identified as a red algae Bangiomorpha pubescens.
See seaweeds of Alaska. Sponges, Seaweed, Giant seaweed , Coral. Brachiopods [Bivalves Wikipedia ]. Various forms of Annelidae [worms. Rocks and fossils of the Welsh periods Cambrian - Ordovician - Silurian are similar: Before the appearance of any vertebrate animals. Age of sea scorpions and trilobites. Wells Now thought there were early vertebrates without jaws in the Cambrian.
Jawed vertebrates became common in the Devonian. Picture of Paradoxides Bohemicus from the Cambrian period from J. Taylor's Geological Stories Trilobites lived in the sea. All life in Cambrian times seems to have lived in water. The Burgess Shale contains the best record we have of Cambrian animal fossils. What we now call Silurian was his upper Silurian. It topped the Cambrian and underlay the Old Red Sandstone. In one could buy a hand coloured engraving called "The Antidiluvian World.
Illustrations of the animals, reptiles, birds, fishes, trees, plants etc which existed in different epochs prior to the creation of man , and whose remains are found entombed in the various strata. London, Published by James Reynolds Strand, 20t. This showed life beginning with the Silurian system, which it described as "a marine deposit of vast extent containing abundance of marine organic remains.
Encrinites and marine plants 2. Graptolites rock writing are thought to be horny skeletons of small creatures. Some are pictured here from the Observers Book of Geology , Their many different forms have enabled beds of ancient rock to be identified.
From primal swamp to speaking humans: Ernst Haeckel said that the Pithecoiden monkey theory of human evolution requires tracing our animal ancestors before monkeys. He began to do this in in the General Morphology.
Silurian fish are followed by Devonian Lurchfische ," [lungfish] "the Carboniferous amphibians, the Permian reptiles and in the Mesozoic the first mammals. Mammals appear again in the Triassic as monotremes [egg layers], then in the Jurassic as marsupials [nurturing babies in pouches], and the Cretaceous The oldest placental mammals, in the Tertiary period Eocene , include our lowest primate ancestors, including lemurs, the first catarrhines the Monkey Cynopitheken , and later the great apes anthropomorphic.
From a branch of the apes, speechless ape-man Pithecanthropus alalus arose in the Pliocene , leading, finally, to the speaking person. Some life left the water. Ichthyostega Wikipedia Greek ikhthus: Archaeopteris grew up to seven metres 23 feet tall, with a trunk of lignin and cellulose and branches supporting fern-like fronds extending horizontally to capture sunlight.
All plants were responsible for the transformation, but Archaeopteris was important because it made up 90 percent of the forests during the last 15 million years when these changes accelerated" Scheckler, and Jobst Wendt.
Deposition of mountain or carboniferous limestones of England and Wales. Rocks deposited during the Carboniferous period - million years ago underlie almost all of the Peak National Park and probably two thirds of the remainder of Derbyshire. Chatsworth House - Where Paxton built a greenhouse: Carboniferous limestone green Clay Cross: Carboniferous limestone green , near to millstone grit buff. The limestone continues under the grit and the coal measures.
Igneous intrusions in the limestone red: Bonsall area igneous rocks includes a stone comprising basalt and dolerite, locally referred to as toadstones. A complex of mine and natural cavern near Matlock Bath inspired the mine and cavern feature in the limestone at the Sydenham display. Plate 22 in Observers Book of Geology includes a depiction by Eli Marsden Wilson in the Natural History Museum, which it titles "A primeval swamp of the chief coal-forming period".
The picture used here comes from Edwin J. Houston's The Elements of Physical Geography Philadelphia , which says "The continents during this age consisted mainly of large, flat, marshy areas, covered with luxuriant vegetation. The and editions of Wegener's book contain a map of the world at three time periods: Late Carboniferous Jung Karbon: Named after the Perm district in Russia.
In Britain includes dolomite limestones running south from Durham. Wells' The Outline of History Emerged in the late Carboniferous. Flourished in the Permian. In Greek sauros is a lizard. From this came saurian - applied to lizard-like creatures, including crocodiles , ichthyosaurus and plesiosaurs in water, pterosaurs in the air, and dinosaurs like megalosaurus and brontosaurus.
Graph attempting to represent extinction events based on replacement of certain marine fossils. The Permian-Triassic P - Tr extinction is at the centre.
The table below is from D. Sepkoski's "Mass extinctions in the marine fossil record", published in Science in April Raup and Sepkoski say that "five mass extinctions are clearly defined". They occured "near the ends of geologic periods", which reflects the fact that the periods were originally defined, in the first half of the 19th century, using major changes in the fossils records.
It is here that its prehistoric animals begin. According to Owen its animals are Batrachia, [Wikipedia] , from the Greek word for a frog, now represented by "frogs, toads, and newts, or water-salamanders". But our noblest fossil animal is the crocodile Young and Bird under "Fishes and Amphibia". Archosaurs [Wikipedia] , ancestors of birds and crocodiles, became the dominant faunas. Phytosaurs [Wikipedia] first appear during the Carnian. With many other large crurotarsan [Wikipedia] reptiles, they disappear at the end of the Triassic.
Internet Archive - offline. This one was discovered in Kansas. Pterosaurs meaning "winged lizard" were flying reptiles that existed from the late Triassic to the end of the Cretaceous. See Dimorphodon - Stonesfield Slate - - - The Tethys sea developed between Laurasia north america, europe and asia and Gondwana africa southwards during the Jurassic Period. The ancestors of our fir trees and the monkey puzzle tree. Observers Book of Geology and Wikipedia Timeline of plant evolution.
Picture clip from J. Such is the picture of the lias" Wills p. Taylor 's "What the piece of jet had to say". See Lulworth forest and Hanover Point. Jet was popular after when Queen Victoria wore it following the death of Prince Albert. The body but not the head of the Anning's find is lost. This drawing of a Ichthyosaurus fish lizard is from J. Associated with Saurians , especially Ichthyosaurus. See Cambridge Greensands - - - Anning - - - - - - - - Buckland named "fossil faeces Since Buckland, coprolite sometimes just means rounded lumps of fossilised material.
Dimorphodon [Wikipedia] was a medium-sized pterosaur from the early Jurassic Period first discovered by Mary Anning in The Sydenham display featured Pterodactyles from the Ooolite and one from a chalk pit in the Cretaceous.
Steneosaurus bollensis previously Teleosaurus chapmani Konig fossils are found within Europe, including Germany, France and England. The Whitby crocodiles are regared as such Teleosaurs. Thalattosuchia or sea crocodiles [Wikipedia] ,.
The Stonesfield "slates" are limestones, originally deposited in a shallow sea. William Buckland obtained fossil bones from the quarries which later composed Megalosaurus , shown here dominating the Oolitic island at the centre of the Sydenham display.
To the right flew "Pterodactyles of the Ooolite", Buckland's Pterodactyle , found "pretty abundantly" at Stonesfield. In , Jane Francis named the dominant tree conifer Protocupressinoxylon purbeckensis Early cypress-wood from the Purbecks in an article now online.
The reconsruction right is from the article. See New occurrences of the wood Protocupressinoxylon purbeckensis Francis Generalised section across the Weal in south-east England, crossing the escarpments downs in the north, but following the Ouse valley in the south.
From Wills p. Also see Bucks Geology Group. See Gateway to the Earth and dinosaurs. At the exhibition , a Pterodactyl dominates the chalk and two Iguanodon dominate the Wealden deposits. Jukes-Browne, of the Geological Survey of England. Culver Cliff, Isle of Wight was photographed in , when I was twelve and it not yet a milion years old. The chalk ridge running along the centre of the island, from the Needles by Alum Bay on the west to Culver on the east, has younger rocks to the north and older ones to the south.
Recently a few fossils of actual flowers have been added to the leaf collections. Clues from Nebraska and Kansas by M. Pabian of the University of Nebraska shows a fossil flower from Rose Creek, Nebraska, with petals and stamens.
Rather than call this Middle Tertiary "in I proposed the name of Miocene, selecting the 'faluns' of the valley of the Loire in France as my example or type". The world never experienced a more beautiful period. That period was the Miocene, and by all manner of logical reasoning it was the time when man should have appeared" Mastodon, Mammoth, and Man by John Patterson MacLean page Picture of Miocene mammals from The Prehistoric World: Sommeone suggested Dryopithecus cracked the stones.
Histoire - See Mortillet. He named the monkey whose bones these were, Dryopithecus fontani [See below]. They were found in a strata of marly clays banc d'argile marneuse from the Miocene being exploited at the base of the plateau on which Saint-Gaudens is built,. Fontan recovered from the same site, bones of Macrotherium , Rhinoceros , Dicrocerus elegans , apparently identical to species of the same genera previously found at Sansan. Lartet concluded on the evidence he had that this monkey, of very great size, mainly ate fruit, and lived usually in trees, as Gibbons of the present time.
He said he took the name Dryopithecus from [Greek] Dryos tree, oak and pithekos monkey. So Lyell is correct in linking the name to oaks found in lignite.
Monsieur Fontan, after who the full name Dryopithecus fontani comes, is named as Urbaine Fontan in the Journal de Toulouse. He may also be "A. The Journal de Toulouse carried to reports of the discovery the second correctin the first on 3. Fontan is reported as saying the find is the more interesting as Cuvier had not managed to find such a fossil.
Flourens "went even further, this unexpected result gives him hope that one will soon find fossil men". Plate and notes adapted provided with Lartet's note. The same series from an adult Chimpanzee - 3. Orang from Borneo - 4. Gibbon from Siamang - 5. Gorilla 7, 8, and 9 are Dryopithecus. Lartet says the Siamang , "placed by Zoologists in general in the last row of the tribe of the Simians or higher apes, nevertheless, provide by their skeleton, a sum of characters approaching the human type much greater than one can find in Orang or even in the chimpanzee ".
Geological periods of hominids. Eolithic means dawn of stone and the term eolith was used for flints that might have been hand wrought, but might be natural. This one is said to resemble a musk ox on the left and a bear on the right. European land mammals Wikipedia: Lindsay and others in wrote of "three major dispersal events of large mammals during the Pliocene" at 3,, years ago - then 2,, years ago - then 1,, years ago.
The land-mammal stage that spans the upper Pliocene and lower Pleistocene 3,, to 1,, years ago Oxford: A Dictionary of Zoology by Michael Allaby An age that is dated at base at approximately 3,, years ago. Early Villafranchian starts with appearance of a primitive bovid of the genus of Leptobos in Italy. Leptobos existed only during the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene, thus it is a diagnostic taxon for the Villafranchian-Nihewanian land mammal ages of Europe and China.
The Etruscan rhinoceros Stephanorhinus etruscus was the European rhino from the early Pleistocene. It was succeeded the Steppe Rhino Stephanorhinus hemitoechus in the middle Pleistocene. Elephant-Equus elephant horse event. It starts with the appeance of Equus real horse and Mammuthus meridionalis. Equus was derived from a species of the single-toed horse Pliohippus, known only from North America.
The Wolf event, may fall near 1,, years ago. The late Villafranchian starts with the appearance of Canis etruscus Etrurian wolf. Term introduced by Lyell in for ice age deposits after the Pliocene ]. Current ice age with permanent ice sheets in Antarctica and perhaps Greenland, and fluctuating ice sheets elsewhere.
The ice across much of Russia preserved remains of Pleistocene mammals such as this mammoth from near Moscow whose mounted bones are diplayed in the entrance hall to the Orlov Museum of Paleontology. The Woolly Rhinoceros also roamed Siberia. Paleolithic Old stone age. See stone and bone. The picture, from Wikipedia , is of an Acheulean handaxe from Zamora in Spain.
From Saint-Acheul , a suburb of Amiens where the first tools from this period were found in Acheulean The start of Antroparkbaby in the European Acheulean is based on the Bilzingsleben site of early palaeolithic human remains in Thuringia, Germany, dated about , years ago.
Gabriel de Mortillet 's classification. Conceptualising pre-historic human time in Europe. In prehistoric archaeology, Mortillet spoke, instead, of a fossile-directeur , which served the same function. The Fossile- directeur was a tool made by humans rather than a biological remain. Lartet suggested four ages or periods based on associated fauna, to which Felix Garrigou added an earlier Hippopotamus period: Reindeer was divided into Solutrean and Magdalenian , and Robenhausian was added for the Neolithic period.
Names of some periods of the paleolithic as classified by Gabriel de Mortillet. Aggsbach's Paleolithic Blog Tertiary. See eoliths and pre-mode tools Thenaisienne - Eolithique. Picture 2 is an example shaped by fire. Picture 5 is an example with its edge bottom retouched by chipping. See mode one tools. The characteristic tool is often called an axe , but is a hand tool to cut, drill, trim and do everything.
Mortillet calls it a coup-de-poing blow of the fist - punch or knuckle-fist. Mousterian flint tools in transition to Solutrean Two sides of one flint pointe.
Montillet notes the care and skill that has gone into shaping each side and comments that "this remarkable instrument approaches solutrean ". A pointe has been retouched along the length of one side bottom "forming a very beautiful scraper".
First part associated with mammoths, second with reindeer. Tool remains include two types of pointes, which, although not abundant, are characteristic. One type is laurel leaf shaped, the other willow leaf with a side notch. Artistic retouching on both faces, at both ends and at the perimeter, distinguishes them from Mousterian pointes. Later authors agree that the Solutrean represents the pinnacle of working flint and produced arrowheads of a perfection rarely equalled afterwards.
See mode four tools. Humans lived in caves for the most part. Asociated with reindeer throughout. Characterised especially by development of instruments in bone and antler. It develops naturally from the Solutrean. Bone objects begin to appear at the end of the Solutrean and finely worked flint pointes are sometimes found in the early Magdalenian.
But the use of bone harms the development of flint objects, which are less beautiful. A dagger carved from reindeer antler. Wikipedia At the end of the Paleolithic a warmer climate forced reindeer north. Without this "animal heaven" the human populations of Western Europe lived in much more difficult times and stone industry declined. The shelter beyond Tourasse, close to Saint-Martory Haute-Garonne provides a good set of tools, characterised by harpoons.
Characterised by small flints with geometric shapes. Mortillet says that "primitive" Pottery , for general use, appeared for the first time in Europe during the Robenhausian, having been completely lacking during the Quaternary. The fist pots "vases" are crude. Only the surface is reddened by the fire. The interior of the pottery is coloured brown by the charcoal or black of smoke. It is usually mixed with angular fragments of rocks or shells. This mixture intended to give consistency to the clay and to prevent splitting during drying and while cooking.
These bottoms of these first pots are rounded, without a flattened foot. To stand upright they would have to be pressed into earth, sand or ash. Side nipples suggest suspension by cords. In geological time is Tertiary and Quaternary , until the start of the Neolithic in current time, which is marked by the polishing of stone tools. It was considered possible that hunter humans had simply been replaced by other humans who tilled the soil.
It has been suggested seriously? The search for an alternative, develomental, process led to the two-stage theory becoming a three stage one with a Mesolithic middle stage. Mortillet's research gap - the missing middle Mortillet: C'est ce qui constitue l'hiatus que nous constatons. The entire discussion, I believe, is based on a misunderstanding.
Between the Paleolithic era or the caves and the time Neolithic or polished stone, there is a hiatus; but this hiatus is just a simple gap in our knowledge. It is not a real gap in time and in the industry. Certainly the Paleolithic era has had to be connected and merge in the Neolithic, but we have yet to discover the point of contact.
Between the two eras, there has not been a period where Europe was uninhabitable; only the remains of the epoch of transition or passage have not yet been found and recognized. That is the gap we see. I repeat, this hiatus is not a real one, but exists only in the results of our studies and our current research. I owe this explanation because I am the main propagator of the idea of the hiatus. I pointed out the fact to stimulate research and investigations.
The Tourassien later Azilian may have been suggested in and the Tardenoisien in The Tourassien and Tardenoisien industries were collated to form the Mesolithic period, which remained a controversial concept until after the second world war. From the marxist approach of modes of production , the transition from the old stone age to the new was a transition from savagery to barbarism , and a transitional stage was not needed.
Gordon Childe wrote that cultivating the soil "was the first step in the neolithic revolution, and suffices to distinguish barbarism from savagery" , p. The major change from the chart is two transitional epochs between the old and new stone ages. Carleton S Coon says his The History of Man begins about , years ago "at the beginning of the ice age". But he also writes of the "Pleistocene or age of ice" between one million years and 10, years ago 8,BC.
It was the period of homo erectus Java , Peking , Olduvai erectus and Rhodesian that evolved into homo sapiens. See phase 2 and phase 3. Jeremy Norman - See ape and Haeckel. Happisburgh - first known settlement in northern Europe , to , years ago a prominent warm stage in Britain. Boyn Gravels feet contain Chellean and Acheulean tools.
Taplow Gravels 50 feet contain Mousterian tools. Called third interglacial if dating backwards, but H. Wells calls the "first interglacial period" Chellean Abbevillian culture in France. The fossil locality of Chilhac three is known for a rich Villafranchian fauna Boeuf It would be another , years before a hippopotamus were to waddle into Britain again.
A Encyclopedia says that the Piltdown remains "are usually attributed to the third inter-glacial period, but may be considerably older " The section from table 28 of The Earliest Englishman shows Piltdown Man as the earliest "species of man in western Europe".
The "earliest Englishman" was a fraud. Swanscombe woman is genuine. The geology of Piltdown, in the Weald of East Sussex: The area is one of "Tunbridge Wells Sand" from the cretaceous period. However, in places, there are shallow surface deposits of gravel. These deposits were not shown on the geological maps until after the first world war.
Workman repairing roads excavated them, however, and are said to have provided Charles Dawson with his first scull fragment in The strata at Piltdown. A few centimters to a meter 3. Edmunds mapped the Piltdown gravel in He found it correlated with the Thames Taplow gravels, much younger than the Swanscombe terrace deposits. Leonard Wills' list of recognised "cultural stages" begins with the Lower Paleolithic or river-drift race.
Another source tells us river drift included the Piltdown skull and the Trinil and Heidelberg remains. It was related to the Strepean, Chellean and Acheulean ages. River man was followed by Middle Paleolithic or older cave man - Upper Paleolithic or newer cave man - and then Post-Glacial man. The scraper on the cover was one of 32 worked flints found in "a clearly datable stratigraphic context" in the "Cromer Forest-bed Formation" at Pakefield, Suffolk, in Britain.
The Somme valley in northern France is developed on an Upper Cretaceous Chalk bedrock continuous with that under the Thames and has has terrace system in its middle part about 70 km long. Between Amiens and Abbeville, ten stepped alluvial formations nappes alluviales have been described. In the area of Amiens, the river terraces tiered system of Somme includes ten fossil alluvial the oldest the highest was set up there more than a million years.
These deposits are generally decalcified, with little wildlife, except at Abbeville. See also his thesis: Les terrasses quaternaires du bassin de la somme. On the basis of terrace stratigraphy, ESR-quartz dating, and biostratigraphic data, these fluvial deposits are allocated to MIS Handaxes discovered at the base of the slope deposits, directly overlying the fluvial sequence, can be, as a first hypothesis, allocated to MIS They are thus due to Homo heidelbergensis according to the age of the eponymous Mauer site in Germany.
Dating the earliest human occupation of Western Europe: New evidence from the fluvial terrace system of the Somme basin Northern France by Pierre Antoine , Emmanuelle Stoetzel and others Neanderthal developed in Europe and homo erectus in Africa.
The picture shows a racial depiction of the separation in a s Children's Encyclopedia. The separation of "ape men" from "true men" is shown as equivalent to, or greater than, that separating humans from gorillas and chimpanzees. True men then divide into two distinct lines - black negro - negroid - australoid and white european - mongoloid. This distinction is shown as equivalent to that between orang-utangs and gorillas. A group of individuals that actually or potentially interbreed in nature is considered the same species, however different appearances.
See early human gene exchange. About , to , years ago Wooden spears made of spruce of from an ancient lakeshore hunting ground. MIS 10 about , years ago Bilzingsleben site in Germany. In the s Dietrich Mania excavated "three round ground plans of dwellings with hearths by their entrances".
He "found large stones arranged in a circular manner. He thought that it probably was a base for a dwelling. However, ring-center analysis showed that the site was an open air site. Gamble proposed that humans congregated at the site around the fire ". Stone chopping tools of small size, mainly flint. Numerous bone tools include hoes, scrapers , point and gougers. Some hoes made of antler or ivory. Some wooden artefacts preserved. In , Ireland celebrated four extinct residents: The stamps and the animals are discussed on paleophilatelie.
Megaloceros , the Irish elk, represents the Quaternay in the Sydenham display. But the Mousterian hunters had Technology moved its emphasis from fashioning cores to fashioning flakes. At the peak, Northern Hemisphere winters were generally warmer and wetter than now.
The hippopotamus was distributed as far north as the rivers Rhine and Thames. Wikipedia - and further north: Bones from a hippopotamus, and some from rhinoceros and elephant , were dug up in Derby in They are now in the Derybshire Museum's new nature gallery.
A large number of sites in Britain are attributed to Marine Isotope Stage 5e, mainly on the basis of hippopotumus remains. None show signs of humans. Natural History Museum Harry William Whanslaw's picture shows "river-drift men" hunting the "straight-tusked elephant of prehistoric time". An attempt to depict migrations from Madison Coonan's website. From the Near East, these populations spread east to South Asia by 50, years ago , and on to Australia by 40, years ago , when for the first time H.
The bones were visually reassembled as a skeleton , which gave the basis for an artist's impression. See polished stone axe There seems to be more ideology than science in the distinction between "homo sapiens" and "homo neanderthalensis". Arguably first presence of Homo sapiens in Europe. The site consists of two rock shelters. It has given its name to the Mousterian tool culture. Dated remains in Italy and Britain. Wikipedia article on dog. Dog like skull 36, years ago , remains near humans 17, to 16, years ago.
Wolf or dog drawing 19, years ago. Neanderthal 1 Femme de la race de Neanderthal. He has dated art in this group to 40, years ago leading to it being described as the world's oldest cave art - See Matthew MacEgan - Nature - National Geographic - BBC dating the region -. Art News The photograph is from the website of fahrrad-tour. It shows The figure of the lion human, an ivory carving from the tusk of a mammoth displayed in the Museum of Ulm. The same page shows caves where figures have been discovered.
About 35, years ago , Carleton S Coon begins his "second phase of history" "the skilled hunter and healer", when "man covers the face of the earth".
Ending "about BC with the invention of agricuture". See 50,BC and phase 3. Rutot called the new race Paleolithic and argued that it enslaved the Neandethals. About 30, years ago , modern homo sapiens entirely replaced earlier man-like forms. Weapons and tools of flint and bone survive along with female carved stone figures with exaggerated sexual features, suggesting fertility symbols and magical ceremonies.
This last level immediately succeeds the latest Mousterian horizon in the cave. Toolmaking culture most closely associated with Venus figurines. The blade is 5. It was found in a Gravettian strata at Brassempouy Right: Four views of one burin , 5.
A Pictorial Encyclopedia mentions cave painting and tools and says: Peking - Piltdown - Neanderthal - Cromagnon. Head carved from mammoth ivory showing a person with an asymmetrical face, found in Dolni Vestonice, Southern Moravia.
It is a face: Everything points to the Ice Age hunter having depicted himself". Also known as the Venus of Brassempouy. Acquisition number MAN 47 The Venus of Willendorf was found in Austria in It is thought to be a carving of a woman, without facial features, fat , with pendulous breasts and a huge, perhaps pregnant, belly.
Fragment of engraved reindeer metatarsal decorated on one surface with two reindeer, one of which is now incomplete. Stored in the British Museum where the acquisition notes say "exacavated by both Christy and Lartet in ". Dieu cornu horned god or Sorcier sorcerer or chaman shaman. In animal skins and stag antlers. Upper wall above the entrance to the 20,, year-old grand gallery. Petit Sorcier a l'Arc Musical Little sorcerer with musical bow , amongst animals in cm wide panel on right hand wall of Sanctuary.
In this picture, the little sorcerer is rotated from vertical to horizontal to show it as a person disguised in animal skins stalking prey. See discussion by Simona Petru, Documenta Praehistorica 39 , "Man, animal or both - Problems in the interpretation of early symbolic behaviour". On "the highest mountains" "shells, skeletons of fish and sea monsters" have been found, showing the sea once covered them.
Animals are found "far from their native areas": Coder and Howe's The Bible, Science and Creation , page 63 says "flood geology" dates creation to about 10, years ago "and relates most of the geological strata and fossil beds to the Flood". In Arabic, a tell is a tall hill. In Midle East Archaeology, a tell is a mound formed by the accumulated remains of ancient settlements. Mesolithic tools from Britain.
Scene of hunting of deer with bows and arrows. This included "eight distinct ages comparable to the Paleolithic and Mesolithic. Sometimes classical antiquity is used for the period of ancient Greece and Rome. Christian antiquity refers to the early centuries of the Christian church. Foundations of 25 buildings discovered in peat wetland by Robert Rudolf Schmidt in About 20 two-room houses with walls of split wooden posts.
A much larger central building probably used for community acrivities. Other buildings possibly for storage. A hunting community with wheat and barley fields and livestock. Small polished stone hatchets and bone tools found. Hearths and clay ovens in the houses. Britannica "In prehistoric Europe the largest neolithic village yet known, Barkaer in Jutland, comprised 52 small, one-roomed dwellings, but 16 to 30 houses was a more normal figure; so the average local group in neolithic times would average to members".
Contains pictographs of heads, feet, hands, numbers and threshing-boards. Now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Reign of Narmer in Egypt.
The Narmer Palette left was discovered by James E. Quibell in in Hierakonpolis. On it, Narmer displaying the insignia of both Upper and Lower Egypt, giving rise to the theory that he unified the two kingdoms and was the founder of the first dynasty.
Narmer is sometimes identified with Menes. Papyrus, depicted on the Narmer Palette , is a plant that grew in the river Nile from which a writing material, also called papyrus, was made. A setlement from this period lay under the Ur flood deposit disovered by the archaeologist Leonard Woolley and announced in In Wooley believed the 3.
Jona Lendering writes "It is likely Eridu is south of the later city of Ur. This are "was the birthplace of cities and of civilisation about 5, years ago and home to the Sumerians and the later Babylonians ". Stuart Campbell, Manchester archeologist. The first pyramid of Egypt. Said to have been designed by Imhotep, who may be the first architect whose name we know, and who was defied 2. The picture is taken from the Wikipedia website. Clicking on it will take you to more information.
Noah took off the covering of the ark". Usher refering to Genesis 8: See "evidences of the Deluge" and flood geology. See Epic of Gilgamesh and Ur flood. Picture described as "Various animals entering the Ark built by Noah because of the great flood". Excavation of Tell Khaiber, 20 kilometres from Ur about BC "We provisionally date the site to around 2, BC, the time of the sack of the city and the fall of the last Sumerian royal dynasty. Metres above sea-level of lowest images from succeding periods ordered by type of ship: Period four to five: Scandinavian boat drawings have been interpreted as skin boats, planked boats, dugouts and rafts.
All images with inturned prows and horizontal or slightly upturned keel extensions were 24 metes or more above sea level. Baal meant lord, master, owner or husband in Semitic languages. It was also applied to Gods. The plural was Baalim. Baalim might own specific areas, being the Gods of specific peoples.
The Jews also called God lord and believed he had a special relationship to them. However, they eventually believed in only one God monotheism who is master of all, and they believed that graven images should not be made of him. Vase painting BC in British Museum shows 4 oarsman, but 6 oars. Suggested there were 12 men, 6 oars each side, 3 men to a bench.
The Ramesseum in Thebes is the 'mortuary temple' of this Egyptian king. The Petrie Papyri were found beneath this. In periods four and five more elaborate "depictions of humans" Ling, page A large increase in the use of iron for tools and weapons took place from the neo-Assyrian period onwards.
Jericho was in Israel. It has been suggested that the original function of lactation milk production was to keep eggs moist. Much of the argument is based on monotremes, the egg-laying mammals. Therian mammals took over the medium- to large-sized ecological niches in the Cenozoic , after the Cretaceous—Paleogene extinction event approximately 66 million years ago emptied ecological space once filled by non-avian dinosaurs and other groups of reptiles, as well as various other mammal groups,  and underwent an exponential increase in body size megafauna.
Molecular phylogenetic studies initially suggested that most placental orders diverged about to 85 million years ago and that modern families appeared in the period from the late Eocene through the Miocene.
The earliest known ancestor of primates is Archicebus achilles  from around 55 million years ago. Living mammal species can be identified by the presence of sweat glands , including those that are specialized to produce milk to nourish their young.
For the most part, these characteristics were not present in the Triassic ancestors of the mammals. The majority of mammals have seven cervical vertebrae bones in the neck , including bats , giraffes , whales and humans. The exceptions are the manatee and the two-toed sloth , which have just six, and the three-toed sloth which has nine cervical vertebrae. The lungs of mammals are spongy and honeycombed.
Breathing is mainly achieved with the diaphragm , which divides the thorax from the abdominal cavity, forming a dome convex to the thorax. Contraction of the diaphragm flattens the dome, increasing the volume of the lung cavity. Air enters through the oral and nasal cavities, and travels through the larynx, trachea and bronchi , and expands the alveoli. Relaxing the diaphragm has the opposite effect, decreasing the volume of the lung cavity, causing air to be pushed out of the lungs.
During exercise, the abdominal wall contracts , increasing pressure on the diaphragm, which forces air out quicker and more forcefully. The rib cage is able to expand and contract the chest cavity through the action of other respiratory muscles. Consequently, air is sucked into or expelled out of the lungs, always moving down its pressure gradient.
The mammalian heart has four chambers, two upper atria , the receiving chambers, and two lower ventricles , the discharging chambers. After gas exchange in the pulmonary capillaries blood vessels in the lungs , oxygen-rich blood returns to the left atrium via one of the four pulmonary veins. Blood flows nearly continuously back into the atrium, which acts as the receiving chamber, and from here through an opening into the left ventricle.
Most blood flows passively into the heart while both the atria and ventricles are relaxed, but toward the end of the ventricular relaxation period , the left atrium will contract, pumping blood into the ventricle. The heart also requires nutrients and oxygen found in blood like other muscles, and is supplied via coronary arteries.
The integumentary system is made up of three layers: The epidermis is typically 10 to 30 cells thick; its main function is to provide a waterproof layer.
Its outermost cells are constantly lost; its bottommost cells are constantly dividing and pushing upward. The middle layer, the dermis, is 15 to 40 times thicker than the epidermis. The dermis is made up of many components, such as bony structures and blood vessels. The hypodermis is made up of adipose tissue , which stores lipids and provides cushioning and insulation. The thickness of this layer varies widely from species to species; : It is a definitive characteristic of the class.
Though some mammals have very little, careful examination reveals the characteristic, often in obscure parts of their bodies. Herbivores have developed a diverse range of physical structures to facilitate the consumption of plant material. To break up intact plant tissues, mammals have developed teeth structures that reflect their feeding preferences. For instance, frugivores animals that feed primarily on fruit and herbivores that feed on soft foliage have low-crowned teeth specialized for grinding foliage and seeds.
Grazing animals that tend to eat hard, silica -rich grasses, have high-crowned teeth, which are capable of grinding tough plant tissues and do not wear down as quickly as low-crowned teeth. The stomach of Artiodactyls is divided into four sections: After the plant material is consumed, it is mixed with saliva in the rumen and reticulum and separates into solid and liquid material.
The solids lump together to form a bolus or cud , and is regurgitated. When the bolus enters the mouth, the fluid is squeezed out with the tongue and swallowed again. Ingested food passes to the rumen and reticulum where cellulytic microbes bacteria , protozoa and fungi produce cellulase , which is needed to break down the cellulose in plants.
The caecum is either absent or short and simple, and the large intestine is not sacculated or much wider than the small intestine.
The mammalian excretory system involves many components. Like most other land animals, mammals are ureotelic , and convert ammonia into urea , which is done by the liver as part of the urea cycle. Only the mammalian kidney has a bean shape, although there are some exceptions, such as the multilobed reniculate kidneys of pinnipeds, cetaceans and bears. In the embryo, the embryonic cloaca divides into a posterior region that becomes part of the anus, and an anterior region that has different fates depending on the sex of the individual: As in all other tetrapods, mammals have a larynx that can quickly open and close to produce sounds, and a supralaryngeal vocal tract which filters this sound.
The lungs and surrounding musculature provide the air stream and pressure required to phonate. The larynx controls the pitch and volume of sound, but the strength the lungs exert to exhale also contributes to volume. More primitive mammals, such as the echidna, can only hiss, as sound is achieved solely through exhaling through a partially closed larynx.
Other mammals phonate using vocal folds , as opposed to the vocal cords seen in birds and reptiles. The movement or tenseness of the vocal folds can result in many sounds such as purring and screaming. Mammals can change the position of the larynx, allowing them to breathe through the nose while swallowing through the mouth, and to form both oral and nasal sounds; nasal sounds, such as a dog whine, are generally soft sounds, and oral sounds, such as a dog bark, are generally loud.
Some mammals have a large larynx and thus a low-pitched voice, namely the hammer-headed bat Hypsignathus monstrosus where the larynx can take up the entirety of the thoracic cavity while pushing the lungs, heart, and trachea into the abdomen. Ultrasound is inaudible to birds and reptiles, which might have been important during the Mesozoic, when birds and reptiles were the dominant predators.
This private channel is used by some rodents in, for example, mother-to-pup communication, and by bats when echolocating. Toothed whales also use echolocation, but, as opposed to the vocal membrane that extends upward from the vocal folds, they have a melon to manipulate sounds.
Some mammals, namely the primates, have air sacs attached to the larynx, which may function to lower the resonances or increase the volume of sound. The vocal production system is controlled by the cranial nerve nuclei in the brain, and supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the superior laryngeal nerve , branches of the vagus nerve.
The vocal tract is supplied by the hypoglossal nerve and facial nerves. Electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray PEG region of the mammalian midbrain elicit vocalizations. The ability to learn new vocalizations is only exemplified in humans, seals, cetaceans, elephants and possibly bats; in humans, this is the result of a direct connection between the motor cortex , which controls movement, and the motor neurons in the spinal cord.
The fur of mammals has many uses protection, sensory purposes, waterproofing, and camouflage, with the primary usage being thermoregulation. Mammalian coats are colored for a variety of reasons, the major selective pressures including camouflage , sexual selection , communication and physiological processes such as temperature regulation. Camouflage is a powerful influence in a large number of mammals, as it helps to conceal individuals from predators or prey.
Mammals with a darker colored coat can absorb more heat from solar radiation, and stay warmer, and some smaller mammals, such as voles , have darker fur in the winter. The white, pigmentless fur of arctic mammals, such as the polar bear, may reflect more solar radiation directly onto the skin. In male placentals, the penis is used both for urination and copulation. Depending on the species, an erection may be fueled by blood flow into vascular, spongy tissue or by muscular action.
A penis may be contained in a sheath when not erect, and some placentals also have a penis bone baculum. Marsupials typically have forked penises while the monotreme penis generally has four heads with only two functioning. The testes of most mammals descend into the scrotum which is typically posterior to the penis but is often anterior in marsupials. Female mammals generally have a clitoris , labia majora and labia minora on the outside, while the internal system contains paired oviducts , uteri , cervices and a vagina.
Marsupials have two lateral vaginas and a medial vagina. The "vagina" of monotremes is better understood as a "urogenital sinus". The uterine systems of placental mammals can vary between a duplex, were there are two uteri and cervices which open into the vagina, a bipartite, were two uterine horns have a single cervix that connects to the vagina, a bicornuate, which consists where two uterine horns that are connected distally but separate medially creating a Y-shape, and a simplex, which has a single uterus.
Most mammals are viviparous , giving birth to live young. However, the five species of monotreme, the platypus and the four species of echidna, lay eggs. The monotremes have a sex determination system different from that of most other mammals.
Viviparous mammals are in the subclass Theria; those living today are in the marsupial and placental infraclasses. Marsupials have a short gestation period, typically shorter than its estrous cycle and gives birth to an undeveloped newborn that then undergoes further development; in many species, this takes place within a pouch-like sac, the marsupium , located in the front of the mother's abdomen.
This is the plesiomorphic condition among viviparous mammals; the presence of epipubic bones in all non-placental mammals prevents the expansion of the torso needed for full pregnancy. The mammary glands of mammals are specialized to produce milk, the primary source of nutrition for newborns. The monotremes branched early from other mammals and do not have the nipples seen in most mammals, but they do have mammary glands.
The young lick the milk from a mammary patch on the mother's belly. Nearly all mammals are endothermic "warm-blooded". Most mammals also have hair to help keep them warm. Like birds, mammals can forage or hunt in weather and climates too cold for ectothermic "cold-blooded" reptiles and insects. Endothermy requires plenty of food energy, so mammals eat more food per unit of body weight than most reptiles.
A rare exception, the naked mole-rat produces little metabolic heat, so it is considered an operational poikilotherm. Among mammals, species maximum lifespan varies significantly for example the shrew has a lifespan of two years, whereas the oldest bowhead whale is recorded to be years.
In a study by Hart and Setlow,  it was found that DNA excision repair capability increased systematically with species lifespan among seven mammalian species. Species lifespan was observed to be robustly correlated with the capacity to recognize DNA double-strand breaks as well as the level of the DNA repair protein Ku Most vertebrates—the amphibians, the reptiles and some mammals such as humans and bears—are plantigrade , walking on the whole of the underside of the foot.
Many mammals, such as cats and dogs, are digitigrade , walking on their toes, the greater stride length allowing more speed. Digitigrade mammals are also often adept at quiet movement. This even further increases their stride length and thus their speed. Giant anteaters  and platypuses  are also knuckle-walkers.
Some mammals are bipeds , using only two limbs for locomotion, which can be seen in, for example, humans and the great apes. Bipedal species have a larger field of vision than quadrupeds, conserve more energy and have the ability to manipulate objects with their hands, which aids in foraging. Instead of walking, some bipeds hop, such as kangaroos and kangaroo rats. Animals will use different gaits for different speeds, terrain and situations.
For example, horses show four natural gaits, the slowest horse gait is the walk , then there are three faster gaits which, from slowest to fastest, are the trot , the canter and the gallop. Animals may also have unusual gaits that are used occasionally, such as for moving sideways or backwards. For example, the main human gaits are bipedal walking and running , but they employ many other gaits occasionally, including a four-legged crawl in tight spaces.
Gaits can be grouped into categories according to their patterns of support sequence. For quadrupeds, there are three main categories: Running is considered to occur when at some points in the stride all feet are off the ground in a moment of suspension. Arboreal animals frequently have elongated limbs that help them cross gaps, reach fruit or other resources, test the firmness of support ahead and, in some cases, to brachiate swing between trees.
In the spider monkey, the tip of the tail has either a bare patch or adhesive pad, which provides increased friction. Claws can be used to interact with rough substrates and reorient the direction of forces the animal applies. This is what allows squirrels to climb tree trunks that are so large to be essentially flat from the perspective of such a small animal. However, claws can interfere with an animal's ability to grasp very small branches, as they may wrap too far around and prick the animal's own paw.
Frictional gripping is used by primates, relying upon hairless fingertips. Squeezing the branch between the fingertips generates frictional force that holds the animal's hand to the branch. However, this type of grip depends upon the angle of the frictional force, thus upon the diameter of the branch, with larger branches resulting in reduced gripping ability. To control descent, especially down large diameter branches, some arboreal animals such as squirrels have evolved highly mobile ankle joints that permit rotating the foot into a 'reversed' posture.
This allows the claws to hook into the rough surface of the bark, opposing the force of gravity. Small size provides many advantages to arboreal species: Both pitching and tipping become irrelevant, as the only method of failure would be losing their grip.
Bats are the only mammals that can truly fly. They fly through the air at a constant speed by moving their wings up and down usually with some fore-aft movement as well. Because the animal is in motion, there is some airflow relative to its body which, combined with the velocity of the wings, generates a faster airflow moving over the wing. This generates a lift force vector pointing forwards and upwards, and a drag force vector pointing rearwards and upwards.
The upwards components of these counteract gravity, keeping the body in the air, while the forward component provides thrust to counteract both the drag from the wing and from the body as a whole. The wings of bats are much thinner and consist of more bones than that of birds, allowing bats to maneuver more accurately and fly with more lift and less drag. These sensitive areas are different in bats, as each bump has a tiny hair in the center, making it even more sensitive and allowing the bat to detect and collect information about the air flowing over its wings, and to fly more efficiently by changing the shape of its wings in response.
Fossorial creatures live in subterranean environments. Many fossorial mammals were classified under the, now obsolete, order Insectivora , such as shrews, hedgehogs and moles. Fossorial mammals have a fusiform body, thickest at the shoulders and tapering off at the tail and nose.
Unable to see in the dark burrows, most have degenerated eyes, but degeneration varies between species; pocket gophers , for example, are only semi-fossorial and have very small yet functional eyes, in the fully fossorial marsupial mole the eyes are degenerated and useless, talpa moles have vestigial eyes and the cape golden mole has a layer of skin covering the eyes. External ears flaps are also very small or absent.
Truly fossorial mammals have short, stout legs as strength is more important than speed to a burrowing mammal, but semi-fossorial mammals have cursorial legs. The front paws are broad and have strong claws to help in loosening dirt while excavating burrows, and the back paws have webbing, as well as claws, which aids in throwing loosened dirt backwards. Most have large incisors to prevent dirt from flying into their mouth.
Fully aquatic mammals, the cetaceans and sirenians , have lost their legs and have a tail fin to propel themselves through the water. Flipper movement is continuous. Whales swim by moving their tail fin and lower body up and down, propelling themselves through vertical movement, while their flippers are mainly used for steering. Their skeletal anatomy allows them to be fast swimmers. Most species have a dorsal fin to prevent themselves from turning upside-down in the water.
The forelimbs are paddle-like flippers which aid in turning and slowing. Semi-aquatic mammals, like pinnipeds, have two pairs of flippers on the front and back, the fore-flippers and hind-flippers. The elbows and ankles are enclosed within the body. In addition to their streamlined bodies, they have smooth networks of muscle bundles in their skin that may increase laminar flow and make it easier for them to slip through water. They also lack arrector pili , so their fur can be streamlined as they swim.
Many mammals communicate by vocalizing. Vocal communication serves many purposes, including in mating rituals, as warning calls ,  to indicate food sources, and for social purposes. Males often call during mating rituals to ward off other males and to attract females, as in the roaring of lions and red deer.
For example, if an alarm call signals a python, the monkeys climb into the trees, whereas the eagle alarm causes monkeys to seek a hiding place on the ground. Some of the rumbling calls are infrasonic , below the hearing range of humans, and can be heard by other elephants up to 6 miles 9. Mammals signal by a variety of means. Many give visual anti-predator signals , as when deer and gazelle stot , honestly indicating their fit condition and their ability to escape,   or when white-tailed deer and other prey mammals flag with conspicuous tail markings when alarmed, informing the predator that it has been detected.
To maintain a high constant body temperature is energy expensive — mammals therefore need a nutritious and plentiful diet.
While the earliest mammals were probably predators, different species have since adapted to meet their dietary requirements in a variety of ways. Some eat other animals — this is a carnivorous diet and includes insectivorous diets. Other mammals, called herbivores , eat plants, which contain complex carbohydrates such as cellulose.
An herbivorous diet includes subtypes such as granivory seed eating , folivory leaf eating , frugivory fruit eating , nectarivory nectar eating , gummivory gum eating and mycophagy fungus eating. The digestive tract of an herbivore is host to bacteria that ferment these complex substances, and make them available for digestion, which are either housed in the multichambered stomach or in a large cecum. Carnivorous mammals have a simple digestive tract because the proteins , lipids and minerals found in meat require little in the way of specialized digestion.
Exceptions to this include baleen whales who also house gut flora in a multi-chambered stomach, like terrestrial herbivores. The size of an animal is also a factor in determining diet type Allen's rule. Since small mammals have a high ratio of heat-losing surface area to heat-generating volume, they tend to have high energy requirements and a high metabolic rate.
Larger animals, on the other hand, generate more heat and less of this heat is lost. They can therefore tolerate either a slower collection process those that prey on larger vertebrates or a slower digestive process herbivores. The only large insectivorous mammals are those that feed on huge colonies of insects ants or termites.
Some mammals are omnivores and display varying degrees of carnivory and herbivory, generally leaning in favor of one more than the other.
Since plants and meat are digested differently, there is a preference for one over the other, as in bears where some species may be mostly carnivorous and others mostly herbivorous. The dentition of hypocarnivores consists of dull, triangular carnassial teeth meant for grinding food. Hypercarnivores, however, have conical teeth and sharp carnassials meant for slashing, and in some cases strong jaws for bone-crushing, as in the case of hyenas , allowing them to consume bones; some extinct groups, notably the Machairodontinae , had saber-shaped canines.
Some physiological carnivores consume plant matter and some physiological herbivores consume meat. From a behavioral aspect, this would make them omnivores, but from the physiological standpoint, this may be due to zoopharmacognosy. Physiologically, animals must be able to obtain both energy and nutrients from plant and animal materials to be considered omnivorous. Thus, such animals are still able to be classified as carnivores and herbivores when they are just obtaining nutrients from materials originating from sources that do not seemingly complement their classification.
Many mammals, in the absence of sufficient food requirements in an environment, suppress their metabolism and conserve energy in a process known as hibernation. In intelligent mammals, such as primates, the cerebrum is larger relative to the rest of the brain. Intelligence itself is not easy to define, but indications of intelligence include the ability to learn, matched with behavioral flexibility.
Rats , for example, are considered to be highly intelligent, as they can learn and perform new tasks, an ability that may be important when they first colonize a fresh habitat. In some mammals, food gathering appears to be related to intelligence: Tool use by animals may indicate different levels of learning and cognition.
Brain size was previously considered a major indicator of the intelligence of an animal. Since most of the brain is used for maintaining bodily functions, greater ratios of brain to body mass may increase the amount of brain mass available for more complex cognitive tasks.
Comparison of a particular animal's brain size with the expected brain size based on such allometric analysis provides an encephalisation quotient that can be used as another indication of animal intelligence. Self-awareness appears to be a sign of abstract thinking. Self-awareness, although not well-defined, is believed to be a precursor to more advanced processes such as metacognitive reasoning.
The traditional method for measuring this is the mirror test , which determines if an animal possesses the ability of self-recognition. Eusociality is the highest level of social organization. These societies have an overlap of adult generations, the division of reproductive labor and cooperative caring of young.
Usually insects, such as bees , ants and termites, have eusocial behavior, but it is demonstrated in two rodent species: Presociality is when animals exhibit more than just sexual interactions with members of the same species, but fall short of qualifying as eusocial.
That is, presocial animals can display communal living, cooperative care of young, or primitive division of reproductive labor, but they do not display all of the three essential traits of eusocial animals.
Humans and some species of Callitrichidae marmosets and tamarins are unique among primates in their degree of cooperative care of young. A fission-fusion society is a society that changes frequently in its size and composition, making up a permanent social group called the "parent group". Permanent social networks consist of all individual members of a community and often varies to track changes in their environment.
In a fission—fusion society, the main parent group can fracture fission into smaller stable subgroups or individuals to adapt to environmental or social circumstances.
For example, a number of males may break off from the main group in order to hunt or forage for food during the day, but at night they may return to join fusion the primary group to share food and partake in other activities. Many mammals exhibit this, such as primates for example orangutans and spider monkeys ,  elephants,  spotted hyenas ,  lions,  and dolphins.
Solitary animals defend a territory and avoid social interactions with the members of its species, except during breeding season. This is to avoid resource competition, as two individuals of the same species would occupy the same niche, and to prevent depletion of food.
In a hierarchy , individuals are either dominant or submissive. A despotic hierarchy is where one individual is dominant while the others are submissive, as in wolves and lemurs,  and a pecking order is a linear ranking of individuals where there is a top individual and a bottom individual. Pecking orders may also be ranked by sex, where the lowest individual of a sex has a higher ranking than the top individual of the other sex, as in hyenas.
All higher mammals excluding monotremes share two major adaptations for care of the young: These imply a group-wide choice of a degree of parental care. They may build nests and dig burrows to raise their young in, or feed and guard them often for a prolonged period of time. Many mammals are K-selected , and invest more time and energy into their young than do r-selected animals. When two animals mate, they both share an interest in the success of the offspring, though often to different extremes.
Mammalian females exhibit some degree of maternal aggression, another example of parental care, which may be targeted against other females of the species or the young of other females; however, some mammals may "aunt" the infants of other females, and care for them.
Mammalian males may play a role in child rearing, as with tenrecs, however this varies species to species, even within the same genus.
For example, the males of the southern pig-tailed macaque Macaca nemestrina do not participate in child care, whereas the males of the Japanese macaque M. Non-human mammals play a wide variety of roles in human culture. They are the most popular of pets , with tens of millions of dogs, cats and other animals including rabbits and mice kept by families around the world.
Domestic mammals form a large part of the livestock raised for meat across the world. They include around 1. In mountainous regions unsuitable for wheeled vehicles, pack animals continue to transport goods.
They enable the study of sequenced genes whose functions are unknown. Charles Darwin , Jared Diamond and others have noted the importance of domesticated mammals in the Neolithic development of agriculture and of civilization , causing farmers to replace hunter-gatherers around the world. The new agricultural economies, based on domesticated mammals, caused "radical restructuring of human societies, worldwide alterations in biodiversity, and significant changes in the Earth's landforms and its atmosphere Hybrids are offspring resulting from the breeding of two genetically distinct individuals, which usually will result in a high degree of heterozygosity, though hybrid and heterozygous are not synonymous.
The deliberate or accidental hybridizing of two or more species of closely related animals through captive breeding is a human activity which has been in existence for millennia and has grown for economic purposes. Hybrids between different species within the same genus such as between lions and tigers are known as interspecific hybrids or crosses.
Hybrids between different genera such as between sheep and goats are known as intergeneric hybrids. Some hybrids have been recognized as species, such as the red wolf though this is controversial.
Artificial selection , the deliberate selective breeding of domestic animals, is being used to breed back recently extinct animals in an attempt to achieve an animal breed with a phenotype that resembles that extinct wildtype ancestor. A breeding-back intraspecific hybrid may be very similar to the extinct wildtype in appearance, ecological niche and to some extent genetics, but the initial gene pool of that wild type is lost forever with its extinction.
As a result, bred-back breeds are at best vague look-alikes of extinct wildtypes, as Heck cattle are of the aurochs.
Purebred wild species evolved to a specific ecology can be threatened with extinction  through the process of genetic pollution , the uncontrolled hybridization, introgression genetic swamping which leads to homogenization or out-competition from the heterosic hybrid species. For example, the endangered wild water buffalo is most threatened with extinction by genetic pollution from the domestic water buffalo. Such extinctions are not always apparent from a morphological standpoint. Some degree of gene flow is a normal evolutionary process, nevertheless, hybridization threatens the existence of rare species.
The loss of species from ecological communities, defaunation , is primarily driven by human activity. One hypothesis is that humans hunted large mammals, such as the woolly mammoth , into extinction. Various species are predicted to become extinct in the near future ,  among them the rhinoceros ,  primates ,  pangolins ,  and giraffes. Several courses of actions are being taken globally, notably the Convention on Biological Diversity , otherwise known as the Rio Accord, which includes signatory countries that are focused on identifying endangered species and habitats.
Recent extinctions can be directly attributable to human influences. Other species, such as the Florida panther , are ecologically extinct , surviving in such low numbers that they essentially have no impact on the ecosystem. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the animal class. For other uses, see Mammal disambiguation. For the documentary film, see Mammalian film. List of placental mammals , List of monotremes and marsupials , and List of mammal genera.
Foramina in the upper jaw are not indicative of whiskers , as in the red tegu Tupinambis rufescens. Didactic models of a mammalian heart. The carnassials teeth in the very back of the mouth of the insectivorous aardwolf left vs.
Life expectancy and Maximum life span. Semi-fossorial wombat left vs. Aquatic locomotion , Marine mammal , and Aquatic mammal. Animal communication and Animal echolocation. The hypocarnivorous American black bear Ursus americanus vs. Livestock , Laboratory animal , and Pack animal. A true quagga , left vs.
List of recently extinct mammals — during recorded history List of prehistoric mammals List of monotremes and marsupials List of placental mammals List of mammal genera — living mammals List of mammalogists Lists of mammals by population size Lists of mammals by region List of threatened mammals of the United States Mammals described in the s Mammals in culture Prehistoric mammals.
Jones and Bartlett Learning. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved 23 August Retrieved February 7, The Student's Elements of Geology. Bulletin of Carnegie Museum of Natural History. Retrieved April 8, Classification of Mammals above the Species Level.
Imsges: activity 8.3 absolute dating of rocks and fossils answers
Oxygen and nitrogen are examples of gases that become toxic under pressure. He set out the principles for buildings in the "classical era" which has been dated as between and in England. Race conditions can occur in electronics systems, especially logic circuits, and in computer software, especially multithreaded or distributed programs.
Richard's identity was "proved" by his mitochondrial DNA , handed down in an unbroken chain through the female line from his sister to two living relatives. His unorthodox mystical theories lost him the position of town physician of Basel , but through empirical experiment in pursuit of his dreams he made new chemical compounds and changed medicine and pharmacy. Like their amphibious tetrapod predecessors, they had lungs and limbs.
About 30, years agomodern homo sapiens entirely replaced earlier man-like forms. Just like us and millions of other life forms do today. Principles and applications of domestic animal behavior: It is primarily used in the study of sedimentary and layered volcanic rocks. They look like thickened water with a white edge, and four purple circles, of different forms, were in the middle, over an incredible number of fibres or white lines. Marsupials have a short gestation period, typically shorter than its estrous cycle and gives birth to an undeveloped newborn that then undergoes further development; in many species, this activity 8.3 absolute dating of rocks and fossils answers place within a pouch-like sac, the marsupiumlocated hook up app java the front of the mother's abdomen.
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